Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1890 in total

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  1. de Verdal H, Vandeputte M, Mekkawy W, Chatain B, Benzie JAH
    BMC Genet., 2018 11 16;19(1):105.
    PMID: 30445908 DOI: 10.1186/s12863-018-0691-y
    BACKGROUND: Improving feed efficiency in fish is crucial at the economic, social and environmental levels with respect to developing a more sustainable aquaculture. The important contribution of genetic improvement to achieve this goal has been hampered by the lack of accurate basic information on the genetic parameters of feed efficiency in fish. We used video assessment of feed intake on individual fish reared in groups to estimate the genetic parameters of six growth traits, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and residual feed intake in 40 pedigreed families of the GIFT strain of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Feed intake and growth were measured on juvenile fish (22.4 g mean body weight) during 13 consecutive meals, representing 7 days of measurements. We used these data to estimate the FCR response to different selection criteria to assess the potential of genetics as a means of increasing FCR in tilapia.

    RESULTS: Our results demonstrate genetic control for FCR in tilapia, with a heritability estimate of 0.32 ± 0.11. Response to selection estimates showed FCR could be efficiently improved by selective breeding. Due to low genetic correlations, selection for growth traits would not improve FCR. However, weight loss at fasting has a high genetic correlation with FCR (0.80 ± 0.25) and a moderate heritability (0.23), and could be an easy to measure and efficient criterion to improve FCR by selective breeding in tilapia.

    CONCLUSION: At this age, FCR is genetically determined in Nile tilapia. A selective breeding program could be possible and could help enabling the development of a more sustainable aquaculture production.

    Matched MeSH terms: Cichlids/growth & development
  2. bin Hussein MZ, Zainal Z, Yahaya AH, Foo DW
    J Control Release, 2002 Aug 21;82(2-3):417-27.
    PMID: 12175754
    Formation of the so-called organic-inorganic nanohybrid material was exploited for the preparation of a controlled release formulation. The inorganic Zn-Al-layered double hydroxide (LDH) was used as a matrix, hosting an active agent or a guest, alpha-naphthaleneacetate (NAA), a plant growth regulator by self-assembly technique. The reverse process, i.e., the deintercalation or release of the guest, NAA was found to be rapid initially, followed by a more sustained release thereafter and this behavior was dependent on the pH of the release medium, the aqueous solution. The mechanism of release has been interpreted on the basis of the ion-exchange process between the NAA anion intercalated in the lamella host and nitrate or hydroxyl anions in the aqueous solution.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators/chemistry*
  3. Zulkifli SN
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1992;6(4):210-6.
    PMID: 1345448
    Growth monitoring has been included as one of the basic strategies for child survival. In this paper, the rationale for this is reiterated both for individual as well as population nutritional surveillance. Methods for and approaches to growth monitoring are described. In addition, potential problems in implementing growth monitoring projects and interpreting the results are discussed. Despite its lack of sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool, its advantages in terms of low cost, simplicity, reliability and social acceptability justify its use in nutritional surveillance, particularly in populations at risk of malnutrition.
    Publication year: 1992-1993
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth*
  4. Zulkifli I, Che Norma MT, Israf DA, Omar AR
    Poult. Sci., 2000 Oct;79(10):1401-7.
    PMID: 11055844
    This study was conducted to determine whether early age feed restriction improves heat tolerance in female broiler chickens. Chicks were brooded for 3 wk and then maintained at 24+/-1 C. On Day 0, chicks were assigned to one of four feeding regimens; each regimen was applied to four cages of chicks. The feeding regimens were 1) ad libitum feeding (ALF); 2) 40% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F40); 3) 60% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F60); and (4) 80% feed restriction at 4, 5, and 6 d of age (F80). From 35 to 41 d of age, all birds were exposed to 38+/-1 C for 2 h/d. Serum concentrations of glucose were elevated by the heat challenge, but were not affected by the feeding regimen. The heat treatment resulted in hypocholesteremia among ALF and F80 chicks, whereas the concentrations increased and remained constant in the F60 and F40 birds, respectively. Subjecting chicks to F60 improved growth and survivability and reduced heterophil to lymphocyte ratios (H/L) in response to the heat treatment as compared with the ALF and F80 regimens. The survivability rate and H/L of F40 chicks were similar to those attained by chicks on other regimens. Newcastle disease antibody titer of ALF birds declined with duration of heat treatment. It is concluded that the F60 regimen is beneficial for alleviating, at least in part, the detrimental effects of heat stress in female broiler chickens.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/growth & development
  5. Zulkifli I, Abdulllah N, Azrin NM, Ho YW
    Br. Poult. Sci., 2000 Dec;41(5):593-7.
    PMID: 11201439
    1. Hubbard x Hubbard (HH) and Shaver x Shaver (SS) chicks given a dietary supplement of either 50 mg/kg oxytetracycline (OTC) or 1 g/kg Lactobacillus culture (LC) were exposed to 36 +/- 1 degrees C for 3 h daily from day (d) 21 to 42. 2. Prior to heat treatment, body weight (d 21) and weight gain (d 1 to d 21) of OTC and LC birds were greater than those fed the control diet. Chicks given LC had the best food efficiency followed by OTC and control birds during d 1 to d 21. Body weight (d 1 and d 21) and weight gain (d 1 to d 21) were greater for HH tlhan SS chicks. 3. After 3 weeks of heat exposure, birds receiving the LC diet had greater body weight and weight gain, higher food intake and lower food efficiency than OTC and control chicks. 4. Antibody production against Newcastle discase vaccine on d 21 was not affected by strain or diet. On d 42, while diet had negligible effect on this variable among the SS broilers, HH birds fed LC had higher antibody production than those on the control diet. 5. Neither strain nor diet had a significant effect on mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/growth & development*
  6. Zulkifli I, Akmal AF, Soleimani AF, Hossain MA, Awad EA
    Poult. Sci., 2018 Apr 01;97(4):1306-1314.
    PMID: 29381776 DOI: 10.3382/ps/pex436
    A study with a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement was conducted to investigate the effects of 4 dietary protein levels and 2 environmental conditions on acute phase proteins (APP), brain heat shock protein (HSP) 70 density, and growth performance of broiler chickens. Day-old broiler chicks (Cobb 500) were fed isocaloric diets but with various levels of crude protein (CP), namely, (1) 21.0 and 19.0% CP in starter and finisher diets, respectively (control), (2) 19.5 and 17.5% CP in starter and finisher diets, respectively (Diet A), (3) 18.0 and 16.0% CP in starter and finisher diets, respectively (Diet B), and (4) 16.5 and 14.5% CP in starter and finisher diets, respectively (Diet C). Equal numbers of birds from each diet were subjected to either 23±1°C throughout or 33±1°C for 6 h per d from 22 to 35 d of age. From d 1 to 21, feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) decreased linearly (P = 0.021 and P = 0.009, respectively), as CP level was reduced. During the heat treatment period (d 22 to 35), there were significant (P = 0.04) diet × heat treatment interactions for FCR. Diet had no effect on FCR among the unheated birds, but the ratio increased linearly (P = 0.007) as dietary CP level decreased. Irrespective of ambient temperature, there was a significant linear decrease in FI (P = 0.032) and WG (P < 0.001) as dietary CP level decreased. Low-CP diets improved the survivability of heat-stressed broilers when compared to those fed control diets. Low-CP diets linearly decreased (P < 0.01) APP (ovotransferrin and alpha-acid glycoprotein) responses. Both APP and HSP 70 reactions were elevated following heat treatment. In conclusion, feeding broilers with low-CP diets adversely affect the growth performance of broilers under heat stress condition. However, low-CP diets were beneficial in improving the survivability. Because APP are involved in the restoration of homeostasis, the adverse effect of low-CP diet on the synthesis of these proteins could be of concern.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/growth & development
  7. Zulkifli AN, Zakeri HA, Azmi WA
    J. Insect Sci., 2018 Sep 01;18(5).
    PMID: 30285257 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iey093
    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is one of the most dangerous pests of major cultivated palms including coconut, oil palm, and sago. The larval stage of the weevil causes the most destruction of the palms as it completely destroys the palm cabbage. In this study, the larvae were given three different diets-coconut cabbage, oil palm cabbage, and sago stem, under laboratory conditions for food consumption and developmental time experiment. The protein profiles of the digestive systems of the larvae fed on these three diets were also determined. Although the coconut diet was the most consumed by RPW larvae compared to oil palm and sago diets, the growth rate of RPW larvae on oil palm diet was however significantly shorter than those on the coconut and sago diets: the RPW only need 1 mo and 9 d to complete the larval duration. Proteins profiling of eight 2-DE gel protein spots that range 50-20 kDa were identified by mass spectrometry sequence analysis. Based on the Matrix Science Software, the most dominant protein was cationic trypsin. However, based on the NCBI BLAST tool, aminopeptidase N was the most dominant enzyme. This finding can lead to the development of pest control strategies based on the antinutritional protease inhibitors as potential biocontrol agents. Urgent action to find effective control methods should be taken seriously as this weevil is presumed to be one of the serious pests of oil palm industry in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Weevils/growth & development
  8. Zulkepli NA, Rou KV, Sulaiman WN, Salhin A, Saad B, Seeni A
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(1):259-63.
    PMID: 21517268
    One of the main aims of cancer chemopreventive studies is to identify ideal apoptotic inducers, especially examples which can induce early apoptotic activity. The present investigation focused on chemopreventive effects of a hydrazone derivative using an in vitro model with tongue cancer cells. Alteration in cell morphology was ascertained, along with stage in the cell cycle and proliferation, while living-dead status of the cells was confirmed under a confocal microscope. In addition, cytotoxicity test was performed using normal mouse skin fibroblast cells. The results showed that the compound inhibited the growth of tongue cancer cells with an inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) of 0.01 mg/ml in a dose and time-dependent manner, with a two-fold increase in early apoptotic activity and G0G1 phase cell cycle arrest compared to untreated cells. Exposure to the compound also resulted in alterations of cell morphology including vacuolization and cellular shrinkage. Confocal microscope analysis using calcein and ethidium staining confirmed that the compound caused cell death, whereas no cytotoxic effects on normal mouse skin fibroblast cells were observed. In conclusion, the findings in this study suggested that the hydrazone derivative acts as an apoptotic inducer with anti-proliferative chemopreventive activity in tongue cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cell Growth Processes/drug effects
  9. Zulkawi N, Ng KH, Zamberi R, Yeap SK, Satharasinghe D, Jaganath IB, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 30;17(1):344.
    PMID: 28666436 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1845-6
    BACKGROUND: Xeniji, produced by fermenting various types of foods with lactic acid bacteria and yeast, has been commonly consumed as functional food. However, nutrition value, bioactivities and safety of different fermented products maybe varies.

    METHODS: Organic acid and antioxidant profiles of Xeniji fermented foods were evaluated. Moreover, oral acute (5 g/kg body weight) and subchronic toxicity (0.1, 1 and 2 g/kg body weight) of Xeniji were tested on mice for 14 days and 30 days, respectively. Mortality, changes of body weight, organ weight and serum liver enzyme level were measured. Liver and spleen of mice from subchronic toxicity study were subjected to antioxidant and immunomodulation quantification.

    RESULTS: Xeniji was rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids. No mortality and significant changes of body weight and serum liver enzyme level were recorded for both oral acute and subchronic toxicity studies. Antioxidant level in the liver and immunity of Xeniji treated mice were significantly upregulated in dosage dependent manner.

    CONCLUSION: Xeniji is a fermented functional food that rich in nutrients that enhanced antioxidant and immunity of mice. Xeniji that rich in β-carotene, phytonadione, polyphenol, citric acid and essential amino acids promote antioxidant and immunity in mice without causing toxic effect.

    Matched MeSH terms: Spleen/growth & development
  10. Zuharah WF, Fadzly N, Lester PJ
    J. Med. Entomol., 2013 Sep;50(5):1014-24.
    PMID: 24180106
    The presence of predators can have dramatic consequences on prey communities, not only by the direct effects of consumption but also through sublethal effects. We investigated the survival rate and subsequent life history of the mosquito Culex pervigilans Bergroth under the influence of its major predator, the backswimmer Anisops wakefieldi White. We established a field experiment with various treatments: 1) control without predators, 2) free-roaming A. wakefieldi (with one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi per container), 3) caged A. wakefieldi (empty cage without predators, with one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi in each cage, and 4) A. wakefieldi cues (with cues concentrations of one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi). Cx. pervigilans eggs were then taken from these four experimental treatments and reared in two different laboratory conditions: 1) in clean water without any traces of predators, or 2) in water with the same treatments as in field. The survival rate of Cx. pervigilans was significantly reduced by the presence of predators or their cues. Even after a brief exposure to waters containing predators or residual cues, the subsequent progeny and the ontogeny of the remaining survivors were still affected. The percentage of eggs that hatched, and the resulting mosquito population, was influenced by the presence of predators or their cues. Our results suggest that sublethal effects may be carried by surviving individuals primarily through the effects of stress, perhaps by epigenetic mechanisms. We may expect to observe similar plasticity in species or populations with high temporal or spatial variability in predation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culex/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development; Ovum/growth & development; Pupa/growth & development
  11. Zuharah WF, Lester PJ
    J. Vector Ecol., 2010 Dec;35(2):347-53.
    PMID: 21175942 DOI: 10.1111/j.1948-7134.2010.00093.x
    The occurrence and abundance of mosquito populations may be associated with the abundance of predators. We examined the relationship between aquatic predators and populations of mosquitoes in animal water troughs in Waikanae, New Zealand. We also investigated the effects of water volume and environmental factors (temperature, rainfall, wind speed, humidity, and pressure) in order to further understand factors influencing mosquito and predator populations. Logistic regression indicated that the presence or absence of mosquitoes was primarily affected by three factors: predator abundance, week of observation, and water volume. Pearson's correlation indicated that the presence of predators had a positive correlation with water volume (r² = 0.176, p< 0.05). Otherwise, the presence of mosquito larvae in water troughs was negatively correlated with water volume (r² =-0.159, p=0.022) and wind speed (r² =0.142, p=0.041). We established a translocation experiment in which predators or mosquitoes were moved between troughs in order to examine the prey survival rate after exposure to Anisops wakefieldi predators. The survival rate of mosquitoes was not significantly different, between 0-0.1%, irrespective of the number of predators translocated (1-9) or the initial mosquito density (20-70 larvae). Our results suggested that A. wakefieldi predators may have the potential to be a promising biological control tool for the control of mosquito populations by altering mosquito population dynamics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Culicidae/growth & development*
  12. Zuha RM, Omar B
    Parasitol. Res., 2014 Jun;113(6):2285-94.
    PMID: 24728523 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3883-z
    Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diptera/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development; Ovum/growth & development; Pupa/growth & development
  13. Zuha RM, Jenarthanan LX, Disney RH, Omar B
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Sep;32(3):568-72.
    PMID: 26695221 MyJurnal
    In forensic entomology, larval rearing usually includes the presence of biological contaminants including scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae). Scuttle flies are recognized as forensically important insects and have been reported causing nuisance and contamination in laboratory environments. This paper reports for the first time the finding of multiple scuttle fly species affecting colonies of third instar larvae of the Oriental latrine blowfly, Chrysomya megacephala (Fabricius) (Diptera: Calliphoridae), reared indoors at the Forensic Science Simulation Site, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Adult scuttle flies were discovered inside a rearing container after the emergence of adult C. megacephala., The scuttle fly species are Megaselia scalaris (Loew), M. spiracularis Schmitz and Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler). Notes on the life history and biology of these species are discussed herein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diptera/growth & development*
  14. Zuha RM, Razak TA, Ahmad NW, Omar B
    Parasitol. Res., 2012 Nov;111(5):2179-87.
    PMID: 22886544 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-3070-z
    In forensic entomology, breeding of fly larvae in a controlled laboratory environment using animal tissue is a common technique to obtain insect developmental time for the estimation of postmortem interval. Previous studies on growth media are mostly on the effect of different diets on fly development. However, the interaction effects between temperature and food type used have not been explored. The objective of this study was to compare the use of cow's liver agar and raw liver on the development of a forensically important fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew). This study also determined the interaction between different temperatures and different food types on the growth of this species. A total of 100 M. scalaris eggs were transferred into each of the two media mentioned above. Liver agar was prepared by adding dried ground liver into nutrient agar, whilst raw liver was naturally prepared from the same animal source. This experiment was conducted at 27, 30 and 33 °C in an incubator in a continuously dark condition. Length and weight of larvae, puparia and adult samples were determined. Total developmental times for larvae feeding on liver agar at each temperature were approximately 7-15 h slower than those feeding on raw liver. Survival rates were almost equal in both diets but were lower at 33 °C. Mean larva length in both diets did not differ significantly at all temperatures, but larvae feeding on liver agar had lower mean weight values than those in raw liver at 30 and 33 °C. The effect of temperature was significant in female puparia weight and male adult weight whereas the effect of diet types was significant in both male and female puparia size and weight. Interaction effects of temperature and food type on M. scalaris puparium size and adult weight were significant, indicating that puparium size and adult weight depended on both food type and temperature. This experiment highlighted the use of cow's liver agar as an alternative diet to breed M. scalaris in the laboratory and the importance of considering the interaction effect between temperatures and food types when deciding the most suitable medium in fly larva rearing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diptera/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development
  15. Zokaeifar H, Balcázar JL, Saad CR, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Arshad A, et al.
    Fish Shellfish Immunol., 2012 Oct;33(4):683-9.
    PMID: 22659618 DOI: 10.1016/j.fsi.2012.05.027
    We studied the effect of two probiotic Bacillus subtilis strains on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, immune gene expression and disease resistance of juvenile white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei). A mixture of two probiotic strains, L10 and G1 in equal proportions, was administered at two different doses 10(5) (BM5) and 10(8) (BM8) CFU g(-1) feed to shrimp for eight weeks. In comparison to untreated control group, final weight, weight gain and digestive enzyme activity were significantly greater in shrimp fed BM5 and BM8 diets. Significant differences for specific growth rate (SGR) and survival were recorded in shrimp fed BM8 diet as compared with the control; however, no significant differences were recorded for food conversion ratio (FCR) among all the experimental groups. Eight weeks after the start of the feeding period, shrimp were challenged with Vibrio harveyi. Statistical analysis revealed significant differences in shrimp survival between probiotic and control groups. Cumulative mortality of the control group was 63.3%, whereas cumulative mortality of the shrimp that had been given probiotics was 20.0% with BM8 and 33.3% with BM5. Subsequently, real-time PCR was employed to determine the mRNA levels of prophenoloxidase (proPO), peroxinectin (PE), lipopolysaccharide- and β-1,3-glucan-binding protein (LGBP) and serine protein (SP). The expression of all immune-related genes studied was significantly up-regulated (P growth performance and disease resistance through an enhanced immune response in shrimp.
    Matched MeSH terms: Penaeidae/growth & development
  16. Zokaeifar H, Balcázar JL, Kamarudin MS, Sijam K, Arshad A, Saad CR
    J. Antibiot., 2012 Jun;65(6):289-94.
    PMID: 22491136 DOI: 10.1038/ja.2012.17
    In this study, potential probiotic strains were isolated from fermented pickles based on antagonistic activity against two shrimp pathogens (Vibrio harveyi and Vibrio parahaemolyticus). Two strains L10 and G1 were identified by biochemical tests, followed by16S ribosomal RNA gene sequence analysis as Bacillus subtilis, and characterized by PCR amplification of repetitive bacterial DNA elements (Rep-PCR). Subsequently, B. subtilis L10 and G1 strains were tested for antibacterial activity under different physical conditions, including culture medium, salinity, pH and temperature using the agar well diffusion assay. Among the different culture media, LB broth was the most suitable medium for antibacterial production. Both strains showed the highest level of antibacterial activity against two pathogens at 30 °C and 1.0% NaCl. Under the pH conditions, strain G1 showed the greatest activity against V. harveyi at pH 7.3-8.0 and against V. parahaemolyticus at pH 6.0-8.0, whereas strain L10 showed the greatest activity against two pathogens at pH 7.3. The cell-free supernatants of both strains were treated with four different enzymes in order to characterize the antibacterial substances against V. harveyi. The result showed considerable reduction of antibacterial activity for both strains, indicating the proteinaceous nature of the antibacterial substances. A wide range of tolerance to NaCl, pH and temperature was also recorded for both strains. In addition, both strains showed no virulence effect in juvenile shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei. On the basis of these results and safety of strains to L. vannamei, they may be considered for future challenge experiments in shrimp as a very promising alternative to the use of antibiotics.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vibrio/growth & development*
  17. Zin T, Mudin KD, Myint T, Naing DKS, Sein T, Shamsul BS
    WHO South East Asia J Public Health, 2013 Jan-Mar;2(1):6-11.
    PMID: 28612817 DOI: 10.4103/2224-3151.115828
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Water and sanitation are major public health issues exacerbated by rapid population growth, limited resources, disasters and environmental depletion. This study was undertaken to study the influencing factors for household water quality improvement for reducing diarrhoea in resource-limited areas.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from articles and reviews from relevant randomized controlled trials, new articles, systematic reviews and meta-analyses from PubMed, World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) and WELL Resource Centre For Water, Sanitation And Environmental Health.

    DISCUSSION: Water quality on diarrhoea prevention could be affected by contamination during storage, collection and even at point-of-use. Point-of-use water treatment (household-based) is the most cost-effective method for prevention of diarrhoea. Chemical disinfection, filtration, thermal disinfection, solar disinfection and flocculation and disinfection are five most promising household water treatment methodologies for resource-limited areas.

    CONCLUSION: Promoting household water treatment is most essential for preventing diarrhoeal disease. In addition, the water should be of acceptable taste, appropriate for emergency and non-emergency use.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  18. Zi-Ni T, Rosma A, Napisah H, Karim AA, Liong MT
    J. Food Sci., 2015 Apr;80(4):H875-82.
    PMID: 25739421 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12817
    Resistant starch type III (RS3 ) was produced from sago (Metroxylon sagu) and evaluated for its characteristics as a prebiotic. Two RS3 samples designated sago RS and HCl-sago RS contained 35.71% and 68.30% RS, respectively, were subjected to hydrolyses by gastric juice and digestive enzymes and to absorption. Both sago RS and HCl-sago RS were resistant to 180 min hydrolysis by gastric acidity at pH 1 to 4 with less than 0.85% hydrolyzed. Both samples were also resistant toward hydrolysis by gastrointestinal tract enzymes and intestinal absorption with 96.75% and 98.69% of RS3 were recovered respectively after 3.5 h digestion and overnight dialysis at 37 °C. Sago RS3 supported the growth of both beneficial (lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria) and pathogenic microbes (Escherichia coli, Campylobacter coli, and Clostridium perfringens) in the range of 2.60 to 3.91 log10 CFU/mL. Hence, prebiotic activity score was applied to describe the extent to which sago RS3 supports selective growth of the lactobacilli and bifidobacteria strains over pathogenic bacteria. The highest scores were obtained from Bifidobacterium sp. FTDC8943 grown on sago RS (+0.26) and HCl-sago RS (+0.24) followed by L. bulgaricus FTDC1511 grown on sago RS (+0.21). The findings had suggested that sago RS3 has the prebiotic partial characteristics and it is suggested to further assess the suitability of sago RS3 as a prebiotic material.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bifidobacterium/growth & development*; Lactobacillus/growth & development*
  19. Zhu J, Li Y, Jiang H, Liu C, Lu W, Dai W, et al.
    Ecotoxicology, 2018 May;27(4):411-419.
    PMID: 29404868 DOI: 10.1007/s10646-018-1904-x
    The novel mesoionic insecticide triflumezopyrim was highly effective in controlling both imidacloprid-susceptible and resistant planthopper populations in Malaysia. However, the toxicity of triflumezopyrim to planthopper populations and their natural enemies has been under-investigated in China. In this study, the median lethal concentrations (LC50) of triflumezopyrim were determined in eight field populations of Nilaparvata lugens and one population of Sogatella furcifera from China under laboratory conditions. Triflumezopyrim showed higher toxicity to planthopper populations than the commonly-used insecticide, imidacloprid. Furthermore, the lethal effect of triflumezopyrim on eight beneficial arthropods of planthoppers was investigated in the laboratory and compared with three commonly-used insecticides, thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin. Triflumezopyrim was harmless to Anagrus nilaparvatae, Cyrtorhinus lividipennis and Paederus fuscipes, while thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and abamectin were moderately harmful or harmful to the insect parasitoid and predators. Triflumezopyrim and thiamethoxam were harmless to the predatory spiders Pirata subpiraticus, Ummeliata insecticeps, Hylyphantes graminicola and Pardosa pseudoannulata, and slightly harmful to Theridion octomaculatum. Chlorpyrifos caused slight to high toxicity to four spider species except U. insecticeps. Abamectin was moderately to highly toxic to all five spider species. Our results indicate that triflumezopyrim has high efficacy for rice planthoppers populations and is compatibile with their natural enemies in China.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/growth & development
  20. Zhou J, Shaikh LH, Neogi SG, McFarlane I, Zhao W, Figg N, et al.
    Hypertension, 2015 May;65(5):1103-10.
    PMID: 25776071 DOI: 10.1161/HYP.0000000000000025
    Common somatic mutations in CACNAID and ATP1A1 may define a subgroup of smaller, zona glomerulosa (ZG)-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. We have therefore sought signature ZG genes, which may provide insight into the frequency and pathogenesis of ZG-like aldosterone-producing adenomas. Twenty-one pairs of zona fasciculata and ZG and 14 paired aldosterone-producing adenomas from 14 patients with Conn's syndrome and 7 patients with pheochromocytoma were assayed by the Affymetrix Human Genome U133 Plus 2.0 Array. Validation by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction was performed on genes >10-fold upregulated in ZG (compared with zona fasciculata) and >10-fold upregulated in aldosterone-producing adenomas (compared with ZG). DACH1, a gene associated with tumor progression, was further analyzed. The role of DACH1 on steroidogenesis, transforming growth factor-β, and Wnt signaling activity was assessed in the human adrenocortical cell line, H295R. Immunohistochemistry confirmed selective expression of DACH1 in human ZG. Silencing of DACH1 in H295R cells increased CYP11B2 mRNA levels and aldosterone production, whereas overexpression of DACH1 decreased aldosterone production. Overexpression of DACH1 in H295R cells activated the transforming growth factor-β and canonical Wnt signaling pathways but inhibited the noncanonical Wnt signaling pathway. Stimulation of primary human adrenal cells with angiotensin II decreased DACH1 mRNA expression. Interestingly, there was little overlap between our top ZG genes and those in rodent ZG. In conclusion, (1) the transcriptome profile of human ZG differs from rodent ZG, (2) DACH1 inhibits aldosterone secretion in human adrenals, and (3) transforming growth factor-β signaling pathway is activated in DACH1 overexpressed cells and may mediate inhibition of aldosterone secretion in human adrenals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/biosynthesis; Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics*
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