Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1946 in total

  1. Maki MAA, Kumar PV, Cheah SC, Siew Wei Y, Al-Nema M, Bayazeid O, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2019 May 31;4(5):8767-8777.
    PMID: 31459966 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.9b00109
    Several studies have shown that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor; everolimus (EV) improves patient survival in several types of cancer. However, the meaningful efficacy of EV as a single agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has failed to be proven in multiple clinical trials. Combination therapy is one of the options that could increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of the anticancer therapy. This study revealed that the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD):FGF7 complex has the potential to improve the antiproliferative effect of EV by preventing FGF receptor activation and by enhancing EV cellular uptake and intracellular retention. Molecular docking techniques were used to investigate the possible interaction between EV, β-CD, and FGF7. Molecular docking insights revealed that β-CD and EV are capable to form a stable inclusion complex with FGF at the molecular level. The aqueous solubility of the inclusion complex was increased (3.1 ± 0.23 μM) when compared to the aqueous solubility of pure EV (1.7 ± 0.16 μM). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a FGF7:β-CD:EV complex on Caco-2 cell line was investigated using real-time xCELLigence technology. The FGF7:β-CD:EV complex has induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cells and shown higher cytotoxic activity than the parent drug EV. With the multitargets effect of β-CD:FGF7 and EV, the antiproliferative effect of EV was remarkably improved as the IC50 value of EV was reduced from 9.65 ± 1.42 to 1.87 ± 0.33 μM when compared to FGF7:β-CD:EV complex activity. In conclusion, the findings advance the understanding of the biological combinational effects of the β-CD:FGF7 complex and EV as an effective treatment to combat CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor
  2. Lim A, Tan D, Price P, Kamarulzaman A, Tan HY, James I, et al.
    AIDS, 2007 Jul 31;21(12):1525-34.
    PMID: 17630546
    To examine the relationships between blood CD4 natural regulatory T (Treg) cells, plasma HIV RNA level, CD4 T-cell count and immune activation in untreated HIV-infected patients and immunodeficient patients beginning antiretroviral therapy (ART), using a novel phenotype to define Treg cells (CD25CD127CD4). Data were compared with established Treg cell markers (FoxP3, CTLA-4 and GITR).
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Nerve Growth Factor/blood
  3. Salama SM, Ibrahim IAA, Shahzad N, Al-Ghamdi S, Ayoub N, AlRashdi AS, et al.
    APMIS, 2018 Sep;126(9):710-721.
    PMID: 30058214 DOI: 10.1111/apm.12878
    This experiment evaluated Panduratin A (PA), a chalcone isolated from Boesenbergia rotunda rhizomes, for its hepatoprotectivity. Rats were subjected to liver damage induced by intra-peritoneal injection of thioacetamide (TAA). PA was tested first for its acute toxicity and then administered by oral gavage at doses 5, 10, and 50 mg/kg to rats. At the end of the 8th week, livers from all rats were excised and evaluated ex vivo. Measurements included alkaline phosphatase (AP), alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), serum platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and transforming growth factor (TGF-β1), and hepatic metalloproteinase enzyme (MMP-2) and its inhibitor extracellular matrix protein (TIMP-1). Oxidative stress was measured by liver malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitrotyrosine levels, urinary 8-hydroxy 2- deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG), and hepatic antioxidant enzyme activities. The immunohistochemistry of TGF-β1 was additionally performed. PA revealed safe dose of 250 mg/kg on experimental rats and positive effect on the liver. The results suggested reduced hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activity as verified from the attenuation of serum PDGF and TGF-β1, hepatic MMP-2 and TIMP-1, and oxidative stress. The extensive data altogether conclude that PA treatment could protect the liver from the progression of cirrhosis through a possible mechanism inhibiting HSCs activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Platelet-Derived Growth Factor/analysis; Transforming Growth Factor beta1/blood
  4. Devendra, C.
    ASM Science Journal, 2007;1(1):63-73.
    The increased human demand for animal proteins in Malaysia is led by several factors: population growth, urbanisation, income growth and changing consumer preferences. Meeting the projected increased demand in the future is an awesome and challenging task. Presently, the non-ruminant poultry and pig industries, mainly private sector led, make the most significant contribution to total animal protein supplies, and inefficient ruminant production systems lag well behind. The strategy for promoting productivity growth to increase animal protein supplies from ruminants requires concerted efficient natural resource management that can target specific production systems. Two distinct economic opportunities are the development of oil palm-based cattle and goat production. The value addition to oil palm cultivation due to the beneficial crop-animal-soil interactions are enormous. The prerequisites are inter-disciplinary efforts, holistic systems, participatory community-based research and development that are needs-based and address constraints, increased research investments, institutional commitment and a policy environment that can enhance total factor productivity in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  5. Avicor SW, Wajidi MF, Jaal Z, Yahaya ZS
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2016;63(2):243-6.
    PMID: 27059016 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2014_909
    Septins belong to GTPases that are involved in vital cellular activities, including cytokinesis. Although present in many organisms, they are yet to be isolated from Aedes albopictus. This study reports for the first time on a serendipitous isolation of a partial septin sequence from Ae. albopictus and its developmental expression profile. The Ae. albopictus partial septin sequence contains 591 nucleotides encoding 197 amino acids. It shares homology with several insect septin genes and has a close phylogenetic relationship with Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus septins. The Ae. albopictus septin fragment was differentially expressed in the mosquito's developmental stages, with an increased expression in the adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development
  6. Venil CK, Zakaria ZA, Ahmad WA
    Acta Biochim. Pol., 2015;62(2):185-90.
    PMID: 25979288 DOI: 10.18388/abp.2014_870
    Flexirubins are the unique type of bacterial pigments produced by the bacteria from the genus Chryseobacterium, which are used in the treatment of chronic skin disease, eczema etc. and may serve as a chemotaxonomic marker. Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497, an yellowish-orange pigment producing strain was investigated for maximum production of pigment by optimizing medium composition employing response surface methodology (RSM). Culture conditions affecting pigment production were optimized statistically in shake flask experiments. Lactose, l-tryptophan and KH2PO4 were the most significant variables affecting pigment production. Box Behnken design (BBD) and RSM analysis were adopted to investigate the interactions between variables and determine the optimal values for maximum pigment production. Evaluation of the experimental results signified that the optimum conditions for maximum production of pigment (521.64 mg/L) in 50 L bioreactor were lactose 11.25 g/L, l-tryptophan 6 g/L and KH2PO4 650 ppm. Production under optimized conditions increased to 7.23 fold comparing to its production prior to optimization. Results of this study showed that statistical optimization of medium composition and their interaction effects enable short listing of the significant factors influencing maximum pigment production from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497. In addition, this is the first report optimizing the process parameters for flexirubin type pigment production from Chryseobacterium artocarpi CECT 8497.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chryseobacterium/growth & development
  7. Sivakumar P, Law YS, Ho CL, Harikrishna JA
    Acta. Biol. Hung., 2010 Sep;61(3):313-21.
    PMID: 20724277 DOI: 10.1556/ABiol.61.2010.3.7
    An efficient in vitro plant regeneration system was established for elite, recalcitrant Malaysian indica rice, Oryza sativa L. CV. MR 219 using mature seeds as explant on Murashige and Skoog and Chu N6 media containing 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid and kinetin either alone or in different combinations. L-proline, casein hydrolysate and L-glutamine were added to callus induction media for enhancement of embryogenic callus induction. The highest frequency of friable callus induction (84%) was observed in N6 medium containing 2.5 mg l(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, 0.2 mg l(-1) kinetin, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate, 20 mg l(-1) L-glutamine and 30 g l(-1) sucrose under culture in continuous lighting conditions. The maximum regeneration frequency (71%) was observed, when 30-day-old N6 friable calli were cultured on MS medium supplemented with 3 mg l(-1) 6-benzyl aminopurine, 1 mg l(-1) naphthalene acetic acid, 2.5 mg l(-1) L-proline, 300 mg l(-1) casein hydrolysate and 3% maltose. Developed shoots were rooted in half strength MS medium supplemented with 2% sucrose and were successfully transplanted to soil with 95% survival. This protocol may be used for other recalcitrant indica rice genotypes and to transfer desirable genes in to Malaysian indica rice cultivar MR219 for crop improvement.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology; Oryza/growth & development; Seeds/growth & development
  8. Vardar E, Larsson HM, Allazetta S, Engelhardt EM, Pinnagoda K, Vythilingam G, et al.
    Acta Biomater, 2018 02;67:156-166.
    PMID: 29197579 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.11.034
    Endoscopic injection of bulking agents has been widely used to treat urinary incontinence, often due to urethral sphincter complex insufficiency. The aim of the study was to develop a novel injectable bioactive collagen-fibrin bulking agent restoring long-term continence by functional muscle tissue regeneration. Fibrin micro-beads were engineered using a droplet microfluidic system. They had an average diameter of 140 μm and recombinant fibrin-binding insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1) was covalently conjugated to the beads. A plasmin fibrin degradation assay showed that 72.5% of the initial amount of α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1 loaded into the micro-beads was retained within the fibrin micro-beads. In vitro, the growth factor modified fibrin micro-beads enhanced cell attachment and the migration of human urinary tract smooth muscle cells, however, no change of the cellular metabolic activity was seen. These bioactive micro-beads were mixed with genipin-crosslinked homogenized collagen, acting as a carrier. The collagen concentration, the degree of crosslinking, and the mechanical behavior of this bioactive collagen-fibrin injectable were comparable to reference samples. This novel injectable showed no burst release of the growth factor, had a positive effect on cell behavior and may therefore induce smooth muscle regeneration in vivo, necessary for the functional treatment of stress and other urinary incontinences.

    STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Urinary incontinence is involuntary urine leakage, resulting from a deficient function of the sphincter muscle complex. Yet there is no functional cure for this devastating condition using current treatment options. Applied physical and surgical therapies have limited success. In this study, a novel bioactive injectable bulking agent, triggering new muscle regeneration at the injection site, has been evaluated. This injectable consists of cross-linked collagen and fibrin micro-beads, functionalized with bound insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1). These bioactive fibrin micro-beads induced human smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. Thus, this injectable bulking agent is apt to be a good candidate for regeneration of urethral sphincter muscle, ensuring a long-lasting treatment for urinary incontinence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  9. Zakaria R, Rajikin MH, Yaacob NS, Nor NM
    Acta Histochem., 2009;111(1):52-60.
    PMID: 18676006 DOI: 10.1016/j.acthis.2008.04.002
    The aim of the present study was to analyze the immunolocalization of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-1 and IGF-2 and their receptors in the oviduct and uterus of control and diabetic mice. Sexually mature female ICR mice aged 6-8 weeks were rendered diabetic by streptozotocin (200 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally). Oviductal and uterine tissues were obtained from the superovulated control and diabetic mice at 48, 72 and 96 h post-human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) treatment. Localization of IGF-1, IGF-2, IGF-1R and IGF-2R was determined by immunohistochemistry and a semi-quantitative scoring of immunolabelling was performed using a standardized 5-point system. The immunohistochemical scorings for both IGF-1 and IGF-1R were significantly decreased in the oviducts of diabetic mice at 96 h post-hCG treatment. The scores for IGF-2 were significantly increased in the oviducts of diabetic mice at 48 and 72 h post-hCG treatment, and for IGF-2R at 72 h post-hCG treatment. However, there was no significant difference in the scores of IGFs and their receptors in the uterus of control and diabetic mice. In conclusion, the oviductal immunolabelling for IGFs and their receptors was significantly altered by maternal diabetes, which may be of importance in the pathogenesis of preimplantation diabetic embryopathy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/analysis*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism
  10. Wei LS, Wee W, Siong JY, Syamsumir DF
    Acta Med Iran, 2011;49(10):670-4.
    PMID: 22071643
    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development
  11. Goh BS, Che Omar SN, Ubaidah MA, Saim L, Sulaiman S, Chua KH
    Acta Otolaryngol., 2017 Apr;137(4):432-441.
    PMID: 27900891 DOI: 10.1080/00016489.2016.1257151
    CONCLUSION: In conclusion, these result showed HADSCs could differentiate into chondrocytes-like cells, dependent on signaling induced by TGF-β3 and chondrocytes. This is a promising result and showed that HADSCs is a potential source for future microtia repair. The technique of co-culture is a positive way forward to assist the microtia tissue.

    OBJECTIVE: Reconstructive surgery for the repair of microtia still remains the greatest challenge among the surgeons. Its repair is associated with donor-site morbidity and the degree of infection is inevitable when using alloplastic prosthesis with uncertain long-term durability. Thus, human adipose derived stem cells (HADSCs) can be an alternative cell source for cartilage regeneration. This study aims to evaluate the chondrogenic potential of HADSCs cultured with transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and interaction of auricular chondrocytes with HADSCs for new cartilage generation.

    METHODS: Multi-lineages differentiation features of HADSCs were monitored by Alcian Blue, Alizarin Red, and Oil Red O staining for chondrogenic, adipogenic, and osteogenic differentiation capacity, respectively. Further, HADSCs alone were culture in medium added with TGF-β3; and human auricular chondrocytes were interacted indirectly in the culture with and without TGF-βs for up to 21 days, respectively. Cell morphology and chondrogenesis were monitored by inverted microscope. For cell viability, Alamar Blue assay was used to measure the cell viability and the changes in gene expression of auricular chondrocyte markers were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. For the induction of chondrogenic differentiation, HADSCs showed a feature of aggregation and formed a dense matrix of proteoglycans. Staining results from Alizirin Red and Oil Red O indicated the HADSCs also successfully differentiated into adipogenic and osteogenic lineages after 21 days.

    RESULTS: According to a previous study, HADSCs were strongly positive for the mesenchymal markers CD90, CD73, CD44, CD9, and histocompatibility antigen. The results showed HADSCs test groups (cultured with TGF-β3) displayed chondrocytes-like cells morphology with typical lacunae structure compared to the control group without TGF-β3 after 2 weeks. Additionally, the HADSCs test groups increased in cell viability; an increase in expression of chondrocytes-specific genes (collagen type II, aggrecan core protein, SOX 9 and elastin) compared to the control. This study found that human auricular chondrocytes cells and growth factor had a positive influence in inducing HADSCs chondrogenic effects, in terms of chondrogenic differentiate of feature, increase of cell viability, and up-regulated expression of chondrogenic genes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta
  12. Hiong LC, Voon KL, Abdullah NA, Sattar MA, Rahman NA, Khan AH, et al.
    Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 2008 Apr;29(4):451-7.
    PMID: 18358091 DOI: 10.1111/j.1745-7254.2008.00772.x
    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta1 antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ODN) in ameliorating deteriorated kidney function in rats with puromycin-induced chronic renal failure (CRF).
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta1/genetics*; Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
  13. Ali MA, Ismail R, Choon TS, Yoon YK, Wei AC, Pandian S, et al.
    Acta Pol Pharm, 2011 May-Jun;68(3):343-8.
    PMID: 21648188
    A series of novel 3-(substituted phenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]isoxazole analogues were synthesized by the reaction of 5,6-dimethoxy-2-[(E)-1-phenylmethylidene]-1-indanone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The title compounds were tested for their in vitro anti-HIV activity. Among the compounds, (4g) showed a promising anti-HIV activity in the in vitro testing against IIIB and ROD strains. The IC50 of both IIIB and ROD were found to be 9.05 microM and > 125 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV-1/growth & development; HIV-2/growth & development
  14. Asad M, Oo CW, Kumar RS, Osman H, Ali MA
    Acta Pol Pharm, 2013 Mar-Apr;70(2):221-8.
    PMID: 23614277
    A series of some new bisadducts possessing five, six membered and coumarin subunits were synthesized by the condensation of heterocyclic aldehydes with active methylene compounds and characterized by IR, NMR and X-ray crystallographic studies and were assayed as antitubercular agents. Among the bisadducts, 4-hydroxy-3-[(4-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-3-chromenyl)(3-thienyl)methyl]-2H-2-chromenone 3a was found to be the most promising compound, active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) H37Rv and isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (INHR-Mtb) with minimum inhibitory concentration 5.22 and 8.34 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Mycobacterium tuberculosis/growth & development
  15. Antinori S, Galimberti L, Milazzo L, Corbellino M
    Acta Trop., 2013 Feb;125(2):191-201.
    PMID: 23088834 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2012.10.008
    Plasmodium knowlesi was initially identified in the 30s as a natural Plasmodium of Macaca fascicularis monkey also capable of experimentally infecting humans. It gained a relative notoriety in the mid-30s as an alternative to Plasmodium vivax in the treatment of the general paralysis of the insane (neurosyphilis). In 1965 the first natural human infection was described in a US military surveyor coming back from the Pahang jungle of the Malaysian peninsula. P. knowlesi was again brought to the attention of the medical community when in 2004, Balbir Singh and his co-workers reported that about 58% of malaria cases observed in the Kapit district of the Malaysian Borneo were actually caused by P. knowlesi. In the following years several reports showed that P. knowlesi is much more widespread than initially thought with cases reported across Southeast Asia. This infection should also be considered in the differential diagnosis of any febrile travellers coming back from a recent travel to forested areas of Southeast Asia. P. knowlesi can cause severe malaria with a rate of 6-9% and with a case fatality rate of 3%. Respiratory distress, acute renal failure, shock and hyperbilirubinemia are the most frequently observed complications of severe P. knowlesi malaria. Chloroquine is considered the treatment of choice of uncomplicated malaria caused by P. knowlesi.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trophozoites/growth & development
  16. Dieng H, Hassan RB, Hassan AA, Ghani IA, Abang FB, Satho T, et al.
    Acta Trop., 2015 May;145:68-78.
    PMID: 25617636 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.01.004
    Even with continuous vector control, dengue is still a growing threat to public health in Southeast Asia. Main causes comprise difficulties in identifying productive breeding sites and inappropriate targeted chemical interventions. In this region, rural families keep live birds in backyards and dengue mosquitoes have been reported in containers in the cages. To focus on this particular breeding site, we examined the capacity of bird fecal matter (BFM) from the spotted dove, to support Aedes albopictus larval growth. The impact of BFM larval uptake on some adult fitness traits influencing vectorial capacity was also investigated. In serial bioassays involving a high and low larval density (HD and LD), BFM and larval standard food (LSF) affected differently larval development. At HD, development was longer in the BFM environment. There were no appreciable mortality differences between the two treatments, which resulted in similar pupation and adult emergence successes. BFM treatment produced a better gender balance. There were comparable levels of blood uptake and egg production in BFM and LSF females at LD; that was not the case for the HD one, which resulted in bigger adults. BFM and LSF females displayed equivalent lifespans; in males, this parameter was shorter in those derived from the BFM/LD treatment. Taken together these results suggest that bird defecations successfully support the development of Ae. albopictus. Due to their cryptic aspects, containers used to supply water to encaged birds may not have been targeted by chemical interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development
  17. Choo KE, Davis TM, Ismail A, Tuan Ibrahim TA, Ghazali WN
    Acta Trop., 1999 Mar 15;72(2):175-83.
    PMID: 10206117
    The Typhidot test, which detects IgM and IgG antibodies to a Salmonella typhi-specific outer membrane protein, is as sensitive as, and more specific than, the Widal test in the diagnosis of enteric fever in Malaysian children. It is easier and quicker to perform. In order to increase diagnostic accuracy in an area of high endemicity, the Typhidot-M test has been developed in which IgG is first removed. This theoretically allows improved detection of IgM, and thus would differentiate new from recent infections. We evaluated both tests in 134 unselected febrile children admitted to the General Hospital Kota Bharu, Malaysia. The children were divided into two groups: (i) those who were blood and/or stool culture positive for S. typhi and/or who had clinical features strongly suggestive of enteric fever (n = 62); and (ii) those who were both culture-negative and had clinical evidence of another diagnosis (n = 72). The sensitivity and specificity of the Typhidot and Typhidot-M tests were identical at 90.3 and 93.1%, respectively. Both tests had comparable sensitivity but greater specificity than those of the Widal test (91.9 and 80.6%, respectively). When used together, a positive result for Typhidot and/or Typhidot-M was more specific than either test alone (95.2%) but specificity was lower (87.5%). We conclude that the Typhidot and Typhidot-M tests have comparatively high diagnostic accuracy, suggesting that IgM can be detected in children who may have a predominant IgG response to S. typhi. Using these tests in combination increases the negative predictive value but at the cost of a lower positive predictive value.
    Matched MeSH terms: Salmonella typhi/growth & development
  18. Mak JW, Choong MF, Lam PL, Suresh K
    Acta Trop., 1990 May;47(4):223-6.
    PMID: 1973024
    The leaf-monkeys, Presbytis cristata and Presbytis melalophos, experimentally infected with subperiodic Brugia malayi, have been used for studies on the pathoimmunology of the infection and the screening of potential filaricides during the last 6-8 years, and considerable information on the pattern of microfilaraemia and adult worm recoveries have been obtained. The prepatent periods in 97 P. cristata and 45 P. melalophos, each infected with about 200 infective larvae, were similar, these being approximately 70 and 68 days respectively. Although all infected animals became microfilaraemic, the peak geometric mean count was much higher in P. cristata than in P. melalophos, this being 182.0 and 65.8 per ml blood respectively. Mean adult worm recovery expressed as the percentage of the infective dose was 4.7% and 2.5%, respectively. Most worms were recovered from the sacral nodes/thoracic duct or inguinal lymph nodes in these animals. In view of the higher worm recovery and the higher peak microfilaraemia attained, it is concluded that P. cristata is a better model for the infection than P. melalophos.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brugia/growth & development*
  19. Bänziger H
    Acta Trop., 1979 Mar;36(1):23-37.
    PMID: 35931
    1. Of the scarce Calyptra minuticornis, C. orthograpta and C. labilis, 51, 24, and 7 adults, respectively, were observed during some 600 night inspections at over 100 sites in 1965--1967 and 1971--1977. 2. Hitherto biologically completely unknown, and not recorded before in S.E. Asia, the latter two species flew in or near tropical monsoon forests in hilly regions (300--600 m) of N. Thailand (C. orthograpta also N. Laos). C. minuticornis was found in these and in tropical evergreen and semi-evergreen rain forests of S. Thailand and N.W. Malaysia. 3. In N. Thailand the three species were more common at the end of the cool season/start of the hot season and at the start of the rainy season. They were active mainly during the first half of the night 4. Flight and piercing behaviour, alighting, resting, enemies, and the lack of females, were similar to virtually identical with the "classical" skin-piercing blood-sucking C. eustrigata. 5. C. labilis was seen attacking elephant, C. orthograpta also water buffalo and sambar, C. minuticornis also zebu and tapir but not sambar. C. minuticornis settled on man also but did not pierce. 6. Through no piercing of hosts' skin has actually been seen in nature, indirect evidence suggests that the 3 moths are likely to be occasional blood-suckers. They pierced and sucked blood from the author's skin in experiments. 7. Reasons for lack of direct evidence may be: less developed hematophagy, less favoured hosts, lack of easy-to-pierce injured skin (which also trigger the piercing response), different climatic and phytoecological environment, fewer specimens than in the case of C. eustrigata. 8. Field observations and experiments indicate that the closely related, fruit-piercing Oraesia emarginata is not skin-piercing blood-sucking--a habit likely to be exhibited mainly in humid equatorial regions by a few Calyptra only.
    Matched MeSH terms: Moths/growth & development
  20. Loh HS, Mohd-Azmi ML, Sheikh-Omar AR, Zamri-Saad M, Tam YJ
    Acta Virol., 2007;51(1):27-33.
    PMID: 17432941
    The present study described the kinetics of Rat cytomegalovirus (RCMV) infection in newborn rats by monitoring infectious virus and viral antigens in various organs, viral DNA in the blood (DNAemia) and antibody response. These parameters were evaluated quantitatively using double-antibody sandwich ELISA (DAS-ELISA), real-time PCR, indirect ELISA and virus infectivity assay. For the first time DAS-ELISA was used for detection of RCMV antigen directly from organ samples. The relationships between the presence of viral antigens in the infected organs and antibody levels were established by the Spearman's rank test. It was found that the virus was present in the blood, spleen, liver, lungs, and kidneys earlier than in the salivary glands. Furthermore, the early immunity of the newborn rats led to a delayed seroconversion. We suggested that the prolonged presence of the virus in salivary glands could augment the antibody response that conversely might be responsible for a reduction of viremia. This study expanded our understanding of RCMV pathogenesis leading to improved therapeutic and preventive treatment regimens particularly for the neonatal Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infections. Additionally, the detection procedures developed in this study such as DAS-ELISA and real-time PCR could serve as alternative techniques for rapid screening of large number of samples.
    Matched MeSH terms: Muromegalovirus/growth & development*
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