Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1946 in total

  1. Lee LY, Muhardi L, Cheah FC, Supapannachart S, Teller IC, Bindels J, et al.
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2018 Apr;54(4):370-376.
    PMID: 29205630 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.13775
    AIM: To understand feeding practices, nutrition management and postnatal growth monitoring of term small-for-gestational age (tSGA) infants in Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: Anonymous questionnaires to assess practices on feeding, nutrition management and post-natal growth monitoring of tSGA infants were distributed among health-care professionals (HCPs) participating in regional/local perinatology symposia in Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore.

    RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven respondents from Malaysia (37%), Thailand (27%), Singapore (18%) and other Asian countries (19%) participated in the survey. Respondents were neonatologists (35%), paediatricians (25%) and other HCPs (40%) including nurses and midwives. Exclusive human milk feeding was reported the most preferred feeding option for tSGA infants, followed by fortified human milk feeding (60% and 20%, respectively). This was consistent among the different countries. The perceived nutrient requirements of tSGA infants varied between countries. Most respondents from Malaysia and Singapore reported requirements to be similar to preterm infants, while the majority from Thailand reported that it was less than those of preterm infants. The World Health Organization Growth Chart of 2006 and Fenton Growth Charts of 2013 were the most frequently used charts for growth monitoring in the hospital and after discharge.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition management and perceived nutrient requirements for tSGA infants among practising HCPs in Southeast Asia showed considerable variation. The impetus to form standardised and evidence based feeding regimens is important as adequate nutritional management and growth monitoring particularly in this population of infants will have long term impact on population health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/growth & development; Infant, Small for Gestational Age/growth & development*; Growth Charts
  2. Troell M, Naylor RL, Metian M, Beveridge M, Tyedmers PH, Folke C, et al.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2014 Sep 16;111(37):13257-63.
    PMID: 25136111 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1404067111
    Aquaculture is the fastest growing food sector and continues to expand alongside terrestrial crop and livestock production. Using portfolio theory as a conceptual framework, we explore how current interconnections between the aquaculture, crop, livestock, and fisheries sectors act as an impediment to, or an opportunity for, enhanced resilience in the global food system given increased resource scarcity and climate change. Aquaculture can potentially enhance resilience through improved resource use efficiencies and increased diversification of farmed species, locales of production, and feeding strategies. However, aquaculture's reliance on terrestrial crops and wild fish for feeds, its dependence on freshwater and land for culture sites, and its broad array of environmental impacts diminishes its ability to add resilience. Feeds for livestock and farmed fish that are fed rely largely on the same crops, although the fraction destined for aquaculture is presently small (∼4%). As demand for high-value fed aquaculture products grows, competition for these crops will also rise, as will the demand for wild fish as feed inputs. Many of these crops and forage fish are also consumed directly by humans and provide essential nutrition for low-income households. Their rising use in aquafeeds has the potential to increase price levels and volatility, worsening food insecurity among the most vulnerable populations. Although the diversification of global food production systems that includes aquaculture offers promise for enhanced resilience, such promise will not be realized if government policies fail to provide adequate incentives for resource efficiency, equity, and environmental protection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Crops, Agricultural/growth & development
  3. Baseler L, Scott DP, Saturday G, Horne E, Rosenke R, Thomas T, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2016 Nov;10(11):e0005120.
    PMID: 27812087 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005120
    BACKGROUND: Nipah virus causes respiratory and neurologic disease with case fatality rates up to 100% in individual outbreaks. End stage lesions have been described in the respiratory and nervous systems, vasculature and often lymphoid organs in fatal human cases; however, the initial target organs of Nipah virus infection have not been identified. Here, we detected the initial target tissues and cells of Nipah virus and tracked virus dissemination during the early phase of infection in Syrian hamsters inoculated with a Nipah virus isolate from Malaysia (NiV-M) or Bangladesh (NiV-B).

    METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Syrian hamsters were euthanized between 4 and 48 hours post intranasal inoculation and tissues were collected and analyzed for the presence of viral RNA, viral antigen and infectious virus. Virus replication was first detected at 8 hours post inoculation (hpi). Nipah virus initially targeted type I pneumocytes, bronchiolar respiratory epithelium and alveolar macrophages in the lung and respiratory and olfactory epithelium lining the nasal turbinates. By 16 hpi, virus disseminated to epithelial cells lining the larynx and trachea. Although the pattern of viral dissemination was similar for both virus isolates, the rate of spread was slower for NiV-B. Infectious virus was not detected in the nervous system or blood and widespread vascular infection and lesions within lymphoid organs were not observed, even at 48 hpi.

    CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Nipah virus initially targets the respiratory system. Virus replication in the brain and infection of blood vessels in non-respiratory tissues does not occur during the early phase of infection. However, virus replicates early in olfactory epithelium and may serve as the first step towards nervous system dissemination, suggesting that development of vaccines that block virus dissemination or treatments that can access the brain and spinal cord and directly inhibit virus replication may be necessary for preventing central nervous system pathology.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nipah Virus/growth & development
  4. Charles JF, Nicolas L, Sebald M, de Barjac H
    Res. Microbiol., 1990 7 1;141(6):721-33.
    PMID: 1980958
    Sporulation of Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia, which has a larvicidal activity towards mosquitoes, was examined by electron microscopy. Parasporal inclusion bodies lacking a crystalline structure were first detected at t5 (5 h after the end of exponentional growth). Also, the presence of "brush-bottle"-like appendages appearing first at t5 was noted; these remained attached to the spores when released after sporangium lysis. Larvicidal activity assayed on Anopheles stephensi larvae appeared at t0 and increased rapidly to a maximum between t5 and t8. However, a decrease in bacterial toxicity occurred with sporangium lysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Clostridium/growth & development; Spores, Bacterial/growth & development
  5. Rohani A, Wong YC, Zamre I, Lee HL, Zurainee MN
    PMID: 19842378
    Dengue 2 and 4 viruses obtained from dengue-infected patients were maintained in a C6/36 Aedes albopictus Skuse cell line and used to infect adult female Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Each serotype was mixed separately with fresh human erythrocytes and fed to adult female mosquitoes using an artificial membrane feeding technique. Fully engorged mosquitoes were selected and retained at 26 degrees C, 28 degrees C and 30 degrees C to observe dengue virus development in Aedes vectors. Virus detection was carried out by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The virus was first detected on Day 9 at 26 degrees C and 28 degrees C and on Day 5 at 30 degrees C for both dengue 2 and 4. The study shows the incubation period of the viruses decreased when the extrinsic incubation temperature increases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue Virus/growth & development*
  6. Nyi, Nyi Naing, Zabidi Azhar Mohd Hussin, Nawaz Hussin, Menaga, M., Aw Linda, Raihan, S., et al.
    A sample of 204 handicapped children below 12 years of age consisting of 121(59.3%) males and 83 (40.7%) females who were classified into various types of mental and physical handicaps, were surveyed in April and May 1996. The majority of those with mental handicaps were Down Syndrome while those with cerebral palsy were the mostfrequent cause of physical handicaps. A structured questionnaire was used for interviewing the children parents to evaluate their attitude towards their handicapped children. The majority of the parents expressed their opinions that having handicapped children was not a burden to them although these children had to be given more attention. However, a significant minority felt that the child would be afinancial burden to the family and that he/she would restrict the social life of the family. The majority of the children were sent to school, as parents felt it was their duty to do so. For those children not attending school, the majority of parents felt that the children would not benefit by going. The others could not do so because offinancial constraints or because of the distance between home and school. For these children, provid-ing hostel facilities in a boarding school could be the answer. This study shows that parental love and support plays a major role in ensuring optimal growth and development of a handicapped child
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth and Development
  7. Aliyu AB, Saleha AA, Jalila A, Zunita Z
    BMC Public Health, 2016 08 02;16:699.
    PMID: 27484086 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-016-3377-2
    BACKGROUND: The significant role of retail poultry meat as an important exposure pathway for the acquisition and transmission of extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli (ESBL-EC) into the human population warrants understanding concerning those operational practices associated with dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retailing. Hence, the objective of this study was to determine the prevalence, spatial distribution and potential risk factors associated with the dissemination of ESBL-EC in poultry meat retail at wet-markets in Selangor, Malaysia.

    METHODS: Poultry meat (breast, wing, thigh, and keel) as well as the contact surfaces of weighing scales and cutting boards were sampled to detect ESBL-EC by using culture and disk combination methods and polymerase chain reaction assays. Besides, questionnaire was used to obtain data and information pertaining to those operational practices that may possibly explain the occurrence of ESBL-EC. The data were analysed using logistic regression analysis at 95 % CI.

    RESULTS: The overall prevalence of ESBL-EC was 48.8 % (95 % CI, 42 - 55 %). Among the risk factors that were explored, type of countertop, sanitation of the stall environment, source of cleaning water, and type of cutting board were found to be significantly associated with the presence of ESBL-EC.

    CONCLUSIONS: Thus, in order to prevent or reduce the presence of ESBL-EC and other contaminants at the retail-outlet, there is a need to design a process control system based on the current prevailing practices in order to reduce cross contamination, as well as to improve food safety and consumer health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  8. Zulkifli SN
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1992;6(4):210-6.
    PMID: 1345448
    Growth monitoring has been included as one of the basic strategies for child survival. In this paper, the rationale for this is reiterated both for individual as well as population nutritional surveillance. Methods for and approaches to growth monitoring are described. In addition, potential problems in implementing growth monitoring projects and interpreting the results are discussed. Despite its lack of sensitivity and specificity as a diagnostic tool, its advantages in terms of low cost, simplicity, reliability and social acceptability justify its use in nutritional surveillance, particularly in populations at risk of malnutrition.
    Publication year: 1992-1993
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth*
  9. Aziman N, Abdullah N, Noor ZM, Kamarudin WS, Zulkifli KS
    J. Food Sci., 2014 Apr;79(4):M583-92.
    PMID: 24666004 DOI: 10.1111/1750-3841.12419
    Preliminary phytochemical and flavonoid compounds of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of 6 aromatic Malaysian herbs were screened and quantified using Reverse-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC). The herbal extracts were tested for their antimicrobial activity against 10 food-borne pathogenic and food spoilage microorganisms using disk diffusion assay. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)/minimum fungicidal concentration (MFC) of herbal extracts were determined. In the phytochemical screening process, both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of P. hydropiper exhibited presence of all 7 tested phytochemical compounds. Among all herbal extracts, the aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts demonstrated the highest antibacterial activity against 7 tested Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria with diameter ranging from 7.0 to 18.5 mm and 6.5 to 19 mm, respectively. The MIC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 18.75 to 175 mg/mL and 0.391 to 200 mg/mL, respectively while the MBC/MFC values for aqueous and ethanolic extracts ranged from 25 to 200 mg/mL and 3.125 to 50 mg/mL, respectively. Major types of bioactive compounds in aqueous P. hydropiper and E. elatior extracts were identified using RP-HPLC instrument. Flavonoids found in these plants were epi-catechin, quercetin, and kaempferol. The ability of aqueous Persicaria hydropiper (L.) H. Gross and Etlingera elatior (Jack) R.M. Sm. extracts to inhibit the growth of bacteria is an indication of its broad spectrum antimicrobial potential. Hence these herbal extracts may be used as natural preservative to improve the safety and shelf-life of food and pharmaceutical products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development
  10. Rehman K, Zulfakar MH
    Pharm. Res., 2017 01;34(1):36-48.
    PMID: 27620176 DOI: 10.1007/s11095-016-2036-8
    PURPOSE: To characterize bigel system as a topical drug delivery vehicle and to establish the immunomodulatory role of imiquimod-fish oil combination against skin cancer and inflammation resulting from chemical carcinogenesis.

    METHODS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigel colloidal system was prepared using a blend of carbopol hydrogel and fish oil oleogel. Bigels were first characterized for their mechanical properties and compared to conventional gel systems. Ex vivo permeation studies were performed on murine skin to analyze the ability of the bigels to transport drug across skin and to predict the release mechanism via mathematical modelling. Furthermore, to analyze pharmacological effectiveness in skin cancer and controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects, imiquimod-fish oil combination was tested in vitro on epidermoid carcinoma cells and in vivo in Swiss albino mice cancer model.

    RESULTS: Imiquimod-loaded fish oil bigels exhibited higher drug availability inside the skin as compared to individual imiquimod hydrogel and oleogel controls through quasi-Fickian diffusion mechanism. Imiquimod-fish oil combination in bigel enhanced the antitumor effects and significantly reduced serum pro-inflammatory cytokine levels such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6, and reducing tumor progression via inhibition of vascular endothelial growth factor. Imiquimod-fish oil combination also resulted in increased expression of interleukin-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, which could also aid anti-tumor activity against skin cancer.

    CONCLUSION: Imiquimod administration through a bigel vehicle along with fish oil could be beneficial for controlling imiquimod-induced inflammatory side effects and in the treatment of skin cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  11. Ishak WMW, Katas H, Yuen NP, Abdullah MA, Zulfakar MH
    Drug Deliv Transl Res, 2019 04;9(2):418-433.
    PMID: 29667150 DOI: 10.1007/s13346-018-0522-8
    Wound healing is a physiological event that generates reconstitution and restoration of granulation tissue that ends with scar formation. As omega fatty acids are part of membrane phospholipids and participate in the inflammatory response, we investigated the effects of omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids in the form of oils on wound healing. Linseed (LO), evening primrose (EPO), and olive oils (OO) rich in omega-3, omega-6, and omega-9 fatty acids were formulated into emulsions and were topically applied on rats with excision wounds. All omega-3-, omega-6-, and omega-9-rich oil formulations were found to accelerate wound closure compared to untreated, with significant improvement (p growth factor (VEGF) showed greater amount of new microvasculature formed in the EPO-treated group, while moderate improvement occurs in the LO and OO groups. EPO increased both the expression of proinflammatory cytokines and growth factors in the early stage of healing and declined at the later stage of healing. LO modulates the proinflammatory cytokines and chemokine but did not affect the growth factors. In contrast, OO induced the expression of growth factors rather than proinflammatory cytokines. These data suggest that LO, EPO, and OO emulsions promote wound healing but they accomplish this by different mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  12. Manaf LA, Samah MA, Zukki NI
    Waste Manag, 2009 Nov;29(11):2902-6.
    PMID: 19540745 DOI: 10.1016/j.wasman.2008.07.015
    Rapid economic development and population growth, inadequate infrastructure and expertise, and land scarcity make the management of municipal solid waste become one of Malaysia's most critical environmental issues. The study is aimed at evaluating the generation, characteristics, and management of solid waste in Malaysia based on published information. In general, the per capita generation rate is about 0.5-0.8 kg/person/day in which domestic waste is the primary source. Currently, solid waste is managed by the Ministry of Housing and Local Government, with the participation of the private sector. A new institutional and legislation framework has been structured with the objectives to establish a holistic, integrated, and cost-effective solid waste management system, with an emphasis on environmental protection and public health. Therefore, the hierarchy of solid waste management has given the highest priority to source reduction through 3R, intermediate treatment and final disposal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  13. Muniyandi RC, Zin AM
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2011 Dec 15;14(24):1100-8.
    PMID: 22335049
    Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta plays essential role in transmitting a wide range of extracellular signals that affect many cellular processes such as cell growth. However, the modeling of these networks with conventional approach such as ordinary differential equations has not taken into account, the spatial structure and stochastic behavior of processes involve in these networks. Membrane computing as the alternatives approach provides spatial structure for molecular computation in which processes are evaluated in a non-deterministic and maximally parallel way. This study is carried out to evaluate the membrane computing model of Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta with model checking approach. The results show that membrane computing model has sustained the behaviors and properties of Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta. This reinforce that membrane computing is capable in analyzing processes and behaviors in hierarchical structure of cell such as Ligand-Receptor Networks of TGF-beta better than the deterministic approach of conventional mathematical models.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism*; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism*
  14. Salahshourifar I, Halim AS, Wan Sulaiman WA, Zilfalil BA
    J. Hum. Genet., 2011 Nov;56(11):755-8.
    PMID: 21866112 DOI: 10.1038/jhg.2011.95
    Oral clefts are clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders that are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The present family-based association study investigated the role of the MSX1 and TGFB3 genes in the etiology of non-syndromic oral cleft in a Malay population. No transmission distortion was found in the transmission disequilibrium analysis for either MSX1-CA or TGFB3-CA intragenic markers, whereas TGFB3-CA exhibited a trend to excess maternal transmission. In sequencing the MSX1 coding regions in 124 patients with oral cleft, five variants were found, including three known variants (A34G, G110G and P147Q) and two novel variants (M37L and G267A). The P147Q and M37L variants were not observed in 200 control chromosomes, whereas G267A was found in one control sample, indicating a very rare polymorphic variant. Furthermore, the G110G variant displayed a significant association between patients with non-syndromic cleft lip, with or without cleft palate, and normal controls (P=0.001, odds ratio=2.241, 95% confidence interval, 1.357-3.700). Therefore, these genetic variants may contribute, along with other genetic and environmental factors, to this condition.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta3/genetics
  15. Chuah CJ, Mukhaidin N, Choy SH, Smith GJD, Mendenhall IH, Lim YAL, et al.
    Sci. Total Environ., 2016 08 15;562:701-713.
    PMID: 27110981 DOI: 10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.247
    A catchment-scale investigation of the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in the Kuang River Basin was carried out during the dry and rainy seasons. Water samples were collected from the Kuang River and its tributaries as well as a major irrigation canal at the study site. We also investigated the prevalence of gastrointestinal parasitic infection among dairy and beef cattle hosts. Cryptosporidium and/or Giardia were detected in all the rivers considered for this study, reflecting their ubiquity within the Kuang River Basin. The high prevalence of Cryptosporidium/Giardia in the upper Kuang River and Lai River is of a particular concern as both drain into the Mae Kuang Reservoir, a vital source of drinking-water to many local towns and villages at the research area. We did not, however, detected neither Cryptosporidium nor Giardia were in the irrigation canal. The frequency of Cryptosporidium/Giardia detection nearly doubled during the rainy season compared to the dry season, highlighting the importance of water as an agent of transport. In addition to the overland transport of these protozoa from their land sources (e.g. cattle manure, cess pits), Cryptosporidium/Giardia may also be re-suspended from the streambeds (a potentially important repository) into the water column of rivers during storm events. Faecal samples from dairy and beef cattle showed high infection rates from various intestinal parasites - 97% and 94%, respectively. However, Cryptosporidium and Giardia were only detected in beef cattle. The difference in management style between beef (freeranging) and dairy cattle (confined) may account for this disparity. Finally, phylogenetic analyses revealed that the Cryptosporidium/Giardia-positive samples contained C. ryanae (non-zoonotic) as well as Giardia intestinalis assemblages B (zoonotic) and E (non-zoonotic). With only basic water treatment facilities afforded to them, the communities of the rural area relying on these water supplies are highly at risk to Cryptosporidium/Giardia infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Cryptosporidium/growth & development*; Giardia/growth & development*
  16. Sun J, Webb M, Zhang Y
    Zootaxa, 2014;3821(5):575-82.
    PMID: 24989768 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3821.5.5
    The leafhopper genus Dusuna Distant is revised to include seven species including one new species D. anacantha sp. nov. from China and one new combination D. distanti (Schmidt) n. comb. All species are described and illustrated. A checklist to species of the genus is provided together with a key to separate the two species known from the male. Figures of an unknown species from Malaysia (possibly new) are also included.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animal Structures/growth & development; Hemiptera/growth & development
  17. Xue Q, Zhang Y
    Zootaxa, 2015;3974(1):135-9.
    PMID: 26249890 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3974.1.11
    A new species, Busoniomimus umbellatus sp. nov. is described and illustrated from Malaysia. In addition the female of B. hainanensis Zhang & Li is described from China. A key is provided to males of this genus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animal Structures/growth & development; Hemiptera/growth & development
  18. Abdullah JM, Zhang J
    Mini Rev Med Chem, 2013 Apr 01;13(5):744-8.
    PMID: 23373649
    The γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) A receptor is composed of a variety of subunits and combinations and shows a characteristic distribution in the CNS. To date, 20 subunits of the GABA A receptor have been cloned: α1-6, β1-4, γ1-3, δ, π, ε , Θ, and ρ1-3. Oocyte of Xenopus laevis is one of the most frequently used heterologous expression systems, which are used to design and analyze specific combinations of GABA A receptor subunits. In oocytes, a certain GABA A receptor function is studied only by comparing the amplitude of the response to GABA and other drugs by physiological and pharmacological methods. According to the studies on Xenopus laevis oocytes, the α1β2γ2S receptor combination is mostly used. The α1-containing receptors mediate sedative and anticonvulsant acts. The results of studies on oocytes show that PKA, NKCC1, P2X3 receptors, and GABA A receptor-associated protein, etc., are existing systems that show different reactivity to the GABA A receptors. The GABA A receptor subunits contain distinct binding sites for BZDs, neurosteroids, general anesthetics, etc., which are responsible for the numerous functions of the GABA A receptor. A variety of other drugs, such as topiramate, TG41, (+)- and (-)-borneol, apigenin, and 6-methylflavone could also have modulatory effects on the GABA A receptors. Some of the different models and hypotheses on GABA A receptor structure and function have been achieved by using the two-electrode voltage clamp method in oocytes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Xenopus laevis/growth & development
  19. Díaz S, Settele J, Brondízio ES, Ngo HT, Agard J, Arneth A, et al.
    Science, 2019 12 13;366(6471).
    PMID: 31831642 DOI: 10.1126/science.aax3100
    The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature's benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend-nature and its contributions to people-is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature's deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  20. Hussain H, Yusoff MK, Ramli MF, Abd Latif P, Juahir H, Zawawi MA
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2013 Nov 15;16(22):1524-30.
    PMID: 24511695
    Nitrate-nitrogen leaching from agricultural areas is a major cause for groundwater pollution. Polluted groundwater with high levels of nitrate is hazardous and cause adverse health effects. Human consumption of water with elevated levels of NO3-N has been linked to the infant disorder methemoglobinemia and also to non-Hodgkin's disease lymphoma in adults. This research aims to study the temporal patterns and source apportionment of nitrate-nitrogen leaching in a paddy soil at Ladang Merdeka Ismail Mulong in Kelantan, Malaysia. The complex data matrix (128 x 16) of nitrate-nitrogen parameters was subjected to multivariate analysis mainly Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Discriminant Analysis (DA). PCA extracted four principal components from this data set which explained 86.4% of the total variance. The most important contributors were soil physical properties confirmed using Alyuda Forecaster software (R2 = 0.98). Discriminant analysis was used to evaluate the temporal variation in soil nitrate-nitrogen on leaching process. Discriminant analysis gave four parameters (hydraulic head, evapotranspiration, rainfall and temperature) contributing more than 98% correct assignments in temporal analysis. DA allowed reduction in dimensionality of the large data set which defines the four operating parameters most efficient and economical to be monitored for temporal variations. This knowledge is important so as to protect the precious groundwater from contamination with nitrate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Oryza/growth & development*; Crops, Agricultural/growth & development*
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