Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1947 in total

  1. Azman Halimi R, Barkla BJ, Andrés-Hernandéz L, Mayes S, King GJ
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1495-1504.
    PMID: 31756768 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10157
    BACKGROUND: Food security is recognized as a major global challenge, yet human food-chain systems are inherently not geared towards nutrition, with decisions on crop and cultivar choice not informed by dietary composition. Currently, food compositional tables and databases (FCT/FCDB) are the primary information sources for decisions relating to dietary intake. However, these only present single mean values representing major components. Establishment of a systematic controlled vocabulary to fill this gap requires representation of a more complex set of semantic relationships between terms used to describe nutritional composition and dietary function.

    RESULTS: We carried out a survey of 11 FCT/FCDB and 177 peer-reviewed papers describing variation in nutritional composition and dietary function for food crops to identify a comprehensive set of terms to construct a controlled vocabulary. We used this information to generate a Crop Dietary Nutrition Data Framework (CDN-DF), which incorporates controlled vocabularies systematically organized into major classes representing nutritional components and dietary functions. We demonstrate the value of the CDN-DF for comparison of equivalent components between crop species or cultivars, for identifying data gaps and potential for formal meta-analysis. The CDN-DF also enabled us to explore relationships between nutritional components and the functional attributes of food.

    CONCLUSION: We have generated a structured crop dietary nutrition data framework, which is generally applicable to the collation and comparison of data relevant to crop researchers, breeders, and other stakeholders, and will facilitate dialogue with nutritionists. It is currently guiding the establishment of a more robust formal ontology. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Crops, Agricultural/growth & development
  2. Wang W, Zhou F, Chang Y, Cui J, He D, Du J, et al.
    Bull Environ Contam Toxicol, 2020 Mar;104(3):380-385.
    PMID: 31932904 DOI: 10.1007/s00128-020-02786-0
    In this study, three soil amendments (inorganic, liming, or organic-inorganic materials) were used in a Cd-contaminated purple field soil to investigate their impacts on soil Cd availability, enzyme (urease, catalase, sucrase, and acid phosphatase) activities, microbial biomass (carbon/nitrogen) and type (bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes) in mustard and corn trials. Results showed that soil amendments generally decreased soil exchangeable Cd, fungi and bacterial populations while increasing the activities of all the four soil enzymes tested, microbial biomass carbon and populations of actinomycetes (p  0.05) whereas stronger effects appeared in soil organic matter and available nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium; p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development; Fungi/growth & development
  3. Mancini MV, Herd CS, Ant TH, Murdochy SM, Sinkins SP
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2020 03;14(3):e0007926.
    PMID: 32155143 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0007926
    The global incidence of arboviral diseases transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, including dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever, and Zika, has increased dramatically in recent decades. The release of Aedes aegypti carrying the maternally inherited symbiont Wolbachia as an intervention to control arboviruses is being trialled in several countries. However, these efforts are compromised in many endemic regions due to the co-localization of the secondary vector Aedes albopictus, the Asian tiger mosquito. Ae. albopictus has an expanding global distribution following incursions into a number of new territories. To date, only the wMel and wPip strains of Wolbachia have been reported to be transferred into and characterized in this vector. A Wolbachia strain naturally infecting Drosophila simulans, wAu, was selected for transfer into a Malaysian Ae. albopictus line to create a novel triple-strain infection. The newly generated line showed self-compatibility, moderate fitness cost and complete resistance to Zika and dengue infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Arboviruses/growth & development*; Wolbachia/growth & development*
  4. Ganesh PS, Vishnupriya S, Vadivelu J, Mariappan V, Vellasamy KM, Shankar EM
    Microbiol. Immunol., 2020 Feb;64(2):87-98.
    PMID: 31769530 DOI: 10.1111/1348-0421.12762
    Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) are opportunistic pathogens implicated with nosocomial infections, and high rates of morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with cystic fibrosis (CF). B. cepacia are naturally resistant to different classes of antibiotics, and can subvert the host innate immune responses by producing quorum sensing (QS) controlled virulence factors and biofilms. It still remains a conundrum as to how exactly the bacterium survives the intracellular environment within the host cells of CF patients and immunocompromised individuals although the bacterium can invade human lung epithelial cells, neutrophils, and murine macrophages. The mechanisms associated with intracellular survival in the airway epithelial cells and the role of QS and virulence factors in B. cepacia infections in cystic fibrosis remain largely unclear. The current review focuses on understanding the role of QS-controlled virulence factors and biofilms, and provides additional impetus to understanding the potentials of QS-inhibitory strategies against B. cepacia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Burkholderia cepacia/growth & development
  5. Hulbert D, Raja Jamil RZ, Isaacs R, Vandervoort C, Erhardt S, Wise J
    Chemosphere, 2020 Feb;241:125091.
    PMID: 31683442 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125091
    Soil columns were collected from a blueberry field, and insecticide solutions were allowed to leach through these columns. Insecticides from four different chemical classes were applied at two different rates: the concentration at which the insecticides wash off blueberries under rainfall conditions and the labeled field rate at which they are sprayed. The soil columns were divided into thirds; top, middle and bottom. Soil bioassays using Eisenia foetida Savigny, as an indicator species, were set up to determine the toxicity of the insecticides at a top, middle and bottom layer of the soil column. The mass of E. foetida was also measured after the bioassay experiment was completed. The concentrations at which insecticides wash-off of blueberries from rainfall were not lethal to E. foetida. In order to support mortality data, insecticide residues were quantified in the soil layers for each insecticide. Under field rate leaching conditions, carbaryl showed the high levels of toxicity in the top and middle layers of soil suggesting that it has the highest risk to organisms from leaching. This study will help blueberry growers make informed decisions about insecticide use, which can help minimize contamination of the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Crops, Agricultural/growth & development; Blueberry Plant/growth & development*
  6. Matsui M, Nishikawa K, Eto K, Hossman MY
    Zool. Sci., 2020 Feb;37(1):91-101.
    PMID: 32068378 DOI: 10.2108/zs190078
    Two lineages of stream toads in the genus Ansonia from Malaysian Borneo have long been suspected to be specifically distinct on the basis of molecular data. We assessed the taxonomic status of these lineages using morphological and additional genetic data. In mtDNA phylogeny, each lineage-one from Bario, Kelabit Highlands of Sarawak, the other from Mt. Mulu of Sarawak and the Crocker Range of Sabah-is separated from other congeners by large genetic distances, comparable with those observed between heterospecific species in the genus. These lineages are also morphologically distinguishable from other species, and are considered to represent valid, independently evolving species. We therefore describe them as A. kelabitensis sp. nov. and A. kanak sp. nov.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bufonidae/growth & development
  7. Anne-Marie K, Yee W, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2020 Jan 07;36(1):17.
    PMID: 31912247 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-019-2790-y
    In this study, the effects of limited and excess nitrate on biomass, lipid production, and fatty acid profile in Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 were determined. The expression of fatty acid desaturase genes, namely stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD), omega-3 fatty acid desaturase isoform 1 (ω-3 FADi1), and omega-3 fatty acid desaturase isoform 2 (ω-3 FADi2) was also assessed. It was found that nitrate limitation generally increased the total oil, α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in M. gracile. The reduction of nitrate concentration from 1.76 to 0.11 mM increased the total oil content significantly from 32.5 to 41.85% (dry weight). Palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids as the predominant fatty acids in this microalgae constituted between 82 and 87% of the total oil content and were relatively consistent throughout all nitrate concentrations tested. The expression of SAD, ω-6 FAD, and ω-3 FADi2 genes increased under nitrate limitation, especially at 0.11 mM nitrate. The ω-3 FADi1 demonstrated a binary up-regulation pattern of expression under both nitrate-deficient (0.11 mM) and -excess (3.55 mM) conditions. Thus, findings from this study suggested that limited or excess nitrate could be used as part of a cultivation strategy to increase oil and PUFA content following media optimisation and more efficient culture methodology. Data obtained from the expression of desaturase genes would provide valuable insights into their roles under excess and limited nitrate conditions in M. gracile, potentially paving the way for future genetic modifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  8. Kord-Varkaneh H, Rinaldi G, Hekmatdoost A, Fatahi S, Tan SC, Shadnoush M, et al.
    Ageing Res. Rev., 2020 01;57:100996.
    PMID: 31816443 DOI: 10.1016/j.arr.2019.100996
    BACKGROUND: Inconsistencies exist with regard to influence of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels. The inconsistencies could be attributed to several factors, such as dosage and duration of intervention, among others. To address these inconsistencies, this study was conducted to determine the impact of vitamin D supplementation on IGF-1 levels through a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs).

    METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase for RCTs that investigated the impact of vitamin D intake on circulating IGF-1 levels from inception until June 2019. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95 % CI were applied for estimating combined effect size. Subgroup analysis was performed to specify the source of heterogeneity among studies.

    RESULTS: Pooled results from eight studies demonstrated an overall non-significant increase in IGF-1 following vitamin D supplementation (WMD: 4 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -4 to 11). However, a significant degree of heterogeneity among studies was observed (I2 = 66 %). The subgroup analyses showed that vitamin D dosage of ≤1000 IU/day (WMD: 10 ng/ml) significantly increased IGF-1 compared to the vitamin D dosage of <1000 IU/day (WMD: -1 ng/ml). Moreover, intervention duration ≤12 weeks (WMD: 11 ng/ml) significantly increased IGF-1 compared to intervention duration <12 weeks (WMD: -3 ng/ml). In the epidemiological cohort study, participants under 60 years of age with a higher dietary vitamin D intake had significantly higher IGF-1 levels when compared to those with lower dietary vitamin D intake in second categories.

    CONCLUSION: The main results indicate a non-significant increase in IGF-1 following vitamin D supplementation. Additionally, vitamin D dosages of <1000 IU/day and intervention durations of <12 weeks significantly raised IGF-1 levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/analysis*
  9. Chen JH, Wei D, Lim PE
    Bioresour. Technol., 2020 Jan;295:122242.
    PMID: 31629282 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122242
    Phytohormones comprise a variety of trace bioactive compounds that can stimulate cell growth and promote metabolic shifts. In the present work, a two-stage screening strategy was innovatively established to identify positive phytohormones for enhancement of astaxanthin and lipid coproduction in microplate-based cultures of mixotrophic Chromochloris zofingiensis. The results showed that auxins were the most efficient stimulators for astaxanthin accumulation. The maximum content of 13.1 mg/g and yield of 89.9 mg/L were obtained using indole propionic acid (10 mg/L) and indoleacetic acid (7.8 mg/L), representing the highest levels of astaxanthin in this microalga reported to date. Total lipids with the highest content (64.5% DW) and productivity (445.7 mg/L/d) were coproduced with astaxanthin using indoleacetic acid. Statistical analysis revealed close relations between phytohormones and astaxanthin and lipid biosynthesis. This study provides a novel original strategy for improving astaxanthin and lipid coproduction in C. zofingiensis using the selected phytohormones as positive stimulators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  10. Khew CY, Mori IC, Matsuura T, Hirayama T, Harikrishna JA, Lau ET, et al.
    J. Plant Res., 2020 Jan;133(1):73-94.
    PMID: 31853665 DOI: 10.1007/s10265-019-01156-0
    Black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) is one of the most popular and oldest spices in the world with culinary uses and various pharmacological properties. In order to satisfy the growing worldwide demand for black pepper, improved productivity of pepper is highly desirable. A primary constraint in black pepper production is the non-synchronous nature of flower development and non-uniform fruit ripening within a spike. The uneven ripening of pepper berries results in a high labour requirement for selective harvesting contributes to low productivity and affects the quality of the pepper products. In Malaysia, there are a few recommended varieties for black pepper planting, each having some limitations in addition to the useful characteristics. Therefore, a comparative study of different black pepper varieties will provide a better understanding of the mechanisms regulates fruit development and ripening. Plant hormones are known to influence the fruit development process and their roles in black pepper flower and fruit development were inferred based on the probe-based gene expression analysis and the quantification of the multiple plant hormones using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS). In this study, jasmonic acid and salicylic acid were found to play roles in flowering and fruit setting, whereas auxin, gibberellin and cytokinins are important for fruit growth. Abscisic acid has positive role in fruit maturation and ripening in the development process. Distinct pattern of plant hormones related gene expression profiles with the hormones accumulation profiles suggested a complex network of regulation is involved in the signaling process and crosstalk between plant hormones was another layer of regulation in the black pepper fruit development mechanisms. The current study provides clues to help in elucidating the timing of the action of each specific plant hormone during fruit development and ripening which could be applied to enhance our ability to control the ripening process, leading to improving procedures for the production and post-harvest handling of pepper fruits.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  11. Watts EL, Perez-Cornago A, Appleby PN, Albanes D, Ardanaz E, Black A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 12 15;145(12):3244-3256.
    PMID: 30873591 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32276
    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/blood*
  12. Díaz S, Settele J, Brondízio ES, Ngo HT, Agard J, Arneth A, et al.
    Science, 2019 12 13;366(6471).
    PMID: 31831642 DOI: 10.1126/science.aax3100
    The human impact on life on Earth has increased sharply since the 1970s, driven by the demands of a growing population with rising average per capita income. Nature is currently supplying more materials than ever before, but this has come at the high cost of unprecedented global declines in the extent and integrity of ecosystems, distinctness of local ecological communities, abundance and number of wild species, and the number of local domesticated varieties. Such changes reduce vital benefits that people receive from nature and threaten the quality of life of future generations. Both the benefits of an expanding economy and the costs of reducing nature's benefits are unequally distributed. The fabric of life on which we all depend-nature and its contributions to people-is unravelling rapidly. Despite the severity of the threats and lack of enough progress in tackling them to date, opportunities exist to change future trajectories through transformative action. Such action must begin immediately, however, and address the root economic, social, and technological causes of nature's deterioration.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  13. Lee WS, Tee CW, Tan AG, Wong SY, Chew KS, Cheang HK, et al.
    Pediatr Neonatol, 2019 12;60(6):676-683.
    PMID: 31056340 DOI: 10.1016/j.pedneo.2019.04.004
    BACKGROUND: Parents often express concerns about feeding difficulties in their child. We hypothesized that these parental concerns were associated with adverse growth status in early childhood. We aimed to determine the prevalence of such concerns and whether these concerns were associated with adverse growth status in early childhood.

    METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among healthy children aged 12-36 months attending three well-baby clinics in three urban areas in Malaysia and Singapore between December 2016 and February 2017. Parents were interviewed for concerns about their child's feeding and presence of behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. We defined growth faltering as weight-for-age < 3rd centile and short stature as height-for-age < 3rd centile according to World Health Organization Growth Standards.

    RESULTS: Of the 303 children studied (boys = 160, 52.8%; mean [± SD] chronological age at interview 21.3 [± 4.0] months), 13% (n = 38/292) had growth faltering and 19.5% (n = 50/256) had short stature. Overall, 36.3% (n = 110) of parents expressed concerns about their child's feeding behavior. Sixty-eight percent (n = 206) of parents reported presence of at least one behavioral and 18.5% (n = 56) had at least one organic red flag for feeding difficulties, respectively. 9.9% (n = 30) had both behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. Growth faltering was significantly associated with parental concern about feeding (odds ratio [OR] 3.049, p growth faltering in early childhood.

    Matched MeSH terms: Growth Disorders/etiology*
  14. Toh YS, Yeoh SL, Yap IKS, Teh CSJ, Win TT, Thong KL, et al.
    Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 2019 Dec;208(6):793-809.
    PMID: 31263955 DOI: 10.1007/s00430-019-00628-3
    Cholera is an acute diarrheal illness caused by the Gram-negative bacterium Vibrio cholerae. The pathogen is known for its ability to form biofilm that confers protection against harsh environmental condition and as part of the colonisation process during infection. Coaggregation is a process that facilitates the formation of biofilm. In a preliminary in vitro study, high coaggregation index and biofilm production were found between V. cholerae with human commensals namely Escherichia coli and Enterobacter cloacae. Building upon these results, the effects of coaggregation were further evaluated using adult BALB/c mouse model. The animal study showed no significant differences in mortality and fluid accumulation ratio between treatment groups infected with V. cholerae alone and those infected with coaggregation partnership (V. cholerae with E. coli or V. cholerae with E. cloacae). However, mild inflammation was detected in both partnering pairs. Higher density of V. cholerae was recovered from faecal samples of mice co-infected with E. coli and V. cholerae in comparison with other groups at 24 h post-infection. This partnership also elicited slightly higher levels of interleukin-5 (IL-5) and interleukin-10 (IL-10). Nonetheless, the involvement of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) as the signalling molecules in quorum sensing system is not evident in this study. Since E. coli is one of the common commensals, our result may suggest the involvement of commensals in cholera development.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development; Vibrio cholerae/growth & development*; Enterobacter cloacae/growth & development; Biofilms/growth & development*
  15. Shah FLA, Ramzi AB, Baharum SN, Noor NM, Goh HH, Leow TC, et al.
    Mol. Biol. Rep., 2019 Dec;46(6):6647-6659.
    PMID: 31535322 DOI: 10.1007/s11033-019-05066-1
    Flavonoids are polyphenols that are important organic chemicals in plants. The health benefits of flavonoids that result in high commercial values make them attractive targets for large-scale production through bioengineering. Strategies such as engineering a flavonoid biosynthetic pathway in microbial hosts provide an alternative way to produce these beneficial compounds. Escherichia coli, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Streptomyces sp. are among the expression systems used to produce recombinant products, as well as for the production of flavonoid compounds through various bioengineering approaches including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-based genome engineering and genetically encoded biosensors to detect flavonoid biosynthesis. In this study, we review the recent advances in engineering model microbial hosts as being the factory to produce targeted flavonoid compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development; Saccharomyces cerevisiae/growth & development; Streptomyces/growth & development
  16. Brennan M, Paterson L, Baharudin AAA, Stanisz-Migal M, Hoebe PN
    J. Plant Physiol., 2019 Dec;243:153054.
    PMID: 31648109 DOI: 10.1016/j.jplph.2019.153054
    Adhesion of the barley husk to the underlying caryopsis requires the development of a cuticular cementing layer on the caryopsis surface. Differences in adhesion quality among genotypes have previously been correlated with cementing layer composition, which is thought to influence caryopsis cuticle permeability, the hypothesised mechanism of adhesion mediation. It is not yet known whether differences in adhesion quality among genotypes are determined by changes in caryopsis cuticle permeability. We examined changes in candidate cementing layer biosynthetic and regulatory genes to investigate the genetic mechanisms behind husk adhesion quality. We used both commercially relevant UK malting cultivars and older European lines to ensure phenotypic diversity in adhesion quality. An ethylene responsive transcription factor (NUD) is required for the development of the cementing layer. To examine correlations between gene expression, cementing layer permeability and husk adhesion quality we also treated cultivars with ethephon (2-chloroethylphosphonic acid) which breaks down to ethylene, and silver thiosulphate which inhibits ethylene reception, and measured caryopsis cuticle permeability. Differential adhesion qualities among genotypes are not determined by NUD expression during development of the cementing material alone, but could result from differences in biosynthetic gene expression during cementing layer development in response to longer-term NUD expression patterns. Altered caryopsis cuticle permeability does result in altered adhesion quality, but the correlation is not consistently positive or negative. Cuticle permeability is therefore not the mechanism that determines husk adhesion quality, but is likely a consequence of the required cuticular compositional changes that determine adhesion.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology*
  17. Prabha R, Singh DP, Gupta S, Gupta VK, El-Enshasy HA, Verma MK
    Microorganisms, 2019 Nov 23;7(12).
    PMID: 31771141 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7120608
    Multifunctionalities linked with the microbial communities associated with the millet crop rhizosphere has remained unexplored. In this study, we are analyzing microbial communities inhabiting rhizosphere of kodo millet and their associated functions and its impact over plant growth and survival. Metagenomics of Paspalum scrobiculatum L.(kodo millet) rhizopshere revealed taxonomic communities with functional capabilities linked to support growth and development of the plants under nutrient-deprived, semi-arid and dry biotic conditions. Among 65 taxonomically diverse phyla identified in the rhizobiome, Actinobacteria were the most abundant followed by the Proteobacteria. Functions identified for different genes/proteins led to revelations that multifunctional rhizobiome performs several metabolic functions including carbon fixation, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and aromatic compound metabolism, stress response, secondary metabolite synthesis and virulence, disease, and defense. Abundance of genes linked with N, P, S, Fe and aromatic compound metabolism and phytohormone synthesis-along with other prominent functions-clearly justifies growth, development, and survival of the plants under nutrient deprived dry environment conditions. The dominance of actinobacteria, the known antibiotic producing communities shows that the kodo rhizobiome possesses metabolic capabilities to defend themselves against biotic stresses. The study opens avenues to revisit multi-functionalities of the crop rhizosphere for establishing link between taxonomic abundance and targeted functions that help plant growth and development in stressed and nutrient deprived soil conditions. It further helps in understanding the role of rhizosphere microbiome in adaptation and survival of plants in harsh abiotic conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  18. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P, Lakshmipriya T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Nov 19;9(1):17013.
    PMID: 31745155 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53573-9
    Lung cancer is one of the most serious threats to human where 85% of lethal death caused by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) induced by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. The present research focuses in the development of efficient and effortless EGFR mutant detection strategy through high-performance and sensitive genosensor. The current amplified through 250 µm sized fingers between 100 µm aluminium electrodes indicates the voltammetry signal generated by means of the mutant DNA sequence hybridization. To enhance the DNA immobilization and hybridization, ∼25 nm sized aluminosilicate nanocomposite synthesized from the disposed joss fly ash was deposited on the gaps between aluminium electrodes. The probe, mutant (complementary), and wild (single-base pair mismatch) targets were designed precisely from the genomic sequences denote the detection of EGFR mutation. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis was performed at every step of surface functionalization evidences the relevant chemical bonding of biomolecules on the genosensor as duplex DNA with peak response at 1150 cm-1 to 1650 cm-1. Genosensor depicts a sensitive EGFR mutation as it is able to detect apparently at 100 aM mutant against 1 µM DNA probe. The insignificant voltammetry signal generated with wild type strand emphasizes the specificity of genosensor in the detection of single base pair mismatch. The inefficiency of genosensor in detecting EGFR mutation in the absence of aluminosilicate nanocomposite implies the insensitivity of genosensing DNA hybridization and accentuates the significance of aluminosilicate. Based on the slope of the calibration curve, the attained sensitivity of aluminosilicate modified genosensor was 3.02E-4 A M-1. The detection limit of genosensor computed based on 3σ calculation, relative to the change of current proportional to the logarithm of mutant concentration is at 100 aM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  19. Zainab-L I, Sudesh K
    J. Biotechnol., 2019 Nov 10;305:35-42.
    PMID: 31493421 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.09.001
    The cost of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be reduced by improving their productivity and recovery. In this study, we attempted to obtain a high cell density culture from a 13 L bioreactor and subsequently improved the recently developed biological recovery process using mealworms to obtain the PHA granules. A cell dry weight of 161 g/L containing 68-70 wt% P(3HB) was obtained. The freeze-dried cells contained a significant amount of mineral salts from the culture medium which reduced the cells' palatability for the mealworms. A simple washing procedure with water was sufficient to remove the residual mineral salts and this improved the cells' consumption by up to 12.5% of the mealworms' body weight. As a result, one kilogram of mealworms consumed 125 g of the washed cells daily and 87.2 g of feacal pellets were recovered, which was almost twice the weight of the unwashed cells. In addition, it also improved the purity of the PHA in the faecal pellets to a value <90% upon washing with water to remove the water-soluble compounds. This study has demonstrated a significant improvement in the production and recovery of PHA. In addition, the resulting mealworms showed a significant increase in protein content up to 79% and a decrease in fat content down to 8.3% of its dry weight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tenebrio/growth & development*; Cupriavidus necator/growth & development*
  20. Teh CK, Lee HL, Abidin H, Ong AL, Mayes S, Chew FT, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2019 Nov 05;19(1):470.
    PMID: 31690276 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-019-2062-x
    BACKGROUND: Legitimacy in breeding and commercial crop production depends on optimised protocols to ensure purity of crosses and correct field planting of material. In oil palm, the presence of three fruit forms permits these assumptions to be tested, although only after field planting. The presence of incorrect fruit forms in a cross is a clear sign of illegitimacy. Given that tenera forms produce 30% more oil for the same weight of fruit as dura, the presence of low levels of dura contamination can have major effect during the economic lifespan of an oil palm, which is around 25 years. We evaluated two methods for legitimacy test 1) The use of SHELL markers to the gene that determines the shell-thickness trait 2) The use of SNP markers, to determine the legitimacy of the cross.

    RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Seeds/growth & development*; Arecaceae/growth & development*
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