Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1883 in total

  1. Aizat WM, Ahmad-Hashim FH, Syed Jaafar SN
    J Adv Res, 2019 Nov;20:61-70.
    PMID: 31210985 DOI: 10.1016/j.jare.2019.05.005
    One of the most prolific plants utilized in various applications is mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.). Rich in potent bioactive compounds, such as xanthones, mangosteen is known to possess pharmacologically important anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor properties. However, most previous reviews have only discussed the application of mangosteen in medicinal areas, yet more recent studies have diverged and valorized its usage in other scientific fields. In this review, the utilization of this exotic fruit in postharvest biology (phytohormone roles, metabolite profiling, bioactive compounds, isolation method optimization, chemical contaminant identification, and management of pests and fruit disorders), food science (food products, animal feed supplementation, and food shelf-life determination), and engineering fields (fabric and solar cell dyes, carbon dots, activated carbon, and biomedical advanced materials) is presented in detail. Research papers published from 2016 onward were selected and reviewed to show the recent research trends in these areas. In conclusion, mangosteen has been utilized for various purposes, ranging from usage in industrially important products to applications in advanced technologies and biomedical innovation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  2. Kandandapani S, Ridzwan NFW, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    PMID: 31552810 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1673210
    Tyrphostin 9 (Tyr 9) is a potent platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor, which induces apoptosis in various cancer cell types. The binding of Tyr 9 to the major transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using several spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking method. Fluorescence quenching titration results showed progressive decrease in the protein fluorescence with increasing drug concentrations. A decreasing trend of the Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv with increasing temperature characterized the drug-induced quenching as static quenching, thus pointed towards the formation of Tyr 9-HSA complex. The binding constant of Tyr 9-HSA interaction was found to lie within the range 3.48-1.69 × 105 M-1 at three different temperatures, i.e. 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively and suggested intermediate binding affinity between Tyr 9 and HSA. The drug-HSA complex seems to be stabilized by hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, as suggested from the thermodynamic data as well as molecular docking results. The far-UV and the near-UV CD spectral results showed slight alteration in the secondary and tertiary structures, respectively, of the protein upon Tyr 9 binding. Interaction of Tyr 9 with HSA also produced microenvironmental perturbations around protein fluorophores, as evident from the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results but increased protein's thermal stability. Both competitive drug binding results and molecular docking analysis suggested Sudlow's Site I of HSA as the preferred Tyr 9 binding site. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  3. Sartini C, Lomivorotov V, Pisano A, Riha H, Baiardo Redaelli M, Lopez-Delgado JC, et al.
    J. Cardiothorac. Vasc. Anesth., 2019 Oct;33(10):2685-2694.
    PMID: 31064730 DOI: 10.1053/j.jvca.2019.03.022
    OBJECTIVE: Reducing mortality is a key target in critical care and perioperative medicine. The authors aimed to identify all nonsurgical interventions (drugs, techniques, strategies) shown by randomized trials to increase mortality in these clinical settings.

    DESIGN: A systematic review of the literature followed by a consensus-based voting process.

    SETTING: A web-based international consensus conference.

    PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred fifty-one physicians from 46 countries.

    INTERVENTIONS: The authors performed a systematic literature search and identified all randomized controlled trials (RCTs) showing a significant increase in unadjusted landmark mortality among surgical or critically ill patients. The authors reviewed such studies during a meeting by a core group of experts. Studies selected after such review advanced to web-based voting by clinicians in relation to agreement, clinical practice, and willingness to include each intervention in international guidelines.

    MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The authors selected 12 RCTs dealing with 12 interventions increasing mortality: diaspirin-crosslinked hemoglobin (92% of agreement among web voters), overfeeding, nitric oxide synthase inhibitor in septic shock, human growth hormone, thyroxin in acute kidney injury, intravenous salbutamol in acute respiratory distress syndrome, plasma-derived protein C concentrate, aprotinin in high-risk cardiac surgery, cysteine prodrug, hypothermia in meningitis, methylprednisolone in traumatic brain injury, and albumin in traumatic brain injury (72% of agreement). Overall, a high consistency (ranging from 80% to 90%) between agreement and clinical practice was observed.

    CONCLUSION: The authors identified 12 clinical interventions showing increased mortality supported by randomized controlled trials with nonconflicting evidence, and wide agreement upon clinicians on a global scale.

    Matched MeSH terms: Growth Hormone; Human Growth Hormone
  4. Wen Jun L, Pit Foong C, Abd Hamid R
    Biomed. Pharmacother., 2019 Oct;118:109221.
    PMID: 31545225 DOI: 10.1016/j.biopha.2019.109221
    Ardisia crispa Thunb. A. DC. (Primulaceae) has been used extensively as folk-lore medicine in South East Asia including China and Japan to treat various inflammatory related diseases. Ardisia crispa root hexane fraction (ACRH) has been thoroughly studied by our group and it has been shown to exhibit anti-inflammatory, anti-hyperalgesic, anti-arthritic, anti-ulcer, chemoprevention and suppression against inflammation-induced angiogenesis in various animal model. Nevertheless, its effect against human endothelial cells in vitro has not been reported yet. Hence, the aim of the study is to investigate the potential antiangiogenic property of ACRH in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and zebrafish embryo model. ACRH was separated from the crude ethanolic extract of the plant's root in prior to experimental studies. MTT assay revealed that ACRH exerted a concentration-dependent antiproliferative effect on HUVEC with the IC50 of 2.49 ± 0.04 μg/mL. At higher concentration (10 μg/mL), apoptosis was induced without affecting the cell cycle distribution. Angiogenic properties including migration, invasion and differentiation of HUVECs, evaluated via wound healing, trans-well invasion and tube formation assay respectively, were significantly suppressed by ACRH in a concentration-dependent manner. Noteworthily, significant antiangiogenic effects were observed even at the lowest concentration used (0.1 μg/mL). Expression of proMMP-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, VEGF-D, Angiopoietin-2, fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-1, FGF-2, Follistatin, and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) were significantly reduced in various degrees by ACRH. The ISV formation in zebrafish embryo was significantly suppressed by ACRH at the concentration of 5 μg/mL. These findings revealed the potential of ACRH as antiangiogenic agent by suppressing multiple proangiogenic proteins. Thus, it can be further verified via the transcription of these proteins from their respective DNA, in elucidating their exact pathways.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibroblast Growth Factors; Fibroblast Growth Factor 1; Fibroblast Growth Factor 2; Hepatocyte Growth Factor; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor C; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor D
  5. Wang Y, Bi L, Liao Y, Lu D, Zhang H, Liao X, et al.
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2019 Sep 30;180:80-87.
    PMID: 31078019 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.066
    Ammonia emissions is an important issue during composting because it can cause secondary pollution and a significant of nitrogen loss. Based on research adding Bacillus stearothermophilus can reduce ammonia emissions during composting because it can use sugar in organic matter fermentation to produce organic acids over 50 °C. This study conducted the batch experiments by adding different concentrations of Bacillus stearothermophilus to reduce the ammonia emissions and find out its characteristic during layer manure composting by using an aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as a bulking agent. The results show that the application of Bacillus stearothermophilus can accelerate the rate of temperature and significantly decrease pH, the warming period was 2 days in the treatment with Bacillus stearothermophilus, while it was 4 days in the treatment without Bacillus stearothermophilus. Ammonia emissions were mainly occurred in warming and high temperature period during composting. The ammonia emissions in the treatment with 8.00 g/kg initial Bacillus stearothermophilus were significantly lower than the other lower Bacillus stearothermophilus treatment and control during composting (p  0.05). MiSeq System Sequencing results find that the addition of Bacillus stearothermophilus changed the bacterial community structure under warming and high-temperature periods during composting, increased the relative abundance of lactic acid bacillus and nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the reason for the low ammonia emission in 8.00 g/kg initial Bacillus stearothermophilus treatments might be not only due to the Bacillus stearothermophilus itself, but also Bacillus stearothermophilus can change the indigenous microorganism community, including increase the relative content of lactic acid Bacillus and nitrification bacteria, thus reducing the pH and promoting nitrification, and reducing ammonia emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Geobacillus stearothermophilus/growth & development*
  6. Wong MY, Govender NT, Ong CS
    BMC Res Notes, 2019 Sep 24;12(1):631.
    PMID: 31551084 DOI: 10.1186/s13104-019-4652-y
    OBJECTIVE: Basal stem rot disease causes severe economic losses to oil palm production in South-east Asia and little is known on the pathogenicity of the pathogen, the basidiomyceteous Ganoderma boninense. Our data presented here aims to identify both the house-keeping and pathogenicity genes of G. boninense using Illumina sequencing reads.

    DESCRIPTION: The hemibiotroph G. boninense establishes via root contact during early stage of colonization and subsequently kills the host tissue as the disease progresses. Information on the pathogenicity factors/genes that causes BSR remain poorly understood. In addition, the molecular expressions corresponding to G. boninense growth and pathogenicity are not reported. Here, six transcriptome datasets of G. boninense from two contrasting conditions (three biological replicates per condition) are presented. The first datasets, collected from a 7-day-old axenic condition provide an insight onto genes responsible for sustenance, growth and development of G. boninense while datasets of the infecting G. boninense collected from oil palm-G. boninense pathosystem (in planta condition) at 1 month post-inoculation offer a comprehensive avenue to understand G. boninense pathogenesis and infection especially in regard to molecular mechanisms and pathways. Raw sequences deposited in Sequence Read Archive (SRA) are available at NCBI SRA portal with PRJNA514399, bioproject ID.

    Matched MeSH terms: Growth and Development
  7. Hotez PJ
    Acta Trop., 2019 Sep 21.
    PMID: 31550453 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2019.105182
    While the East Asia Pacific (EAP) region has experienced tremendous economic growth and development, the resulting public health gains from reductions in its neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) have been less than expected due to opposing forces of urbanization, political instability, food insecurity, and climate change, together with co-morbidities with non-communicable diseases, including diabetes and hypertension. To be sure there's been progress towards the elimination of lymphatic filariasis and trachoma through mass drug administration, and there are opportunities to extend MDA to yaws and scabies, but for most of the other NTDs we'll require new biotechnologies. So far, EAP's major technology hubs in China, Japan, Malaysia, Singapore, South Korea, and Taiwan have mostly failed to shift their attention towards new innovations for the NTDs, including new drugs, diagnostics, and vaccines, and vector control. Unless this situation changes the EAP could be facing a new grim reality of unhealthy megacities beset by emerging arbovirus infections, widespread antimicrobial resistance, and urban helminth infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth and Development
  8. Chai AWY, Lim KP, Cheong SC
    Semin. Cancer Biol., 2019 Sep 19.
    PMID: 31542510 DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.09.011
    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are a heterogeneous group of cancers arising from the mucosal lining of the oral cavity. A majority of these cancers are associated with lifestyle risk habits including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing. Cetuximab, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor was approved for the treatment of OSCC in 2006, and remains the only molecular targeted therapy available for OSCC. Here, we reviewed the current findings from genomic analyses of OSCC and discuss how these studies inform on the biological mechanisms underlying OSCC. Exome sequencing revealed that the significantly mutated genes are mainly tumour suppressors. Mutations in FAT1, CASP8, CDKN2A, and NOTCH1 are more frequently found in OSCC when compared to non-OSCC head and neck cancers and other squamous cell carcinomas, and HRAS and PIK3CA are the only significantly mutated oncogenes. The distribution of these mutations also differs in populations with distinct risk habits. Gene expression-based molecular classification showed that OSCC can be divided into distinct subtypes and these have a preferential response to different types of therapies, suggesting that these classifications could have clinical implications. More recently, with the approval of checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of cancers including OSCC, genomics studies also dissected the genetic signatures of the immune compartment to delineate immune-active and -exhausted subtypes that could inform on the immune status of OSCC patients and guide the development of novel therapies to improve response to immunotherapy. Taken together, genomics studies are informing on the biology of both the epithelial and stromal compartments underlying OSCC development, and we discuss the opportunities and challenges in using these to derive clinical benefit for OSCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  9. Rupani PF, Delarestaghi RM, Abbaspour M, Rupani MM, El-Mesery HS, Shao W
    PMID: 31520387 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-06456-5
    By growing urban population, Iran faces numerous environmental issues and solid waste management is on the top of these problems. Studies showed that a daily average of 700-1000 g of wastes are produced per person in Iran, in which organic waste accounts for a significant amount. On the other hand, hospital waste represents a part of the wastes, which need careful consideration from the environmental point of view. In the present study, the amount, composition, and management of urban and hospital wastes were evaluated in 7 Iranian metropolises, which account for about 30% of the population and produce about 35% of the country wastes. Based on prior surveys, landfill method is the current main method for waste management in these cities, which is generally not completely sanitary and therefore causes many environmental problems. The other common methods for waste management in these cities are composting of organic wastes, and the use of waste conversion methods to energy. However, the latter is ongoing only in Tehran which also includes some limitations. Therefore, the study also evaluated the future perspectives and feasibility of waste-to-energy conversion as a promising economic route for waste disposal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  10. Wang N, Dang M, Zhang W, Lei Y, Liu Z
    Scand. J. Immunol., 2019 Sep 12.
    PMID: 31514240 DOI: 10.1111/sji.12826
    Heart failure (HF) is a serious disease syndrome characterized by elevated pro-inflammatory cytokines and inflammatory mediators presume to have significant contribution on disease progression. Galectins are carbohydrate binding proteins responsible of various physiological functions. Role of galectins in heart failure has been ill defined. In the present case-controls study, 136 patients clinically diagnosed with heart failure and 125 healthy Chinese controls were recruited. Levels of galectins (Gal-1, 3 and 9) and cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-4 and TGF-β) were quantified by ELISA. Increased levels of galectin-1 and 3 was observed in HF patients and associated with clinical severity. In addition, proinflammatory cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-17A were increased in patients whereas, anti-inflammatory TGFβ was decreased. Galectin-3 was positively correlated with IFN-γ, IL-17A and inversely with TGF-β. Furthermore, ROC curve analysis suggested galectin-3 as a promising biomarker for diagnosis and HF and clinical severity. Interestingly, a two year follow up indicated significant association of elevated galectin-3 with mortality due to HF. In conclusion, galectin-3 associated with HF and clinical manifestations possibly by inducing proinflammatory cytokines and could be a possible biomarker of HF and severe clinical conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta
  11. Ho GF, Chai CS, Alip A, Wahid MIA, Abdullah MM, Foo YC, et al.
    BMC Cancer, 2019 Sep 09;19(1):896.
    PMID: 31500587 DOI: 10.1186/s12885-019-6107-1
    BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy, side-effects and resistance mechanisms of first-line afatinib in a real-world setting.

    METHODS: This is a multicenter observational study of first-line afatinib in Malaysian patients with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients' demographic, clinical and treatment data, as well as resistance mechanisms to afatinib were retrospectively captured. The statistical methods included Chi-squared test and independent t-test for variables, Kaplan-Meier curve and log-rank test for survival, and Cox regression model for multivariate analysis.

    RESULTS: Eighty-five patients on first-line afatinib from 1st October 2014 to 30th April 2018 were eligible for the study. EGFR mutations detected in tumors included exon 19 deletion in 80.0%, exon 21 L858R point mutation in 12.9%, and rare or complex EGFR mutations in 7.1% of patients. Among these patients, 18.8% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 2-4, 29.4% had symptomatic brain metastases and 17.6% had abnormal organ function. Afatinib 40 mg or 30 mg once daily were the most common starting and maintenance doses. Only one-tenth of patients experienced severe side-effects with none having grade 4 toxicities. The objective response rate was 76.5% while the disease control rate was 95.3%. At the time of analysis, 56 (65.9%) patients had progression of disease (PD) with a median progression-free survival (mPFS) of 14.2 months (95% CI, 11.85-16.55 months). Only 12.5% of the progressed patients developed new symptomatic brain metastases. The overall survival (OS) data was not mature. Thirty-three (38.8%) patients had died with a median OS of 28.9 months (95% CI, 19.82-37.99 months). The median follow-up period for the survivors was 20.0 months (95% CI, 17.49-22.51 months). Of patients with PD while on afatinib, 55.3% were investigated for resistance mechanisms with exon 20 T790 M mutation detected in 42.0% of them.

    CONCLUSIONS: Afatinib is an effective first-line treatment for patients with EGFR-mutant advanced NSCLC with a good response rate and long survival, even in patients with unfavorable clinical characteristics. The side-effects of afatinib were manageable and T790 M mutation was the most common resistance mechanism causing treatment failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  12. Wong SK, Chin KY, Ima-Nirwana S
    Int J Environ Res Public Health, 2019 Sep 09;16(18).
    PMID: 31505801 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16183313
    A positive association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and osteoporosis has been demonstrated in previous animal studies. The mechanisms of MetS in orchestrating the bone remodelling process have traditionally focused on the interactions between mature osteoblasts and osteoclasts, while the role of osteocytes is unexplored. Our earlier studies demonstrated the bone-promoting effects of tocotrienol using a rat model of osteoporosis induced by MetS. This study aimed to investigate the expression of osteocyte-derived peptides in the bone of rats with MetS-induced osteoporosis treated with tocotrienol. Age-matched male Wistar rats (12-week-old; n = 42) were divided into seven experimental groups. Two groups served as the baseline and normal group, respectively. The other five groups were fed with a high-carbohydrate high-fat (HCHF) diet to induce MetS. The five groups of HCHF animals were treated with tocopherol-stripped corn oil (vehicle), annatto tocotrienol (60 and 100 mg/kg), and palm tocotrienol (60 and 100 mg/kg) starting from week 8. At the end of the study, the rats were sacrificed and their right tibias were harvested. Protein was extracted from the metaphyseal region of the proximal right tibia and levels of bone peptides, including osteoprotegerin (OPG), soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (sRANKL), sclerostin (SOST), Dickkopf-related protein 1 (DKK-1), fibroblast growth factor-23 (FGF-23), and parathyroid hormone (PTH), were measured. The vehicle-treated animals displayed higher levels of sRANKL, SOST, DKK-1, FGF-23, and PTH as compared to the normal animals. Oral supplementation of annatto and palm tocotrienol (60 and 100 mg/kg) reduced the levels of sRANKL and FGF-23 in the HCHF animals. Only 100 mg/kg annatto and palm tocotrienol lowered SOST and DKK-1 levels in the HCHF animals. In conclusion, tocotrienol exerts potential skeletal-promoting benefit by modulating the levels of osteocytes-derived bone-related peptides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fibroblast Growth Factors
  13. Chan SJ, Niu W, Hayakawa K, Hamanaka G, Wang X, Cheah PS, et al.
    Stem Cells Transl Med, 2019 Sep 04.
    PMID: 31483567 DOI: 10.1002/sctm.19-0159
    Biomaterials provide novel platforms to deliver stem cell and growth factor therapies for central nervous system (CNS) repair. The majority of these approaches have focused on the promotion of neural progenitor cells and neurogenesis. However, it is now increasingly recognized that glial responses are critical for recovery in the entire neurovascular unit. In this study, we investigated the cellular effects of epidermal growth factor (EGF) containing hydrogels on primary astrocyte cultures. Both EGF alone and EGF-hydrogel equally promoted astrocyte proliferation, but EGF-hydrogels further enhanced astrocyte activation, as evidenced by a significantly elevated Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) gene expression. Thereafter, conditioned media from astrocytes activated by EGF-hydrogel protected neurons against injury and promoted synaptic plasticity after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Taken together, these findings suggest that EGF-hydrogels can shift astrocytes into neuro-supportive phenotypes. Consistent with this idea, quantitative-polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) demonstrated that EGF-hydrogels shifted astrocytes in part by downregulating potentially negative A1-like genes (Fbln5 and Rt1-S3) and upregulating potentially beneficial A2-like genes (Clcf1, Tgm1, and Ptgs2). Further studies are warranted to explore the idea of using biomaterials to modify astrocyte behavior and thus indirectly augment neuroprotection and neuroplasticity in the context of stem cell and growth factor therapies for the CNS. Stem Cells Translational Medicine 2019.
    Matched MeSH terms: Epidermal Growth Factor
  14. Izuddin WI, Loh TC, Samsudin AA, Foo HL, Humam AM, Shazali N
    BMC Vet. Res., 2019 Sep 02;15(1):315.
    PMID: 31477098 DOI: 10.1186/s12917-019-2064-9
    BACKGROUND: Postbiotics have been established as potential feed additive to be used in monogastric such as poultry and swine to enhance health and growth performance. However, information on the postbiotics as feed additive in ruminants is very limited. The aim of this study was to elucidate the effects of supplementation of postbiotics in newly-weaned lambs on growth performance, digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics and microbial population, blood metabolite and expression of genes related to growth and volatile fatty acid transport across the rumen epithelium.

    RESULTS: Postbiotic supplementation increased weight gain, feed intake, nutrient intake and nutrient digestibility of the lambs. No effect on ruminal pH and total VFA, whereas butyrate and ruminal ammonia-N concentration were improved. The lambs fed with postbiotics had higher blood total protein, urea nitrogen and glucose. However, no difference was observed in blood triglycerides and cholesterol levels. Postbiotics increased the population of fibre degrading bacteria but decreased total protozoa and methanogens in rumen. Postbiotics increased the mRNA expression of hepatic IGF-1 and ruminal MCT-1.

    CONCLUSIONS: The inclusion of postbiotics from L. plantarum RG14 in newly-weaned lambs improved growth performance, nutrient intake and nutrient digestibility reflected from better rumen fermentation and microbial parameters, blood metabolites and upregulation of growth and nutrient intake genes in the post-weaning lambs.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  15. Tanzi AS, Eagleton GE, Ho WK, Wong QN, Mayes S, Massawe F
    Planta, 2019 Sep;250(3):911-931.
    PMID: 30911885 DOI: 10.1007/s00425-019-03141-2
    MAIN CONCLUSION: Winged bean is popularly known as "One Species Supermarket" for its nutrient-dense green pods, immature seeds, tubers, leaves, and mature seeds. This underutilised crop has potential beneficial traits related to its biological nitrogen-fixation to support low-input farming. Drawing from past knowledge, and based on current technologies, we propose a roadmap for research and development of winged bean for sustainable food systems. Reliance on a handful of "major" crops has led to decreased diversity in crop species, agricultural systems and human diets. To reverse this trend, we need to encourage the greater use of minor, "orphan", underutilised species. These could contribute to an increase in crop diversity within agricultural systems, to improve human diets, and to support more sustainable and resilient food production systems. Among these underutilised species, winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) has long been proposed as a crop for expanded use particularly in the humid tropics. It is an herbaceous perennial legume of equatorial environments and has been identified as a rich source of protein, with most parts of the plant being edible when appropriately prepared. However, to date, limited progress in structured improvement programmes has restricted the expansion of winged bean beyond its traditional confines. In this paper, we discuss the reasons for this and recommend approaches for better use of its genetic resources and related Psophocarpus species in developing improved varieties. We review studies on the growth, phenology, nodulation and nitrogen-fixation activity, breeding programmes, and molecular analyses. We then discuss prospects for the crop based on the greater understanding that these studies have provided and considering modern plant-breeding technologies and approaches. We propose a more targeted and structured research approach to fulfil the potential of winged bean to contribute to food security.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fabaceae/growth & development*; Crops, Agricultural/growth & development*
  16. Darling ES, McClanahan TR, Maina J, Gurney GG, Graham NAJ, Januchowski-Hartley F, et al.
    Nat Ecol Evol, 2019 Sep;3(9):1341-1350.
    PMID: 31406279 DOI: 10.1038/s41559-019-0953-8
    Without drastic efforts to reduce carbon emissions and mitigate globalized stressors, tropical coral reefs are in jeopardy. Strategic conservation and management requires identification of the environmental and socioeconomic factors driving the persistence of scleractinian coral assemblages-the foundation species of coral reef ecosystems. Here, we compiled coral abundance data from 2,584 Indo-Pacific reefs to evaluate the influence of 21 climate, social and environmental drivers on the ecology of reef coral assemblages. Higher abundances of framework-building corals were typically associated with: weaker thermal disturbances and longer intervals for potential recovery; slower human population growth; reduced access by human settlements and markets; and less nearby agriculture. We therefore propose a framework of three management strategies (protect, recover or transform) by considering: (1) if reefs were above or below a proposed threshold of >10% cover of the coral taxa important for structural complexity and carbonate production; and (2) reef exposure to severe thermal stress during the 2014-2017 global coral bleaching event. Our findings can guide urgent management efforts for coral reefs, by identifying key threats across multiple scales and strategic policy priorities that might sustain a network of functioning reefs in the Indo-Pacific to avoid ecosystem collapse.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  17. Tan CH, Wong KY, Chong HP, Tan NH, Tan KY
    J Proteomics, 2019 Aug 30;206:103418.
    PMID: 31201947 DOI: 10.1016/j.jprot.2019.103418
    The Philippine cobra, Naja philippinensis, is a WHO Category 1 venomous snake of medical importance responsible for fatal envenomation in the northern Philippines. To elucidate the venom proteome and pathophysiology of envenomation, N. philippinensis venom proteins were decomplexed with reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and protein fractions were subsequently digested with trypsin, followed by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis and data mining. Three-finger toxins (3FTX, 66.64% of total venom proteins) and phospholipases A2 (PLA2, 22.88%) constitute the main bulk of venom proteome. Other proteins are present at low abundances (<4% each); these include metalloproteinase, serine protease, cobra venom factor, cysteine-rich secretory protein, vespryn, phosphodiesterase, 5' nucleotidase and nerve growth factor. In the three-finger toxin family, the alpha-neurotoxins comprise solely short neurotoxins (SNTX, 44.55%), supporting that SNTX is the principal toxin responsible for neuromuscular paralysis and lethality reported in clinical envenomation. Cytotoxins (CTX) are the second most abundant 3FTX proteins in the venom (21.31%). The presence of CTX correlates with the venom cytotoxic effect, which is more prominent in murine cells than in human cells. From the practical standpoint, SNTX-driven neuromuscular paralysis is significant in N. philippinensis envenomation. Antivenom production and treatment should be tailored accordingly to ensure effective neutralization of SNTX. BIOLOGICAL SIGNIFICANCE: The venom proteome of Naja philippinensis, the Philippine cobra, is unravelled for the first time. Approximately half the protein bulk of the venom is made up of short neurotoxins (44.55% of the total venom proteins). As the only alpha-neurotoxins present in the venom, short neurotoxins are the causative toxins of the post-synaptic blockade and fast-onset neuromuscular paralysis in N. philippinensis envenomation. A substantial amount of cytotoxins (21.31%) was also detected in N. philippinensis venom, supporting that the venom can be cytotoxic although the effect is much weaker in human cells compared to murine cells. The finding is consistent with the low incidence of local tissue necrosis in N. philippinensis envenomation, although this does not negate the need for monitoring and care of bite wound in the patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Nerve Growth Factor
  18. Hii KS, Lim PT, Kon NF, Usup G, Gu H, Leaw CP
    Gene, 2019 Aug 30;711:143950.
    PMID: 31255736 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2019.143950
    The marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium minutum is known to produce saxitoxins that cause paralytic shellfish poisoning in human worldwide through consumption of the contaminated shellfish mollusks. Despite numerous studies on the growth physiology and saxitoxin production of this species, the knowledge on the molecular basis of nutrient uptakes in relation to toxin production in this species is limited. In this study, relative expressions of the high-affinity transporter genes of nitrate, ammonium, and phosphate (AmNrt2, AmAmt1 and AmPiPT1) and the assimilation genes, nitrate reductase (AmNas), glutamine synthase (AmGSIII) and carbamoyl phosphate synthase (AmCPSII) from A. minutum were studied in batch clonal culture condition with two nitrogen sources (nitrate: NO3- or ammonium: NH4+) under different N:P ratios (high-P: N:P of 14 and 16, and low-P: N:P of 155). The expression of AmAmt1 was suppressed in excess NH4+-grown condition but was not observed in AmNrt2 and AmNas. Expressions of AmAmt1, AmNrt2, AmNas, AmGSIII, AmCPSII, and AmPiPT1 were high in P-deficient condition, showing that A. minutum is likely to take up nutrients for growth under P-stress condition. Conversely, relative expression of AmCPSII was incongruent with cell growth, but was well correlated with toxin quota, suggesting that the gene might involve in arginine metabolism and related toxin production pathway. The expression of AmGSIII is found coincided with higher toxin production and is believed to involve in mechanism to detoxify the cells from excess ammonium stress. The gene regulation observed in this study has provided better insights into the ecophysiology of A. minutum in relation to its adaptive strategies in unfavorable environments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dinoflagellida/growth & development*
  19. Gray JE, Okamoto I, Sriuranpong V, Vansteenkiste JF, Imamura F, Lee JS, et al.
    Clin. Cancer Res., 2019 Aug 22.
    PMID: 31439584 DOI: 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-19-1126
    PURPOSE: To assess the utility of the cobas® EGFR Mutation Test, with tissue and plasma, for first-line osimertinib therapy for patients with EGFR-mutated (EGFRm) (Ex19del and/or L858R) advanced or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) from the FLAURA study (NCT02296125).

    EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Tumor tissue EGFRm status was determined at screening using the central cobas tissue test or a local tissue test. Baseline circulating tumor (ct)DNA EGFRm status was retrospectively determined with the central cobas plasma test.

    RESULTS: f 994 patients screened, 556 were randomized (289 and 267 with central and local EGFR test results, respectively) and 438 failed screening. Of those randomized from local EGFR test results, 217 patients had available central test results; 211/217 (97%) were retrospectively confirmed EGFRm positive by central cobas tissue test. Using reference central cobas tissue test results, positive percent agreements with cobas plasma test results for Ex19del and L858R detection were: 79% (95% CI, 74-84) and 68% (95% CI, 61-75), respectively. Progression-free survival (PFS) superiority with osimertinib over comparator EGFR-TKI remained consistent irrespective of randomization route (central/local EGFRm positive tissue test). In both treatment arms, PFS was prolonged in plasma ctDNA EGFRm negative (23.5 and 15.0 months,) vs positive patients (15.2 and 9.7 months).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our results support utility of cobas tissue and plasma testing to aid selection of patients with EGFRm advanced NSCLC for first-line osimertinib treatment. Lack of EGFRm detection in plasma was associated with prolonged PFS vs patients plasma EGFRm positive, potentially due to patients having lower tumor burden.

    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  20. Tang ELH, Tan NH, Fung SY, Tan CH
    Toxicon, 2019 Aug 22;169:91-102.
    PMID: 31445943 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.08.004
    The intraspecific geographical venom variations of Calloselasma rhodostoma from Malaysia (CR-M), Indonesia (CR-I), Thailand (CR-T) and Vietnam (CR-V) were investigated through 1D SDS-PAGE and nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. The venom antigenicity, procoagulant activities and neutralization using Thai C. rhodostoma Monovalent Antivenom (CRMAV) were also investigated. SDS-PAGE patterns of the venoms were relatively similar with minor variations. Proteomic analysis revealed that snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs, particularly P-I class), serine proteases (SVSPs) and snaclecs dominated the venom protein composition (68.96-81.80%), followed by L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (7.37-11.08% and 5.18-13.81%, respectively), corroborating C. rhodostoma envenoming effects (hemorrhage, consumptive coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and local tissue necrosis). Other proteins of lower abundances (2.82-9.13%) identified include cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), phospholipase B, phosphodiesterase, nerve growth factor, 5'-nucleotidase, aminopeptidase and hyaluronidase. All four venoms exhibited strong procoagulant effects which were neutralized by CRMAV to different extents. CRMAV immunoreactivity was high toward venoms of CR-M, CR-I and CR-T but relatively low for CR-V venom. Among the venom samples from different locales, CR-V venom proteome has the smallest SVMP composition while SVSP, PLA2 and phosphodiesterase were more abundant in the venom. These variations in C. rhodostoma venom protein composition could partly explain the differences seen in immunoreactivity. (198 words).
    Matched MeSH terms: Nerve Growth Factor
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