Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1924 in total

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  1. Azman Halimi R, Barkla BJ, Andrés-Hernandéz L, Mayes S, King GJ
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2020 Mar 15;100(4):1495-1504.
    PMID: 31756768 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.10157
    BACKGROUND: Food security is recognized as a major global challenge, yet human food-chain systems are inherently not geared towards nutrition, with decisions on crop and cultivar choice not informed by dietary composition. Currently, food compositional tables and databases (FCT/FCDB) are the primary information sources for decisions relating to dietary intake. However, these only present single mean values representing major components. Establishment of a systematic controlled vocabulary to fill this gap requires representation of a more complex set of semantic relationships between terms used to describe nutritional composition and dietary function.

    RESULTS: We carried out a survey of 11 FCT/FCDB and 177 peer-reviewed papers describing variation in nutritional composition and dietary function for food crops to identify a comprehensive set of terms to construct a controlled vocabulary. We used this information to generate a Crop Dietary Nutrition Data Framework (CDN-DF), which incorporates controlled vocabularies systematically organized into major classes representing nutritional components and dietary functions. We demonstrate the value of the CDN-DF for comparison of equivalent components between crop species or cultivars, for identifying data gaps and potential for formal meta-analysis. The CDN-DF also enabled us to explore relationships between nutritional components and the functional attributes of food.

    CONCLUSION: We have generated a structured crop dietary nutrition data framework, which is generally applicable to the collation and comparison of data relevant to crop researchers, breeders, and other stakeholders, and will facilitate dialogue with nutritionists. It is currently guiding the establishment of a more robust formal ontology. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Crops, Agricultural/growth & development
  2. Hulbert D, Raja Jamil RZ, Isaacs R, Vandervoort C, Erhardt S, Wise J
    Chemosphere, 2020 Feb;241:125091.
    PMID: 31683442 DOI: 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2019.125091
    Soil columns were collected from a blueberry field, and insecticide solutions were allowed to leach through these columns. Insecticides from four different chemical classes were applied at two different rates: the concentration at which the insecticides wash off blueberries under rainfall conditions and the labeled field rate at which they are sprayed. The soil columns were divided into thirds; top, middle and bottom. Soil bioassays using Eisenia foetida Savigny, as an indicator species, were set up to determine the toxicity of the insecticides at a top, middle and bottom layer of the soil column. The mass of E. foetida was also measured after the bioassay experiment was completed. The concentrations at which insecticides wash-off of blueberries from rainfall were not lethal to E. foetida. In order to support mortality data, insecticide residues were quantified in the soil layers for each insecticide. Under field rate leaching conditions, carbaryl showed the high levels of toxicity in the top and middle layers of soil suggesting that it has the highest risk to organisms from leaching. This study will help blueberry growers make informed decisions about insecticide use, which can help minimize contamination of the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Crops, Agricultural/growth & development; Blueberry Plant/growth & development*
  3. Anne-Marie K, Yee W, Loh SH, Aziz A, Cha TS
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2020 Jan 07;36(1):17.
    PMID: 31912247 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-019-2790-y
    In this study, the effects of limited and excess nitrate on biomass, lipid production, and fatty acid profile in Messastrum gracile SE-MC4 were determined. The expression of fatty acid desaturase genes, namely stearoyl-ACP desaturase (SAD), omega-6 fatty acid desaturase (ω-6 FAD), omega-3 fatty acid desaturase isoform 1 (ω-3 FADi1), and omega-3 fatty acid desaturase isoform 2 (ω-3 FADi2) was also assessed. It was found that nitrate limitation generally increased the total oil, α-linolenic acid (C18:3n3) and total polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) contents in M. gracile. The reduction of nitrate concentration from 1.76 to 0.11 mM increased the total oil content significantly from 32.5 to 41.85% (dry weight). Palmitic (C16:0) and oleic (C18:1) acids as the predominant fatty acids in this microalgae constituted between 82 and 87% of the total oil content and were relatively consistent throughout all nitrate concentrations tested. The expression of SAD, ω-6 FAD, and ω-3 FADi2 genes increased under nitrate limitation, especially at 0.11 mM nitrate. The ω-3 FADi1 demonstrated a binary up-regulation pattern of expression under both nitrate-deficient (0.11 mM) and -excess (3.55 mM) conditions. Thus, findings from this study suggested that limited or excess nitrate could be used as part of a cultivation strategy to increase oil and PUFA content following media optimisation and more efficient culture methodology. Data obtained from the expression of desaturase genes would provide valuable insights into their roles under excess and limited nitrate conditions in M. gracile, potentially paving the way for future genetic modifications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Microalgae/growth & development*
  4. Chen JH, Wei D, Lim PE
    Bioresour. Technol., 2020 Jan;295:122242.
    PMID: 31629282 DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2019.122242
    Phytohormones comprise a variety of trace bioactive compounds that can stimulate cell growth and promote metabolic shifts. In the present work, a two-stage screening strategy was innovatively established to identify positive phytohormones for enhancement of astaxanthin and lipid coproduction in microplate-based cultures of mixotrophic Chromochloris zofingiensis. The results showed that auxins were the most efficient stimulators for astaxanthin accumulation. The maximum content of 13.1 mg/g and yield of 89.9 mg/L were obtained using indole propionic acid (10 mg/L) and indoleacetic acid (7.8 mg/L), representing the highest levels of astaxanthin in this microalga reported to date. Total lipids with the highest content (64.5% DW) and productivity (445.7 mg/L/d) were coproduced with astaxanthin using indoleacetic acid. Statistical analysis revealed close relations between phytohormones and astaxanthin and lipid biosynthesis. This study provides a novel original strategy for improving astaxanthin and lipid coproduction in C. zofingiensis using the selected phytohormones as positive stimulators.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  5. Watts EL, Perez-Cornago A, Appleby PN, Albanes D, Ardanaz E, Black A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 12 15;145(12):3244-3256.
    PMID: 30873591 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32276
    Insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs) have been implicated in the aetiology of several cancers. To better understand whether anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors may play a role in cancer risk via IGF signalling, we examined the cross-sectional associations of these exposures with circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I and IGF-II) and IGFBPs (IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3). The Endogenous Hormones, Nutritional Biomarkers and Prostate Cancer Collaborative Group dataset includes individual participant data from 16,024 male controls (i.e. without prostate cancer) aged 22-89 years from 22 prospective studies. Geometric means of protein concentrations were estimated using analysis of variance, adjusted for relevant covariates. Older age was associated with higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3. Higher body mass index was associated with lower concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2. Taller height was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-3 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-1. Smokers had higher concentrations of IGFBP-1 and IGFBP-2 and lower concentrations of IGFBP-3 than nonsmokers. Higher alcohol consumption was associated with higher concentrations of IGF-II and lower concentrations of IGF-I and IGFBP-2. African Americans had lower concentrations of IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2 and IGFBP-3 and Hispanics had lower IGF-I, IGF-II and IGFBP-3 than non-Hispanic whites. These findings indicate that a range of anthropometric, behavioural and sociodemographic factors are associated with circulating concentrations of IGFs and IGFBPs in men, which will lead to a greater understanding of the mechanisms through which these factors influence cancer risk.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor II/metabolism*; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins/blood*
  6. Song S, Dang M, Kumar M
    Inflammopharmacology, 2019 Dec;27(6):1243-1254.
    PMID: 30826930 DOI: 10.1007/s10787-019-00569-6
    P38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK), a tissue inflammatory factor can be activated under oxidative stress and in conditions associated with hyperglycemia. Gingerol containing various natural herbs has been extensively studied for its pharmacological actions both in reducing the inflammation and as immunity booster. The aim of the current investigation was to examine the renal protective effect of gingerol in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced type II diabetes mellitus in a rat model.NRK 52E cells were divided into normal and high glucose group treated with gingerol. The methylthiazotetrazolium assay was used to establish the cell proliferation progress. Streptozotocin-inducted diabetes in rats was treated with gingerol for 16 weeks. The blood glucose, serum creatinine, body weight, food intake, biochemical, antioxidant and haematological parameters were assayed to establish the correlation. Pro-inflammatory cytokines including Il-1β, IL-6, TNF-α; inflammatory mediator COX-2, PGE2, NF-kB, p38MAPK, and TGF-β, were also determined to assess the molecular mechanism. Gingerol exhibited the protective effect on the high glucose level induced NRK 52E cells and did not show any effect on the normal cells. Gingerol significantly (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta
  7. Prabha R, Singh DP, Gupta S, Gupta VK, El-Enshasy HA, Verma MK
    Microorganisms, 2019 Nov 23;7(12).
    PMID: 31771141 DOI: 10.3390/microorganisms7120608
    Multifunctionalities linked with the microbial communities associated with the millet crop rhizosphere has remained unexplored. In this study, we are analyzing microbial communities inhabiting rhizosphere of kodo millet and their associated functions and its impact over plant growth and survival. Metagenomics of Paspalum scrobiculatum L.(kodo millet) rhizopshere revealed taxonomic communities with functional capabilities linked to support growth and development of the plants under nutrient-deprived, semi-arid and dry biotic conditions. Among 65 taxonomically diverse phyla identified in the rhizobiome, Actinobacteria were the most abundant followed by the Proteobacteria. Functions identified for different genes/proteins led to revelations that multifunctional rhizobiome performs several metabolic functions including carbon fixation, nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, iron and aromatic compound metabolism, stress response, secondary metabolite synthesis and virulence, disease, and defense. Abundance of genes linked with N, P, S, Fe and aromatic compound metabolism and phytohormone synthesis-along with other prominent functions-clearly justifies growth, development, and survival of the plants under nutrient deprived dry environment conditions. The dominance of actinobacteria, the known antibiotic producing communities shows that the kodo rhizobiome possesses metabolic capabilities to defend themselves against biotic stresses. The study opens avenues to revisit multi-functionalities of the crop rhizosphere for establishing link between taxonomic abundance and targeted functions that help plant growth and development in stressed and nutrient deprived soil conditions. It further helps in understanding the role of rhizosphere microbiome in adaptation and survival of plants in harsh abiotic conditions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators
  8. Ramanathan S, Gopinath SCB, Arshad MKM, Poopalan P, Anbu P, Lakshmipriya T, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2019 Nov 19;9(1):17013.
    PMID: 31745155 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-019-53573-9
    Lung cancer is one of the most serious threats to human where 85% of lethal death caused by non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) induced by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation. The present research focuses in the development of efficient and effortless EGFR mutant detection strategy through high-performance and sensitive genosensor. The current amplified through 250 µm sized fingers between 100 µm aluminium electrodes indicates the voltammetry signal generated by means of the mutant DNA sequence hybridization. To enhance the DNA immobilization and hybridization, ∼25 nm sized aluminosilicate nanocomposite synthesized from the disposed joss fly ash was deposited on the gaps between aluminium electrodes. The probe, mutant (complementary), and wild (single-base pair mismatch) targets were designed precisely from the genomic sequences denote the detection of EGFR mutation. Fourier-transform Infrared Spectroscopy analysis was performed at every step of surface functionalization evidences the relevant chemical bonding of biomolecules on the genosensor as duplex DNA with peak response at 1150 cm-1 to 1650 cm-1. Genosensor depicts a sensitive EGFR mutation as it is able to detect apparently at 100 aM mutant against 1 µM DNA probe. The insignificant voltammetry signal generated with wild type strand emphasizes the specificity of genosensor in the detection of single base pair mismatch. The inefficiency of genosensor in detecting EGFR mutation in the absence of aluminosilicate nanocomposite implies the insensitivity of genosensing DNA hybridization and accentuates the significance of aluminosilicate. Based on the slope of the calibration curve, the attained sensitivity of aluminosilicate modified genosensor was 3.02E-4 A M-1. The detection limit of genosensor computed based on 3σ calculation, relative to the change of current proportional to the logarithm of mutant concentration is at 100 aM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
  9. Zainab-L I, Sudesh K
    J. Biotechnol., 2019 Nov 10;305:35-42.
    PMID: 31493421 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2019.09.001
    The cost of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) can be reduced by improving their productivity and recovery. In this study, we attempted to obtain a high cell density culture from a 13 L bioreactor and subsequently improved the recently developed biological recovery process using mealworms to obtain the PHA granules. A cell dry weight of 161 g/L containing 68-70 wt% P(3HB) was obtained. The freeze-dried cells contained a significant amount of mineral salts from the culture medium which reduced the cells' palatability for the mealworms. A simple washing procedure with water was sufficient to remove the residual mineral salts and this improved the cells' consumption by up to 12.5% of the mealworms' body weight. As a result, one kilogram of mealworms consumed 125 g of the washed cells daily and 87.2 g of feacal pellets were recovered, which was almost twice the weight of the unwashed cells. In addition, it also improved the purity of the PHA in the faecal pellets to a value <90% upon washing with water to remove the water-soluble compounds. This study has demonstrated a significant improvement in the production and recovery of PHA. In addition, the resulting mealworms showed a significant increase in protein content up to 79% and a decrease in fat content down to 8.3% of its dry weight.
    Matched MeSH terms: Tenebrio/growth & development*; Cupriavidus necator/growth & development*
  10. Teh CK, Lee HL, Abidin H, Ong AL, Mayes S, Chew FT, et al.
    BMC Plant Biol., 2019 Nov 05;19(1):470.
    PMID: 31690276 DOI: 10.1186/s12870-019-2062-x
    BACKGROUND: Legitimacy in breeding and commercial crop production depends on optimised protocols to ensure purity of crosses and correct field planting of material. In oil palm, the presence of three fruit forms permits these assumptions to be tested, although only after field planting. The presence of incorrect fruit forms in a cross is a clear sign of illegitimacy. Given that tenera forms produce 30% more oil for the same weight of fruit as dura, the presence of low levels of dura contamination can have major effect during the economic lifespan of an oil palm, which is around 25 years. We evaluated two methods for legitimacy test 1) The use of SHELL markers to the gene that determines the shell-thickness trait 2) The use of SNP markers, to determine the legitimacy of the cross.

    RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control.

    CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.

    Matched MeSH terms: Seeds/growth & development*; Arecaceae/growth & development*
  11. Azizi P, Osman M, Hanafi MM, Sahebi M, Rafii MY, Taheri S, et al.
    Crit. Rev. Biotechnol., 2019 Nov;39(7):904-923.
    PMID: 31303070 DOI: 10.1080/07388551.2019.1632257
    A large number of rice agronomic traits are complex, multi factorial and polygenic. As the mechanisms and genes determining grain size and yield are largely unknown, the identification of regulatory genes related to grain development remains a preeminent approach in rice genetic studies and breeding programs. Genes regulating cell proliferation and expansion in spikelet hulls and participating in endosperm development are the main controllers of rice kernel elongation and grain size. We review here and discuss recent findings on genes controlling rice grain size and the mechanisms, epialleles, epigenomic variation, and assessment of controlling genes using genome-editing tools relating to kernel elongation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Edible Grain/growth & development*; Oryza/growth & development*
  12. Owen-Smith P, Perry R, Wise J, Jamil RZR, Gut L, Sundin G, et al.
    Pest Manag. Sci., 2019 Nov;75(11):3050-3059.
    PMID: 30895726 DOI: 10.1002/ps.5421
    BACKGROUND: Air blast sprayers are not optimized for spraying the short statured trees in modern apple orchards, resulting in off target drift and variable coverage. A solid set canopy delivery system (SSCDS) consisting of a microsprayer array distributed throughout the orchard was investigated as a replacement agrochemical application method in this study. SSCDS's have the potential to optimize coverage, rapidly spray applications, and remove the operator and tractor from the orchard.

    RESULTS: Air blast and SSCDS applications were compared using water sensitive paper, bioassays, and pest damage assessments. Pest management and coverage were compared using application volumes of 700 and 795 L ha-1 , respectively. In 2013, adaxial coverage measurements showed no difference between the treatments, but air blast sprayers had higher coverage levels on the abaxial surfaces. There were no significant differences in coverage in 2014. Bioassays using Choristoneura rosaceana fed on leaf discs treated by the SSCDS displayed 95.8% mortality in 2013 and 94.2% mortality in 2014, and air blast treated larval mortality was 95% in 2013 and 100% in 2014. Damage evaluations in both years generally showed no significant differences between the air blast plots and the SSCDS plots, but significant differences between the treated plots and untreated control.

    CONCLUSIONS: The prototype SSCDS was an effective pest management tool in high density apples, and offered a number of advantages over an air blast. Further engineering and research into coverage optimization would offer producers a novel tool for foliar agrochemical applications. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.

    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Moths/growth & development
  13. Thomes MW, Vaezzadeh V, Zakaria MP, Bong CW
    Environ Sci Pollut Res Int, 2019 Nov;26(31):31555-31580.
    PMID: 31440968 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05936-y
    Southeast Asia has undergone rapid developments in terms of urbanization, economic and population growth. The progress in sewerage treatment infrastructure has not kept pace with such developments. The inadequacy and inefficiency of sewerage systems has prompted the release of untreated sewage into the aquatic environment of Southeast Asia causing many waterborne illnesses since surface water is utilized for recreational, agricultural and aquaculture purposes and, above all, as a source of water intake in Southeast Asia. This paper will review the current data on molecular markers of sewage pollution including sterols and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in Southeast Asian aquatic environment to clarify the state of sewage pollution and the competence of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in this area. Despite the importance of sewage pollution research in the region, the number of studies using molecular markers to trace the sources of sewage pollution is limited. So far, indicators of sewage pollution have been investigated in aquatic environments of Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Brunei among Southeast Asian countries. The concentrations and diagnostic ratios of faecal sterols and LABs show the release of untreated and primary treated urban waste into water bodies of these countries. Further studies are required to fill the data gaps in Southeast Asia and come to a better understanding of the trends of sewage pollution in this part of the world. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  14. Lokman IH, Ibitoye EB, Hezmee MNM, Goh YM, Zuki ABZ, Jimoh AA
    Trop Anim Health Prod, 2019 Nov;51(8):2219-2225.
    PMID: 31134556 DOI: 10.1007/s11250-019-01936-9
    Majority of the studies on the effect of chitin and chitosan on growth and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens has concentrated more on shrimp chitin and shrimp chitosan, and often with contradictory results. Therefore, the objective of this present study is to evaluate and compare the effect of dietary chitin and chitosan from cricket and shrimp on growth performance, carcass, and organ characteristics of broiler chickens. One hundred fifty-day-old male Cobb500 broiler chicks of similar average weight were randomly allotted into one of the five dietary treatments with three replicates. Treatment 1 (T1) chicks were fed basal diet only (control), treatment 2 and 3 (T2 and T3) chicks were given basal diet with 0.5 g/kg diet of cricket chitin and cricket chitosan, respectively, while treatment 4 and 5 (T4 and T5) chicks were served basal diet with 0.5 g/kg diet of shrimp chitin and shrimp chitosan respectively. No significant variation occurred between cricket chitin and shrimp chitin, although data on growth performance were higher in cricket chitin, but growth performance varied significantly between cricket chitosan and shrimp chitosan. This study revealed that cricket chitin at 0.5 g/kg significantly improved growth performance, carcass quality, and organ characteristics of broilers more than chitosan. Birds fed basal diet alone, although gained more weight, also accumulated more fat having the poorest feed conversion ratio (FCR) and the highest mortality. However, carcass of birds fed cricket chitin was the leanest and thus economically beneficial as they consumed the least amount of feed with the best FCR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Chickens/growth & development*
  15. Yeo KT, Kong JY, Sasi A, Tan K, Lai NM, Schindler T
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 10 28;2019(10).
    PMID: 31684689 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012888.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Feeding practices around the time of packed red blood cell transfusion have been implicated in the subsequent development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Specifically, it has been suggested that withholding feeds around the time of transfusion may reduce the risk of subsequent NEC. It is important to determine if withholding feeds around transfusion reduces the risk of subsequent NEC and associated mortality.

    OBJECTIVES: • To assess the benefits and risks of stopping compared to continuing feed management before, during, and after blood transfusion in preterm infants • To assess the effects of stopping versus continuing feeds in the following subgroups of infants: infants of different gestations; infants with symptomatic and asymptomatic anaemia; infants who received different feeding schedules, types of feed, and methods of feed delivery; infants who were transfused with different blood products, at different blood volumes, via different routes of delivery; and those who received blood transfusion with and without co-interventions such as use of diuretics • To determine the effectiveness and safety of stopping feeds around the time of a blood transfusion in reducing the risk of subsequent necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1966 to 14 November 2018); Embase (1980 to 14 November 2018); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 November 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared stopping feeds versus continuing feeds around the time of blood transfusion in preterm infants.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality, and extracted data from the included studies.

    MAIN RESULTS: The search revealed seven studies that assessed effects of stopping feeds during blood transfusion. However, only one RCT involving 22 preterm infants was eligible for inclusion in the review. This RCT had low risk of selection bias but high risk of performance bias, as care personnel were not blinded to the study allocation. The primary objective of this trial was to investigate changes in mesenteric blood flow, and no cases of NEC were reported in any of the infants included in the trial. We were unable to draw any conclusions from this single study. The overall GRADE rating for quality of evidence was very low.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Randomised controlled trial evidence is insufficient to show whether stopping feeds has an effect on the incidence of subsequent NEC or death. Large, adequately powered RCTs are needed to address this issue.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Premature/growth & development*; Infant, Very Low Birth Weight/growth & development
  16. Kandandapani S, Ridzwan NFW, Mohamad SB, Tayyab S
    PMID: 31552810 DOI: 10.1080/07391102.2019.1673210
    Tyrphostin 9 (Tyr 9) is a potent platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) inhibitor, which induces apoptosis in various cancer cell types. The binding of Tyr 9 to the major transport protein, human serum albumin (HSA) was investigated using several spectroscopic techniques and molecular docking method. Fluorescence quenching titration results showed progressive decrease in the protein fluorescence with increasing drug concentrations. A decreasing trend of the Stern-Volmer constant, Ksv with increasing temperature characterized the drug-induced quenching as static quenching, thus pointed towards the formation of Tyr 9-HSA complex. The binding constant of Tyr 9-HSA interaction was found to lie within the range 3.48-1.69 × 105 M-1 at three different temperatures, i.e. 15 °C, 25 °C and 35 °C, respectively and suggested intermediate binding affinity between Tyr 9 and HSA. The drug-HSA complex seems to be stabilized by hydrophobic forces, van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonds, as suggested from the thermodynamic data as well as molecular docking results. The far-UV and the near-UV CD spectral results showed slight alteration in the secondary and tertiary structures, respectively, of the protein upon Tyr 9 binding. Interaction of Tyr 9 with HSA also produced microenvironmental perturbations around protein fluorophores, as evident from the three-dimensional fluorescence spectral results but increased protein's thermal stability. Both competitive drug binding results and molecular docking analysis suggested Sudlow's Site I of HSA as the preferred Tyr 9 binding site. Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor
  17. Ismail NA, Amin KAM, Majid FAA, Razali MH
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2019 Oct;103:109770.
    PMID: 31349525 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109770
    In this work, the potential of titanium dioxide nanoparticles incorporated gellan gum (GG + TiO2-NPs) biofilm as wound dressing material was investigated. The GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm was prepared via evaporative casting technique and was characterized using FTIR, XRD, and SEM to study their physiochemical properties. The mechanical properties, swelling and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR) of biofilm was determined to comply with an ideal wound dressing material. In vitro and in vivo wound healing studies was carried out to evaluate the performance of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm. In vitro wound healing was studied on 3 T3 mouse fibroblast cells for cell viability, cell proliferation, and scratch assay. The acridine orange/propidium iodide (AO/PI) staining and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay were used to evaluate the viability of cell and cell proliferation. Cell migration assay was analyzed using Essen BioScience IncuCyteTM Zoom system. In vivo wound healing via open excision wounds model on Sprague Dawley rat was studied within 14 days. The FT-IR spectra of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm show main bands assigned to OH stretching, OH deformation, and TiO stretching modes. XRD pattern of GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm suggesting that TiO2-NPs was successfully incorporated in biofilm and well distributed on the surface as proved by SEM analysis. The GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm shows higher mechanical strength and swelling (3.76 ± 0.11 MPa and 1061 ± 6%) as compared to pure GG film (3.32 ± 0.08 Mpa and 902 ± 6%), respectively. GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm shows good antibacterial properties as 9 ± 0.25 mm and 11 ± 0.06 mm exhibition zone was observed against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacteria, respectively. While no exhibition zone was obtained for pure GG biofilm. GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm also demonstrated better cell-to-cell interaction properties, as it's promoted cell proliferation and cell migration to accelerate open excision wound healing on Sprague Dawley rat. The wound treated with GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm was healed within 14 days, on the other hand, the wound is still can be seen when it was treated with GG. However, GG and GG + TiO2-NPs biofilm show no cytotoxicity effects on mouse fibroblast cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*; Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development*
  18. Fitzgerald SF, Beckett AE, Palarea-Albaladejo J, McAteer S, Shaaban S, Morgan J, et al.
    PLoS Pathog., 2019 10;15(10):e1008003.
    PMID: 31581229 DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008003
    Specific Escherichia coli isolates lysogenised with prophages that express Shiga toxin (Stx) can be a threat to human health, with cattle being an important natural reservoir. In many countries the most severe pathology is associated with enterohaemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) serogroups that express Stx subtype 2a. In the United Kingdom, phage type (PT) 21/28 O157 strains have emerged as the predominant cause of life-threatening EHEC infections and this phage type commonly encodes both Stx2a and Stx2c toxin types. PT21/28 is also epidemiologically linked to super-shedding (>103 cfu/g of faeces) which is significant for inter-animal transmission and human infection as demonstrated using modelling studies. We demonstrate that Stx2a is the main toxin produced by stx2a+/stx2c+ PT21/28 strains induced with mitomycin C and this is associated with more rapid induction of gene expression from the Stx2a-encoding prophage compared to that from the Stx2c-encoding prophage. Bacterial supernatants containing either Stx2a and/or Stx2c were demonstrated to restrict growth of bovine gastrointestinal organoids with no restriction when toxin production was not induced or prevented by mutation. Isogenic strains that differed in their capacity to produce Stx2a were selected for experimental oral colonisation of calves to assess the significance of Stx2a for both super-shedding and transmission between animals. Restoration of Stx2a expression in a PT21/28 background significantly increased animal-to-animal transmission and the number of sentinel animals that became super-shedders. We propose that while both Stx2a and Stx2c can restrict regeneration of the epithelium, it is the relatively rapid and higher levels of Stx2a induction, compared to Stx2c, that have contributed to the successful emergence of Stx2a+ E. coli isolates in cattle in the last 40 years. We propose a model in which Stx2a enhances E. coli O157 colonisation of in-contact animals by restricting regeneration and turnover of the colonised gastrointestinal epithelium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Organoids/growth & development
  19. Wang Y, Bi L, Liao Y, Lu D, Zhang H, Liao X, et al.
    Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf., 2019 Sep 30;180:80-87.
    PMID: 31078019 DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoenv.2019.04.066
    Ammonia emissions is an important issue during composting because it can cause secondary pollution and a significant of nitrogen loss. Based on research adding Bacillus stearothermophilus can reduce ammonia emissions during composting because it can use sugar in organic matter fermentation to produce organic acids over 50 °C. This study conducted the batch experiments by adding different concentrations of Bacillus stearothermophilus to reduce the ammonia emissions and find out its characteristic during layer manure composting by using an aerobic composting reactor with sawdust as a bulking agent. The results show that the application of Bacillus stearothermophilus can accelerate the rate of temperature and significantly decrease pH, the warming period was 2 days in the treatment with Bacillus stearothermophilus, while it was 4 days in the treatment without Bacillus stearothermophilus. Ammonia emissions were mainly occurred in warming and high temperature period during composting. The ammonia emissions in the treatment with 8.00 g/kg initial Bacillus stearothermophilus were significantly lower than the other lower Bacillus stearothermophilus treatment and control during composting (p  0.05). MiSeq System Sequencing results find that the addition of Bacillus stearothermophilus changed the bacterial community structure under warming and high-temperature periods during composting, increased the relative abundance of lactic acid bacillus and nitrification bacteria. Therefore, the reason for the low ammonia emission in 8.00 g/kg initial Bacillus stearothermophilus treatments might be not only due to the Bacillus stearothermophilus itself, but also Bacillus stearothermophilus can change the indigenous microorganism community, including increase the relative content of lactic acid Bacillus and nitrification bacteria, thus reducing the pH and promoting nitrification, and reducing ammonia emissions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Geobacillus stearothermophilus/growth & development*
  20. Chai AWY, Lim KP, Cheong SC
    Semin. Cancer Biol., 2019 Sep 19.
    PMID: 31542510 DOI: 10.1016/j.semcancer.2019.09.011
    Oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) are a heterogeneous group of cancers arising from the mucosal lining of the oral cavity. A majority of these cancers are associated with lifestyle risk habits including smoking, excessive alcohol consumption and betel quid chewing. Cetuximab, targeting the epidermal growth factor receptor was approved for the treatment of OSCC in 2006, and remains the only molecular targeted therapy available for OSCC. Here, we reviewed the current findings from genomic analyses of OSCC and discuss how these studies inform on the biological mechanisms underlying OSCC. Exome sequencing revealed that the significantly mutated genes are mainly tumour suppressors. Mutations in FAT1, CASP8, CDKN2A, and NOTCH1 are more frequently found in OSCC when compared to non-OSCC head and neck cancers and other squamous cell carcinomas, and HRAS and PIK3CA are the only significantly mutated oncogenes. The distribution of these mutations also differs in populations with distinct risk habits. Gene expression-based molecular classification showed that OSCC can be divided into distinct subtypes and these have a preferential response to different types of therapies, suggesting that these classifications could have clinical implications. More recently, with the approval of checkpoint inhibitors for the treatment of cancers including OSCC, genomics studies also dissected the genetic signatures of the immune compartment to delineate immune-active and -exhausted subtypes that could inform on the immune status of OSCC patients and guide the development of novel therapies to improve response to immunotherapy. Taken together, genomics studies are informing on the biology of both the epithelial and stromal compartments underlying OSCC development, and we discuss the opportunities and challenges in using these to derive clinical benefit for OSCC patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor
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