RESULTS: We carried out a survey of 11 FCT/FCDB and 177 peer-reviewed papers describing variation in nutritional composition and dietary function for food crops to identify a comprehensive set of terms to construct a controlled vocabulary. We used this information to generate a Crop Dietary Nutrition Data Framework (CDN-DF), which incorporates controlled vocabularies systematically organized into major classes representing nutritional components and dietary functions. We demonstrate the value of the CDN-DF for comparison of equivalent components between crop species or cultivars, for identifying data gaps and potential for formal meta-analysis. The CDN-DF also enabled us to explore relationships between nutritional components and the functional attributes of food.
CONCLUSION: We have generated a structured crop dietary nutrition data framework, which is generally applicable to the collation and comparison of data relevant to crop researchers, breeders, and other stakeholders, and will facilitate dialogue with nutritionists. It is currently guiding the establishment of a more robust formal ontology. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was carried out in PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science, SCOPUS and Embase for RCTs that investigated the impact of vitamin D intake on circulating IGF-1 levels from inception until June 2019. Weighted mean difference (WMD) with the 95 % CI were applied for estimating combined effect size. Subgroup analysis was performed to specify the source of heterogeneity among studies.
RESULTS: Pooled results from eight studies demonstrated an overall non-significant increase in IGF-1 following vitamin D supplementation (WMD: 4 ng/ml, 95 % CI: -4 to 11). However, a significant degree of heterogeneity among studies was observed (I2 = 66 %). The subgroup analyses showed that vitamin D dosage of ≤1000 IU/day (WMD: 10 ng/ml) significantly increased IGF-1 compared to the vitamin D dosage of <1000 IU/day (WMD: -1 ng/ml). Moreover, intervention duration ≤12 weeks (WMD: 11 ng/ml) significantly increased IGF-1 compared to intervention duration <12 weeks (WMD: -3 ng/ml). In the epidemiological cohort study, participants under 60 years of age with a higher dietary vitamin D intake had significantly higher IGF-1 levels when compared to those with lower dietary vitamin D intake in second categories.
CONCLUSION: The main results indicate a non-significant increase in IGF-1 following vitamin D supplementation. Additionally, vitamin D dosages of <1000 IU/day and intervention durations of <12 weeks significantly raised IGF-1 levels.
METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study among healthy children aged 12-36 months attending three well-baby clinics in three urban areas in Malaysia and Singapore between December 2016 and February 2017. Parents were interviewed for concerns about their child's feeding and presence of behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. We defined growth faltering as weight-for-age < 3rd centile and short stature as height-for-age < 3rd centile according to World Health Organization Growth Standards.
RESULTS: Of the 303 children studied (boys = 160, 52.8%; mean [± SD] chronological age at interview 21.3 [± 4.0] months), 13% (n = 38/292) had growth faltering and 19.5% (n = 50/256) had short stature. Overall, 36.3% (n = 110) of parents expressed concerns about their child's feeding behavior. Sixty-eight percent (n = 206) of parents reported presence of at least one behavioral and 18.5% (n = 56) had at least one organic red flag for feeding difficulties, respectively. 9.9% (n = 30) had both behavioral and organic red flags for feeding difficulties. Growth faltering was significantly associated with parental concern about feeding (odds ratio [OR] 3.049, p growth faltering in early childhood.
RESULTS: Our results indicate that the SHELL markers can theoretically reduce the major losses due to dura contamination of tenera planting material. However, these markers cannot distinguish illegitimate tenera, which reduces the value of having bred elite tenera for commercial planting and in the breeding programme, where fruit form is of limited utility, and incorrect identity could lead to significant problems. We propose an optimised approach using SNPs for routine quality control.
CONCLUSIONS: Both dura and tenera contamination can be identified and removed at or before the nursery stage. An optimised legitimacy assay using SNP markers coupled with a suitable sampling scheme is now ready to be deployed as a standard control for seed production and breeding in oil palm. The same approach will also be an effective solution for other perennial crops, such as coconut and date palm.