Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1888 in total

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  1. Khor GL
    PMID: 1342754
    Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia with an estimated population of 1.55 million. Approximately 12% of the population live in squatter settlements occupying about 7% of the city total area. The squatter settlements generally are provided with basic amenities such as piped water, toilet facilities and electricity. Health indicators for the overall population of Kuala Lumpur are better off than for the rest of the country; however, intra-city differentials prevail along ethnic and socio-economic lines. Malays and Indians have higher rates for stillbirths, and neonatal, infant and toddler mortality than the Chinese. The wide disparity in the socio-economic status between the advantaged and the poor groups in the city is reflected in the dietary practices and nutritional status of young children from these communities. The percentage of preschool children from urban poor households with inadequate intakes of calories and nutrients is two to three times higher than those from the advantaged group. Compared to rural infants, a lower percentage of urban infants are breastfed. A lower percentage of Malays from the urban advantaged group breastfed, compared with the urban poor group. The reversed trend is found for the Chinese community. Growth attainment of young children from the urban poor is worse than the urban advantaged, though better than the rural poor. Health and nutritional practices implications related to both undernutrition and overnutrition are discussed, to illustrate the twin challenges of malnutrition in the city.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  2. Asia Pac Popul J, 1987 Mar;2(1):57-64.
    PMID: 12341036
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  3. Cheng AL, Li J, Vaid AK, Ma BB, Teh C, Ahn JB, et al.
    Clin Colorectal Cancer, 2014 Sep;13(3):145-55.
    PMID: 25209093 DOI: 10.1016/j.clcc.2014.06.004
    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common cancers worldwide, but marked epidemiological differences exist between Asian and non-Asian populations. Hence, a consensus meeting was held in Hong Kong in December 2012 to develop Asia-specific guidelines for the management of metastatic CRC (mCRC). A multidisciplinary expert panel, consisting of 23 participants from 10 Asian and 2 European countries, discussed current guidelines for colon or rectal cancer and developed recommendations for adapting these guidelines to Asian clinical practice. Participants agreed that mCRC management in Asia largely follows international guidelines, but they proposed a number of recommendations based on regional 'real-world' experience. In general, participants agreed that 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) infusion regimens in doublets can be substituted with UFT (capecitabine, tegafur-uracil) and S1 (tegafur, 5-chloro-2,4-dihydroxypyridine and oxonic acid), and that the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab are recommended for KRAS wild type tumors. For KRAS mutant tumors, bevacizumab is the preferred biological therapy. FOLFOX (folinic acid, 5-FU, and oxaliplatin) is preferred for initial therapy in Asian patients. The management of mCRC is evolving, and it must be emphasized that the recommendations presented here reflect current treatment practices and thus might change as more data become available.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors
  4. Rothan HA, Bahrani H, Mohamed Z, Abd Rahman N, Yusof R
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(4):e94561.
    PMID: 24722532 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094561
    Dengue virus (DENV) broadly disseminates in tropical and sub-tropical countries and there are no vaccine or anti-dengue drugs available. DENV outbreaks cause serious economic burden due to infection complications that requires special medical care and hospitalization. This study presents a new strategy for inexpensive production of anti-DENV peptide-fusion protein to prevent and/or treat DENV infection. Antiviral cationic peptides protegrin-1 (PG1) and plectasin (PLSN) were fused with MAP30 protein to produce recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein (PG1-MAP30-PLSN) as inclusion bodies in E. coli. High yield production of PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein was achieved by solubilization of inclusion bodies in alkaline buffer followed by the application of appropriate refolding techniques. Antiviral PG1-MAP30-PLSN protein considerably inhibited DENV protease (NS2B-NS3pro) with half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) 0.5±0.1 μM. The real-time proliferation assay (RTCA) and the end-point proliferation assay (MTT assay) showed that the maximal-nontoxic dose of the peptide-fusion protein against Vero cells is approximately 0.67±0.2 μM. The cell-based assays showed considerable inhibition of the peptide-fusion protein against binding and proliferating stages of DENV2 into the target cells. The peptide-fusion protein protected DENV2-challeged mice with 100% of survival at the dose of 50 mg/kg. In conclusion, producing recombinant antiviral peptide-fusion protein by combining short antiviral peptide with a central protein owning similar activity could be useful to minimize the overall cost of short peptide production and take advantage of its synergistic antiviral activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue Virus/growth & development
  5. Salama SM, Abdulla MA, AlRashdi AS, Ismail S, Alkiyumi SS, Golbabapour S
    PMID: 23496995 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-56
    Hepatology research has focused on developing traditional therapies as pharmacological medicines to treat liver cirrhosis. Thus, this study evaluated mechanisms of the hepatoprotective activity of Curcuma longa rhizome ethanolic extract (CLRE) on thioacetamide-induced liver cirrhosis in rats.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism
  6. Lai JC, Lai HY, Nalamolu KR, Ng SF
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2016 08 02;189:277-89.
    PMID: 27208868 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2016.05.032
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Blechnum orientale Linn. (B. orientale) is a fern traditionally used by the natives as a poultice to treat wounds, boils, ulcers, blisters, abscesses, and sores on the skin.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: To investigate the wound healing ability of a concentrated extract of B. orientale in a hydrogel formulation in healing diabetic ulcer wounds.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The water extract from the leaves of B. orientale was separated from the crude methanolic extract and subjected to flash column chromatography techniques to produce concentrated fractions. These fractions were tested for phytochemical composition, tannin content, antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The bioactive fraction was formulated into a sodium carboxymethylcellulose hydrogel. The extract-loaded hydrogels were then characterized and tested on excision ulcer wounds of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Wound size was measured for 14 days. Histopathological studies were conducted on the healed wound tissues to observe for epithelisation, fibroblast proliferation and angiogenesis. All possible mean values were subjected to statistical analysis using One-way ANOVA and post-hoc with Tukey's T-test (P<0.05).

    RESULTS: One fraction exhibited strong antioxidative and antibacterial activity. The fraction was also highly saturated with tannins, particularly condensed tannins. Fraction W5-1 exhibited stronger antioxidant activity compared to three standards (α-Tocopherol, BHT and Trolox-C). Antibacterial activity was also present, and notably bactericidal towards Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) at 0.25mg/ml. The extract-loaded hydrogels exhibited shear-thinning properties, with high moisture retention ability. The bioactive fraction at 4% w/w was shown to be able to close diabetic wounds by Day 12 on average. Other groups, including controls, only exhibited wound closure by Day 14 (or not at all). Histopathological studies had also shown that extract-treated wounds exhibited re-epithelisation, higher fibroblast proliferation, collagen synthesis, and angiogenesis.

    CONCLUSION: The ethnopharmacological effects of using B. orientale as a topical treatment for external wounds was validated and was also significantly effective in treating diabetic ulcer wounds. Thus, B. orientale extract hydrogel may be presented as a potential treatment for diabetic ulcer wounds.

    Matched MeSH terms: Bacteria/growth & development
  7. Ch'ng WC, Abd-Aziz N, Ong MH, Stanbridge EJ, Shafee N
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2015 Aug;38(4):279-88.
    PMID: 25930675 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-015-0229-5
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus that is known to have a higher preference to cancer cells than to normal cells. It has been proposed that this higher preference may be due to defects in the interferon (IFN) responses of cancer cells. The exact mechanism underlying this process, however, remains to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the antiviral response towards NDV infection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. ccRCC is associated with mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL, whose protein product is important for eliciting cellular responses to changes in oxygen levels. The most common first line treatment strategy of ccRCC includes IFN. Unfortunately, most ccRCC cases are diagnosed at a late stage and often are resistant to IFN-based therapies. Alternative treatment approaches, including virotherapy using oncolytic viruses, are currently being investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanistic pathways underlying the response of ccRCC cells to oncolytic NDV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Newcastle disease virus/growth & development*
  8. Hamsin DE, Hamid RA, Yazan LS, Taib CN, Ting YL
    PMID: 23298265 DOI: 10.1186/1472-6882-13-5
    Ardisia crispa (Myrsinaceae) is used in traditional Malay medicine to treat various ailments associated with inflammation, including rheumatism. The plant's hexane fraction was previously shown to inhibit several diseases associated with inflammation. As there is a strong correlation between inflammation and angiogenesis, we conducted the present study to investigate the anti-angiogenic effects of the plant's roots in animal models of inflammation-induced angiogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/metabolism
  9. Abdul-Manan AF, Baharuddin A, Chang LW
    Eval Program Plann, 2015 Oct;52:39-49.
    PMID: 25898073 DOI: 10.1016/j.evalprogplan.2015.03.007
    Theory-based evaluation (TBE) is an effectiveness assessment technique that critically analyses the theory underlying an intervention. Whilst its use has been widely reported in the area of social programmes, it is less applied in the field of energy and climate change policy evaluations. This paper reports a recent study that has evaluated the effectiveness of the national biofuel policy (NBP) for the transport sector in Malaysia by adapting a TBE approach. Three evaluation criteria were derived from the official goals of the NBP, those are (i) improve sustainability and environmental friendliness, (ii) reduce fossil fuel dependency, and (iii) enhance stakeholders' welfare. The policy theory underlying the NBP has been reconstructed through critical examination of the policy and regulatory documents followed by a rigorous appraisal of the causal link within the policy theory through the application of scientific knowledge. This study has identified several weaknesses in the policy framework that may engender the policy to be ineffective. Experiences with the use of a TBE approach for policy evaluations are also shared in this report.
    Matched MeSH terms: Population Growth
  10. Vardar E, Larsson HM, Allazetta S, Engelhardt EM, Pinnagoda K, Vythilingam G, et al.
    Acta Biomater, 2018 02;67:156-166.
    PMID: 29197579 DOI: 10.1016/j.actbio.2017.11.034
    Endoscopic injection of bulking agents has been widely used to treat urinary incontinence, often due to urethral sphincter complex insufficiency. The aim of the study was to develop a novel injectable bioactive collagen-fibrin bulking agent restoring long-term continence by functional muscle tissue regeneration. Fibrin micro-beads were engineered using a droplet microfluidic system. They had an average diameter of 140 μm and recombinant fibrin-binding insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1) was covalently conjugated to the beads. A plasmin fibrin degradation assay showed that 72.5% of the initial amount of α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1 loaded into the micro-beads was retained within the fibrin micro-beads. In vitro, the growth factor modified fibrin micro-beads enhanced cell attachment and the migration of human urinary tract smooth muscle cells, however, no change of the cellular metabolic activity was seen. These bioactive micro-beads were mixed with genipin-crosslinked homogenized collagen, acting as a carrier. The collagen concentration, the degree of crosslinking, and the mechanical behavior of this bioactive collagen-fibrin injectable were comparable to reference samples. This novel injectable showed no burst release of the growth factor, had a positive effect on cell behavior and may therefore induce smooth muscle regeneration in vivo, necessary for the functional treatment of stress and other urinary incontinences.

    STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Urinary incontinence is involuntary urine leakage, resulting from a deficient function of the sphincter muscle complex. Yet there is no functional cure for this devastating condition using current treatment options. Applied physical and surgical therapies have limited success. In this study, a novel bioactive injectable bulking agent, triggering new muscle regeneration at the injection site, has been evaluated. This injectable consists of cross-linked collagen and fibrin micro-beads, functionalized with bound insulin-like growth factor-1 (α2PI1-8-MMP-IGF-1). These bioactive fibrin micro-beads induced human smooth muscle cell migration in vitro. Thus, this injectable bulking agent is apt to be a good candidate for regeneration of urethral sphincter muscle, ensuring a long-lasting treatment for urinary incontinence.

    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I
  11. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Growth
  12. Wong SW, Tiong KH, Kong WY, Yue YC, Chua CH, Lim JY, et al.
    Breast Cancer Res. Treat., 2011 Jul;128(2):301-13.
    PMID: 20686837 DOI: 10.1007/s10549-010-1055-0
    Recent gene expression profiling studies have identified five breast cancer subtypes, of which the basal-like subtype is the most aggressive. Basal-like breast cancer poses serious clinical challenges as there are currently no targeted therapies available to treat it. Although there is increasing evidence that these tumors possess specific sensitivity to cisplatin, its success is often compromised due to its dose-limiting nephrotoxicity and the development of drug resistance. To overcome this limitation, our goal was to maximize the benefits associated with cisplatin therapy through drug combination strategies. Using a validated kinase inhibitor library, we showed that inhibition of the mTOR, TGFβRI, NFκB, PI3K/AKT, and MAPK pathways sensitized basal-like MDA-MB-468 cells to cisplatin treatment. Further analysis demonstrated that the combination of the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin and cisplatin generated significant drug synergism in basal-like MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and HCC1937 cells but not in luminal-like T47D or MCF-7 cells. We further showed that the synergistic effect of rapamycin plus cisplatin on basal-like breast cancer cells was mediated through the induction of p73. Depletion of endogenous p73 in basal-like cells abolished these synergistic effects. In conclusion, combination therapy with mTOR inhibitors and cisplatin may be a useful therapeutic strategy in the treatment of basal-like breast cancers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics; Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/metabolism
  13. Hussain Z, Katas H, Mohd Amin MC, Kumolosasi E
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(11):e113143.
    PMID: 25396426 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0113143
    The present study was conducted with the aim to investigate the immuno-modulatory and histological stabilization effects of nanocarrier-based transcutaneous co-delivery of hydrocortisone (HC) and hydroxytyrosol (HT). In this investigation, the clinical and pharmacological efficacies of nanoparticle (NP)-based formulation to alleviate 2,4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced atopic dermatitis (AD) was explored by using an NC/Nga mouse model. Ex vivo visual examination of AD induction in experimental mice indicated remarkable control of NP-based formulations in reducing pathological severity of AD-like skin lesions. Therapeutic effectiveness of NP-based formulations was also evaluated by comparing skin thickness of AD-induced NP-treated mice (456±27 µm) with that of atopic mice (916±37 µm). Analysis of the immuno-spectrum of AD also revealed the dominance of NP-based formulations in restraining immunoglobulin-E (IgE), histamine, prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), vascular endothelial growth factor-α (VEGF-α), and T-helper cells (TH1/TH2) producing cytokines in serum and skin biopsies of tested mice. These anti-AD data were further supported by histological findings that revealed alleviated pathological features, including collagen fiber deposition, fibroblasts infiltration, and fragmentation of elastic fibers in experimental mice. Thus, NP-mediated transcutaneous co-delivery of HC and HT can be considered as a promising therapy for managing immunological and histological spectra associated with AD.
    Matched MeSH terms: Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/analysis; Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/blood
  14. Rothan HA, Mohamed Z, Suhaeb AM, Rahman NA, Yusof R
    OMICS, 2013 Nov;17(11):560-7.
    PMID: 24044366 DOI: 10.1089/omi.2013.0056
    Dengue virus infects millions of people worldwide, and there is no vaccine or anti-dengue therapeutic available. Antimicrobial peptides have been shown to possess effective antiviral activity against various viruses. One of the main limitations of developing these peptides as potent antiviral drugs is the high cost of production. In this study, high yield production of biologically active plectasin peptide was inexpensively achieved by producing tandem plectasin peptides as inclusion bodies in E. coli. Antiviral activity of the recombinant peptide towards dengue serotype-2 NS2B-NS3 protease (DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro) was assessed as a target to inhibit dengue virus replication in Vero cells. Single units of recombinant plectasin were collected after applying consecutive steps of refolding, cleaving by Factor Xa, and nickel column purification to obtain recombinant proteins of high purity. The maximal nontoxic dose (MNTD) of the recombinant peptide against Vero cells was 20 μM (100 μg/mL). The reaction velocity of DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro decreased significantly after increasing concentrations of recombinant plectasin were applied to the reaction mixture. Plectasin peptide noncompetitively inhibited DENV2 NS2B-NS3pro at Ki value of 5.03 ± 0.98 μM. The percentage of viral inhibition was more than 80% at the MNTD value of plectasin. In this study, biologically active recombinant plectasin which was able to inhibit dengue protease and viral replication in Vero cells was successfully produced in E. coli in a time- and cost- effective method. These findings are potentially important in the development of potent therapeutics against dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Dengue Virus/growth & development; Staphylococcus aureus/growth & development
  15. Wu YL, Zhou C, Liam CK, Wu G, Liu X, Zhong Z, et al.
    Ann. Oncol., 2015 Sep;26(9):1883-9.
    PMID: 26105600 DOI: 10.1093/annonc/mdv270
    The phase III, randomized, open-label ENSURE study (NCT01342965) evaluated first-line erlotinib versus gemcitabine/cisplatin (GP) in patients from China, Malaysia and the Philippines with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation-positive non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC).
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/antagonists & inhibitors; Receptor, Epidermal Growth Factor/genetics
  16. Oskoueian E, Abdullah N, Ahmad S, Saad WZ, Omar AR, Ho YW
    Int J Mol Sci, 2011;12(9):5955-70.
    PMID: 22016638 DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095955
    Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0-1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe(3+)) to ferrous ion (Fe(2+)). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Gram-Negative Bacteria/growth & development; Gram-Positive Bacteria/growth & development
  17. Abdul Aziz NA, Wong LM, Bhat R, Cheng LH
    J. Sci. Food Agric., 2012 Feb;92(3):557-63.
    PMID: 25363645 DOI: 10.1002/jsfa.4606
    Mango is a highly perishable seasonal fruit and large quantities are wasted during the peak season as a result of poor postharvest handling procedures. Processing surplus mango fruits into flour to be used as a functional ingredient appears to be a good preservation method to ensure its extended consumption.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development; Mangifera/growth & development
  18. Kitahashi T, Ogawa S, Soga T, Sakuma Y, Parhar I
    Endocrinology, 2007 Dec;148(12):5822-30.
    PMID: 17823257
    The role of steroid/thyroid hormones in the regulation of endocrine cells at the level of the pituitary has remained unclear. Therefore, using single-cell quantitative real-time PCR, we examined absolute amounts of transcripts for nuclear receptors [estrogen receptors (ERs) alpha, beta, and gamma; androgen receptors (ARs) a and b; glucocorticoid receptors (GRs) 1, 2a, and 2b; and thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) alpha1, alpha2, and beta] in pituitary cells of immature (IM) and mature (M) male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. In the two reproductive stages, ACTH cells expressed only ERbeta, whereas all other pituitary cell types expressed ERalpha + beta, and a subpopulation coexpressed ARa, ARb, GR1, GR2b, and TRbeta but lacked ERgamma, GR2a, TRalpha1, and TRalpha2. IM males had high percentages of LH cells (IM 46.0% vs. M 10.0%), GH cells (IM 23.3% vs. M 7.9%), and prolactin cells (IM 68.8% vs. M 6.0%) with ERbeta, and TSH cells (IM 19.2% vs. M 0.0%) and MSH cells (IM 25.6% vs. M 0.0%) with ERalpha + TRbeta. A high percentage of FSH cells in IM males expressed ERbeta (IM 46.9% vs. M 18.8%), and FSH cells in M males showed significantly high GR1 transcripts (IM 76.0 +/- 5.0 vs. M 195.0 +/- 10.7 copies per cell; P < 0.05), suggesting that FSH cells are regulated differently in the two reproductive stages. Coexpression of ERalpha + beta in high percentages of cells of the GH family (GH, IM 43.8% vs. M 14.3%; prolactin, IM 8.3% vs. M 59.7%; somatolactin, IM 22.2% vs. M 42.2%) suggests that the expression of both ERs is important for functionality. Thus, differential coexpression of genes for nuclear receptors in subpopulations of pituitary cell types suggests multiple steroid/thyroid hormone regulatory pathways at the level of the pituitary during the two reproductive stages.
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth Hormone/genetics; Growth Hormone/metabolism
  19. Al-Obaidi MMJ, Bahadoran A, Har LS, Mui WS, Rajarajeswaran J, Zandi K, et al.
    Virus Res., 2017 04 02;233:17-28.
    PMID: 28279803 DOI: 10.1016/j.virusres.2017.02.012
    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a neurotropic flavivirus that causes inflammation in central nervous system (CNS), neuronal death and also compromises the structural and functional integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of this study was to evaluate the BBB disruption and apoptotic process in Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV)-infected transfected human brain microvascular endothelial cells (THBMECs). THBMECs were overlaid by JEV with different MOIs (0.5, 1.0, 5.0 and 10.0) and monitored by electrical cell-substrate impedance sensing (ECIS) in a real-time manner in order to observe the barrier function of THBMECs. Additionally, the level of 43 apoptotic proteins was quantified in the virally infected cells with different MOIs at 24h post infection. Infection of THBMEC with JEV induced an acute reduction in transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) after viral infection. Also, significant up-regulation of Bax, BID, Fas and Fasl and down-regulation of IGFBP-2, BID, p27 and p53 were observed in JEV infected THBMECs with 0.5 and 10 MOIs compared to uninfected cells. Hence, the permeability of THBMECs is compromised during the JEV infection. In addition high viral load of the virus has the potential to subvert the host cell apoptosis to optimize the course of viral infection through deactivation of pro-apoptotic proteins.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2/genetics; Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2/metabolism
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