Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1946 in total

  1. Almasi D, Sadeghi M, Lau WJ, Roozbahani F, Iqbal N
    Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl, 2016 Jul 01;64:102-107.
    PMID: 27127033 DOI: 10.1016/j.msec.2016.03.053
    The present work reviews the current fabrication methods of the functionally graded polymeric material (FGPM) and introduces a novel fabrication method that is versatile in applications as compared to those of existing used methods. For the first time electrophoresis was used to control the distribution of the tetracycline hydrochloride (TC) in a film made of polylactic acid (PLA), aiming to induce antimicrobial effect on the film prepared. The elemental analysis on the film surface showed that by employing electrophoresis force, higher amount of TC was detected near the top surface of the film. Results also showed that the FGPM samples with higher percentage of the TC on the film surface were highly effective to minimize the growth of Escherichia coli. These findings are useful and important to improve dispersion quality of the particles in the composite material and further enhance its antibacterial property.
    Matched MeSH terms: Escherichia coli/growth & development*
  2. Sivanandam S, Sandosham AA
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):238.
    PMID: 4234713
    Matched MeSH terms: Filarioidea/growth & development*
  3. Cheong WH, Sta Maria FL
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):244-5.
    PMID: 4234380
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/growth & development*
  4. Bisseru B, Poopalachelvam M
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):234-5.
    PMID: 4234370
    Matched MeSH terms: Strongyloides/growth & development*
  5. Thomas V
    Med J Malaya, 1966 Jun;20(4):335.
    PMID: 4224349
    Matched MeSH terms: Insects/growth & development*
  6. Nadchatram M, Audy JR
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Sep;20(1):80-1.
    PMID: 4221435
    Matched MeSH terms: Mites/growth & development*
  7. Umathevy T
    Med J Malaya, 1965 Sep;20(1):58.
    PMID: 4221419
    Matched MeSH terms: Echinostoma/growth & development*
  8. Selvarajoo PD, Haque RA, Haziz UFM, Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Razali MR
    J. Inorg. Biochem., 2017 10;175:232-238.
    PMID: 28800547 DOI: 10.1016/j.jinorgbio.2017.07.030
    New synthesized bis-imidazolium salts that are linked by xylyl derivatives moiety, 1-4 was reacted with Ag2O to facilitate the formation of dinuclear Ag(I)-N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) complexes, 5-8, respectively. All the synthesized ligand salts and complexes were characterized by1H and13C NMR, FTIR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Molecular structures of compounds 3, 5, and 7 were elucidated by single crystal X-ray diffraction analyses. Larvicidal studies against the Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus were carried out on all synthesized compounds following the World Health Organization standard larval susceptibility test. All the imidazolium salts were found inactive while the activity of the dinuclear Ag(I)-NHC complexes on mosquito larvae are varies with the nature of the ligands. Complex 7 has high activity on Ae. aegypti and Cx. quinquefasciatus, emphasising its potential as a larvicidal compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Aedes/growth & development*; Culex/growth & development*; Larva/growth & development
  9. Cheong WH, Mahadevan S
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):241.
    PMID: 4234376
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/growth & development*; Culex/growth & development*
  10. Hamad AM, Taha RM
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2008 Feb 01;11(3):386-91.
    PMID: 18817160
    Seven different hormone treatments, namely 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) at 2, 3 mg L(-1) was applied singly and in combination with Indole Acetic Acid (IAA) at 0.18, 0.8 and 1.8 mg L(-l), BAP at 3.3 mg L(-l) in combination with IAA at 1.8 and 3.3 mg L(-l) and triple combination of BAP at 2.3, IAA at 1.8 and Gibberellic acid (GA3) at 1.0 mg L(-1) were tested, over four different incubation periods of 30, 45, 60 and 75 days, for their effect in the proliferation and growth of Smooth cayenne pineapple shoot-tip culture. Combined application of BAP at 3.3 and IAA at 1.8 mg L(-1) induced the highest proliferation of 19 shoots/explant and the highest total of 121 and 125 shoots over 4 cycles of multiplication. Raising the IAA to 3.3 mg L(-1) resulted in the lowest proliferation and stunted shoots. Incorporation of GA3 improved the shoot length but caused drastic reduction in proliferation. The other treatments showed an intermediate effect.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology*; Plant Shoots/growth & development*; Ananas/growth & development*
  11. Koh LP, Miettinen J, Liew SC, Ghazoul J
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2011 Mar 22;108(12):5127-32.
    PMID: 21383161 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1018776108
    Rising global demands for food and biofuels are driving forest clearance in the tropics. Oil-palm expansion contributes to biodiversity declines and carbon emissions in Southeast Asia. However, the magnitudes of these impacts remain largely unquantified until now. We produce a 250-m spatial resolution map of closed canopy oil-palm plantations in the lowlands of Peninsular Malaysia (2 million ha), Borneo (2.4 million ha), and Sumatra (3.9 million ha). We demonstrate that 6% (or ≈880,000 ha) of tropical peatlands in the region had been converted to oil-palm plantations by the early 2000s. Conversion of peatswamp forests to oil palm led to biodiversity declines of 1% in Borneo (equivalent to four species of forest-dwelling birds), 3.4% in Sumatra (16 species), and 12.1% in Peninsular Malaysia (46 species). This land-use change also contributed to the loss of ≈140 million Mg of aboveground biomass carbon, and annual emissions of ≈4.6 million Mg of belowground carbon from peat oxidation. Additionally, the loss of peatswamp forests implies the loss of carbon sequestration service through peat accumulation, which amounts to ≈660,000 Mg of carbon annually. By 2010, 2.3 million ha of peatswamp forests were clear-felled, and currently occur as degraded lands. Reforestation of these clearings could enhance biodiversity by up to ≈20%, whereas oil-palm establishment would exacerbate species losses by up to ≈12%. To safeguard the region's biodiversity and carbon stocks, conservation and reforestation efforts should target Central Kalimantan, Riau, and West Kalimantan, which retain three-quarters (3.9 million ha) of the remaining peatswamp forests in Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trees/growth & development*; Arecaceae/growth & development*
  12. Thevasagayam ES, Khoon CC, Siong Y
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1979 Dec;34(2):117-30.
    PMID: 548712
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/growth & development*; Diptera/growth & development*
  13. Kian Joe Lie, Umathevy T
    J. Parasitol., 1965 Oct;51(5):793-9.
    PMID: 5857279
    Matched MeSH terms: Echinostoma/growth & development*; Trematoda/growth & development*
  14. Burgess AJ, Retkute R, Pound MP, Mayes S, Murchie EH
    Ann. Bot., 2017 03 01;119(4):517-532.
    PMID: 28065926 DOI: 10.1093/aob/mcw242
    Background and Aims: Intercropping systems contain two or more species simultaneously in close proximity. Due to contrasting features of the component crops, quantification of the light environment and photosynthetic productivity is extremely difficult. However it is an essential component of productivity. Here, a low-tech but high-resolution method is presented that can be applied to single- and multi-species cropping systems to facilitate characterization of the light environment. Different row layouts of an intercrop consisting of Bambara groundnut ( Vigna subterranea ) and proso millet ( Panicum miliaceum ) have been used as an example and the new opportunities presented by this approach have been analysed.

    Methods: Three-dimensional plant reconstruction, based on stereo cameras, combined with ray tracing was implemented to explore the light environment within the Bambara groundnut-proso millet intercropping system and associated monocrops. Gas exchange data were used to predict the total carbon gain of each component crop.

    Key Results: The shading influence of the tall proso millet on the shorter Bambara groundnut results in a reduction in total canopy light interception and carbon gain. However, the increased leaf area index (LAI) of proso millet, higher photosynthetic potential due to the C4 pathway and sub-optimal photosynthetic acclimation of Bambara groundnut to shade means that increasing the number of rows of millet will lead to greater light interception and carbon gain per unit ground area, despite Bambara groundnut intercepting more light per unit leaf area.

    Conclusions: Three-dimensional reconstruction combined with ray tracing provides a novel, accurate method of exploring the light environment within an intercrop that does not require difficult measurements of light interception and data-intensive manual reconstruction, especially for such systems with inherently high spatial possibilities. It provides new opportunities for calculating potential productivity within multi-species cropping systems, enables the quantification of dynamic physiological differences between crops grown as monoculture and those within intercrops, and enables the prediction of new productive combinations of previously untested crops.

    Matched MeSH terms: Panicum/growth & development; Vigna/growth & development
  15. Mondal MM, Puteh AB, Malek MA, Ismail MR, Rafii MY, Latif MA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2012;2012:425168.
    PMID: 22919319 DOI: 10.1100/2012/425168
    Growth parameters such as leaf area (LA), total dry mass (TDM) production, crop growth rate (CGR), relative growth rate (RGR), and net assimilation rate (NAR) were compared in six varieties of mungbean under subtropical condition (24°8' N 90°0' E) to identify limiting growth characters for the efficient application of physiology breeding for higher yields. Results revealed that a relatively smaller portion of TDM was produced before flower initiation and the bulk of it after anthesis. The maximum CGR was observed during pod filling stage in all the varieties due to maximum leaf area (LA) development at this stage. Two plant characters such as LA and CGR contributed to the higher TDM production. Results indicated that high yielding mungbean varieties should possess larger LA, higher TDM production ability, superior CGR at all growth stages, and high relative growth rate and net assimilation rate at vegetative stage which would result in superior yield components.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fabaceae/growth & development; Seeds/growth & development*; Crops, Agricultural/growth & development
  16. Hasbullah NA, Taha RM, Awal A
    Pak. J. Biol. Sci., 2008 Jun 01;11(11):1449-54.
    PMID: 18817245
    Regeneration potentials in Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex. Hook f. from tissues culture system was studied using leaf, petiole and root explants. In vitro regeneration, callus induction and root formation were optimized by manipulation of growth regulators during organogenesis. Various kinds of plant growth regulators such as 6-Benzylaminopurine (BAP), alpha-Naphthalene acetic acid (NAA), 2, 4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), Indole-3-Butyric acid (IBA), N6-[2-Isopentenyl]adenine (2iP), Kinetin and Zeatin were used to initiate cultures. These plant growth regulators were added to Murashige and Skoog medium in different combinations and concentrations. Adventitious shoots were obtained from petiole explants cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 2.0 mg L(-1) BAP and 0.5 mg L(-1) NAA. Effectiveness of shoot regeneration medium, type of growth regulator used and duration of induction period were investigated. Leaf explants cultured on MS medium supplemented with 1.0 mg L(-1) BAP and 2.0 mg L(-1) 2, 4-D showed the best results for callus induction. Root explants were found to be non-regenerative in all experiments conducted. Petiole segment was identified as the best explant for regeneration of this species. Regenerated plants were rooted on Murashige and Skoog basal medium. Plantlets were then transferred to field with 75% survival rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology; Asteraceae/growth & development*
  17. Nathan L
    Family Practitioner, 1983;6:33-38.
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth and Development
  18. Aaqillah-Amr MA, Hidir A, Noordiyana MN, Ikhwanuddin M
    Anim. Reprod. Sci., 2018 Aug;195:274-283.
    PMID: 29910008 DOI: 10.1016/j.anireprosci.2018.06.005
    This study describes the fatty acids, total carotenoids, and cell diameter characteristics of the female ovary and hepatopancreas of the mud crab, Scylla olivacea, with comparisons at different ovarian maturation stages. Seventy-one S. olivacea individuals at all stages of ovarian maturation were sampled from the Setiu wetlands, Terengganu, Malaysia. The ovary and hepatopancreas of each crab were used for morphological studies, histological and biochemical analyses (fatty acid composition and total carotenoids). Morphological observations indicated there was an increase in ovarian gonado-somatic index (GSI), with color changes from translucent to dark red; however, a relatively consistent hepato-somatic index (HSI) in the hepatopancreas, with the color ranging from yellow to yellowish-brown. Histological analysis indicated that oocyte diameter was positively correlated with GSI. Hepatopancreatic tubules had a relatively constant diameter from Stage 2 to 4, with increased proportions of R- and B-cells. Biochemical analysis indicated there was a significant increase in total carotenoids in the ovary during maturation. The hepatopancreas, however, had relatively consistent total carotenoid concentrations that were greater than those of the ovary. Overall, the lipid analysis results indicated there were lesser concentrations of fatty acids in the hepatopancreas, while in the ovary there were increasing concentrations during maturation. The lesser concentrations of fatty acids in the hepatopancreas than ovary suggested that energy was transferred to the ovary for future embryonic and larval development. The relationship between the hepatopancreas and the ovary in nutrient content is an important finding in providing a baseline to formulate an optimal diet for improved mud crab hatchery practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Brachyura/growth & development*; Ovary/growth & development*; Hepatopancreas/growth & development*
  19. Feeley KJ, Joseph Wright S, Nur Supardi MN, Kassim AR, Davies SJ
    Ecol. Lett., 2007 Jun;10(6):461-9.
    PMID: 17498145
    The impacts of global change on tropical forests remain poorly understood. We examined changes in tree growth rates over the past two decades for all species occurring in large (50-ha) forest dynamics plots in Panama and Malaysia. Stem growth rates declined significantly at both forests regardless of initial size or organizational level (species, community or stand). Decreasing growth rates were widespread, occurring in 24-71% of species at Barro Colorado Island, Panama (BCI) and in 58-95% of species at Pasoh, Malaysia (depending on the sizes of stems included). Changes in growth were not consistently associated with initial growth rate, adult stature, or wood density. Changes in growth were significantly associated with regional climate changes: at both sites growth was negatively correlated with annual mean daily minimum temperatures, and at BCI growth was positively correlated with annual precipitation and number of rainfree days (a measure of relative insolation). While the underlying cause(s) of decelerating growth is still unresolved, these patterns strongly contradict the hypothesized pantropical increase in tree growth rates caused by carbon fertilization. Decelerating tree growth will have important economic and environmental implications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Trees/growth & development*
  20. Kruatrachue M, Chesdapan C
    Med J Malaya, 1968 Mar;22(3):231-2.
    PMID: 4234367
    Matched MeSH terms: Echinostoma/growth & development*
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