Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1946 in total

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  1. Cherian S, Figueroa CR, Nair H
    J. Exp. Bot., 2014 Sep;65(17):4705-22.
    PMID: 24994760 DOI: 10.1093/jxb/eru280
    Fruit ripening is a complex and highly coordinated developmental process involving the expression of many ripening-related genes under the control of a network of signalling pathways. The hormonal control of climacteric fruit ripening, especially ethylene perception and signalling transduction in tomato has been well characterized. Additionally, great strides have been made in understanding some of the major regulatory switches (transcription factors such as RIPENING-INHIBITOR and other transcriptional regulators such as COLOURLESS NON-RIPENING, TOMATO AGAMOUS-LIKE1 and ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTORs), that are involved in tomato fruit ripening. In contrast, the regulatory network related to non-climacteric fruit ripening remains poorly understood. However, some of the most recent breakthrough research data have provided several lines of evidences for abscisic acid- and sucrose-mediated ripening of strawberry, a non-climacteric fruit model. In this review, we discuss the most recent research findings concerning the hormonal regulation of fleshy fruit ripening and their cross-talk and the future challenges taking tomato as a climacteric fruit model and strawberry as a non-climacteric fruit model. We also highlight the possible contribution of epigenetic changes including the role of plant microRNAs, which is opening new avenues and great possibilities in the fields of fruit-ripening research and postharvest biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Fruit/growth & development; Plant Growth Regulators/metabolism*; Lycopersicon esculentum/growth & development; Fragaria/growth & development
  2. Lim CS, Wong WF, Rosli R, Ng KP, Seow HF, Chong PP
    J. Basic Microbiol., 2009 Dec;49(6):579-83.
    PMID: 19810039 DOI: 10.1002/jobm.200900035
    Candida albicans is capable of undergoing yeast-hypha transition to attain pathogenicity in humans. In this study, we investigated the differential expression of CaSIR2 via quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), during yeast-hypha transition with and without the presence of 2-dodecanol. SIR2 transcript levels were found to be significantly enhanced after hyphal induction as compared to the yeast form. This study found that 2-dodecanol is able to inhibit hyphal development and block SIR2 up-regulation, even in hyphal-inducing growth conditions. We suggest that SIR2 may be involved in Candida albicans quorum-sensing and serum-induced yeast-hyphae transition via the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 signalling cascade.
    Matched MeSH terms: Candida albicans/growth & development; Hyphae/growth & development*
  3. Brunton PJ, Donadio MV, Yao ST, Greenwood M, Seckl JR, Murphy D, et al.
    J. Neurosci., 2015 Jan 14;35(2):666-77.
    PMID: 25589761 DOI: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5104-13.2015
    Maternal social stress during late pregnancy programs hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis hyper-responsiveness to stressors, such that adult prenatally stressed (PNS) offspring display exaggerated HPA axis responses to a physical stressor (systemic interleukin-1β; IL-1β) in adulthood, compared with controls. IL-1β acts via a noradrenergic relay from the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) to corticotropin releasing hormone neurons in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Neurosteroids can reduce HPA axis responses, so allopregnanolone and 3β-androstanediol (3β-diol; 5α-reduced metabolites of progesterone and testosterone, respectively) were given subacutely (over 24 h) to PNS rats to seek reversal of the "programmed" hyper-responsive HPA phenotype. Allopregnanolone attenuated ACTH responses to IL-1β (500 ng/kg, i.v.) in PNS females, but not in PNS males. However, 3β-diol normalized HPA axis responses to IL-1β in PNS males. Impaired testosterone and progesterone metabolism or increased secretion in PNS rats was indicated by greater plasma testosterone and progesterone concentrations in male and female PNS rats, respectively. Deficits in central neurosteroid production were indicated by reduced 5α-reductase mRNA levels in both male and female PNS offspring in the NTS, and in the PVN in males. In PNS females, adenovirus-mediated gene transfer was used to upregulate expression of 5α-reductase and 3α-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase mRNAs in the NTS, and this normalized hyperactive HPA axis responses to IL-1β. Thus, downregulation of neurosteroid production in the brain may underlie HPA axis hyper-responsiveness in prenatally programmed offspring, and administration of 5α-reduced steroids acutely to PNS rats overrides programming of hyperactive HPA axis responses to immune challenge in a sex-dependent manner.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System/growth & development; Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus/growth & development; Pituitary-Adrenal System/growth & development; Solitary Nucleus/growth & development
  4. Seow SLS, Hong SL, Lee GS, Malek SNA, Sabaratnam V
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Jun 24;17(1):334.
    PMID: 28646880 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1837-6
    BACKGROUND: Ginger is a popular spice and food preservative. The rhizomes of the common ginger have been used as traditional medicine to treat various ailments. 6-Shogaol, a pungent compound isolated from the rhizomes of jahe gajah (Zingiber officinale var officinale) has shown numerous pharmacological activities, including neuroprotective and anti-neuroinflammatory activities. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of 6-shogaol to mimic the neuritogenic activity of nerve growth factor (NGF) in rat pheochromocytoma (PC-12) cells.

    METHODS: The cytotoxic effect of 6-shogaol was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The neuritogenic activity was assessed by neurite outgrowth stimulation assay while the concentration of extracellular NGF in cell culture supernatant was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Involvement of cellular signaling pathways, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase1/2 (MEK/ERK1/2) and phosphoinositide-3-kinase/protein kinase B (PI3K/AKT) in 6-shogaol-stimulated neuritogenesis were examined by using specific pharmacological inhibitors.

    RESULTS: 6-Shogaol (500 ng/ml) induced neuritogenesis that was comparable to NGF (50 ng/ml) and was not cytotoxic towards PC-12 cells. 6-Shogaol induced low level of NGF biosynthesis in PC-12 cells, showing that 6-shogaol stimulated neuritogenesis possibly by inducing NGF biosynthesis, and also acting as a substitute for NGF (NGF mimic) in PC-12 cells. The inhibitors of Trk receptor (K252a), MEK/ERK1/2 (U0126 and PD98059) and PI3K/AKT (LY294002) attenuated the neuritogenic activity of both NGF and 6-shogaol, respectively.

    CONCLUSIONS: The present findings demonstrated that 6-shogaol induced neuritogenic activity in PC-12 cells via the activation MEK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. This study suggests that 6-shogaol could act as an NGF mimic, which may be beneficial for preventive and therapeutic uses in neurodegenerative diseases.

    Matched MeSH terms: Nerve Growth Factor/metabolism*
  5. Sideek MA, Smith J, Menz C, Adams JRJ, Cowin AJ, Gibson MA
    Int J Mol Sci, 2017 Oct 09;18(10).
    PMID: 28991210 DOI: 10.3390/ijms18102114
    Latent transforming growth factor-β-1 binding protein-2 (LTBP-2) belongs to the LTBP-fibrillin superfamily of extracellular proteins. Unlike other LTBPs, LTBP-2 does not covalently bind transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) but appears to be implicated in the regulation of TGF-β1 bioactivity, although the mechanisms are largely unknown. In experiments originally designed to study the displacement of latent TGF-β1 complexes from matrix storage, we found that the addition of exogenous LTBP-2 to cultured human MSU-1.1 fibroblasts caused an increase in TGF-β1 levels in the medium. However, the TGF-β1 increase was due to an upregulation of TGF-β1 expression and secretion rather than a displacement of matrix-stored TGF-β1. The secreted TGF-β1 was mainly in an inactive form, and its concentration peaked around 15 h after addition of LTBP-2. Using a series of recombinant LTBP-2 fragments, the bioactivity was identified to a small region of LTBP-2 consisting of an 8-Cys motif flanked by four epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. The LTBP-2 stimulation of TGF-β expression involved the phosphorylation of both Akt and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalling proteins, and specific inactivation of each protein individually blocked TGF-β1 increase. The search for the cell surface receptor mediating this LTBP-2 activity proved inconclusive. Inhibitory antibodies to integrins β1 and αVβ5 showed no reduction of LTBP-2 stimulation of TGF-β1. However, TGF-β1 upregulation was partially inhibited by anti-αVβ3 integrin antibodies, suggestive of a direct or indirect role for this integrin. Overall, the study indicates that LTBP-2 can directly upregulate cellular TGF-β1 expression and secretion by interaction with cells via a short central bioactive region. This may be significant in connective tissue disorders involving aberrant TGF-β1 signalling.
    Matched MeSH terms: Transforming Growth Factor beta1/metabolism*
  6. Travis RC, Appleby PN, Martin RM, Holly JMP, Albanes D, Black A, et al.
    Cancer Res., 2016 04 15;76(8):2288-2300.
    PMID: 26921328 DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-15-1551
    The role of insulin-like growth factors (IGF) in prostate cancer development is not fully understood. To investigate the association between circulating concentrations of IGFs (IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-1, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3) and prostate cancer risk, we pooled individual participant data from 17 prospective and two cross-sectional studies, including up to 10,554 prostate cancer cases and 13,618 control participants. Conditional logistic regression was used to estimate the ORs for prostate cancer based on the study-specific fifth of each analyte. Overall, IGF-I, IGF-II, IGFBP-2, and IGFBP-3 concentrations were positively associated with prostate cancer risk (Ptrend all ≤ 0.005), and IGFBP-1 was inversely associated weakly with risk (Ptrend = 0.05). However, heterogeneity between the prospective and cross-sectional studies was evident (Pheterogeneity = 0.03), unless the analyses were restricted to prospective studies (with the exception of IGF-II, Pheterogeneity = 0.02). For prospective studies, the OR for men in the highest versus the lowest fifth of each analyte was 1.29 (95% confidence interval, 1.16-1.43) for IGF-I, 0.81 (0.68-0.96) for IGFBP-1, and 1.25 (1.12-1.40) for IGFBP-3. These associations did not differ significantly by time-to-diagnosis or tumor stage or grade. After mutual adjustment for each of the other analytes, only IGF-I remained associated with risk. Our collaborative study represents the largest pooled analysis of the relationship between prostate cancer risk and circulating concentrations of IGF-I, providing strong evidence that IGF-I is highly likely to be involved in prostate cancer development. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2288-300. ©2016 AACR.
    Matched MeSH terms: Insulin-Like Growth Factor I/metabolism*
  7. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Saeung A
    J. Med. Entomol., 2018 05 04;55(3):569-574.
    PMID: 29361148 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjx242
    Simulium (Asiosimulium) saeungae sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae collected from Nan Province, Northern Thailand. It is characterized by the medium-long cerci in the female, enlarged hind basitarsus, and broad ventral plate with its posterior margin not deeply concave in the male, arborescent pupal gill with 42-56 filaments in the pupa and smaller number of primary rays of the labral fan (30-33) in the larva. This is the fifth species of the subgenus Asiosimulium, the second smallest among 10 subgenera in the Oriental Region. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from the three known species from Thailand and one from Nepal.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Pupa/growth & development; Simuliidae/growth & development
  8. Takaoka H, Sofian-Azirun M, Ya'cob Z, Chen CD, Low VL, Harmonis
    J. Med. Entomol., 2016 07;53(4):798-806.
    PMID: 27099400
    A new simuliid species, Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov., is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and is assigned to the Simulium banauense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). This new species has close similarities to S alienigenum Takaoka from the Philippines, in many characters including the adult antennal color pattern and pupal gill with four long filaments arranged in two pairs each bearing a long stalk, but is distinguished from the latter in the female by the longer sensory vesicle and in the pupa by the gill with an elongate common basal stalk. Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov. is the first member of the S. banauense group in Borneo, and marks the most southerly distribution of the group. Keys to identify 19 Bornean species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia are provided.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Pupa/growth & development; Simuliidae/growth & development
  9. Takaoka H, Low VL, Tan TK, Huang YT, Fukuda M, Ya'cob Z
    J. Med. Entomol., 2018 06 28;55(4):884-892.
    PMID: 29538704 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjy028
    A new black fly species, Simulium haiduanense Takaoka, Low & Huang (Diptera: Simuliidae), is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Taiwan. This new species is placed in the Simulium argentipes species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) and is characterized by the yellowish female legs, ovipositor valves rounded apically and with its inner margin concave, claw with a small subbasal tooth, male style without a basal protuberance, pupal gill with eight filaments, corbicular cocoon, and larval abdomen lacking paired protuberances. It represents the first record of the S. argentipes species-group from Taiwan. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from all eight species in the same species-group. The phylogenetic relationships of this new species with four related species are presented.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Pupa/growth & development; Simuliidae/growth & development
  10. Marin-Mogollon C, Salman AM, Koolen KMJ, Bolscher JM, van Pul FJA, Miyazaki S, et al.
    PMID: 31058097 DOI: 10.3389/fcimb.2019.00096
    Transgenic malaria parasites expressing fluorescent and bioluminescent proteins are valuable tools to interrogate malaria-parasite biology and to evaluate drugs and vaccines. Using CRISPR/Cas9 methodology a transgenic Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) NF54 line was generated that expresses a fusion of mCherry and luciferase genes under the control of the Pf etramp10.3 gene promoter (line mCherry-luc@etramp10.3). Pf etramp10.3 is related to rodent Plasmodium uis4 and the uis4 promoter has been used to drive high transgene expression in rodent parasite sporozoites and liver-stages. We examined transgene expression throughout the complete life cycle and compared this expression to transgenic lines expressing mCherry-luciferase and GFP-luciferase under control of the constitutive gapdh and eef1a promoters. The mCherry-luc@etramp10.3 parasites express mCherry in gametocytes, sporozoites, and liver-stages. While no mCherry signal was detected in asexual blood-stage parasites above background levels, luciferase expression was detected in asexual blood-stages, as well as in gametocytes, sporozoites and liver-stages, with the highest levels of reporter expression detected in stage III-V gametocytes and in sporozoites. The expression of mCherry and luciferase in gametocytes and sporozoites makes this transgenic parasite line suitable to use in in vitro assays that examine the effect of transmission blocking inhibitors and to analyse gametocyte and sporozoite biology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium falciparum/growth & development*; Sporozoites/growth & development
  11. Yeates DK, Cranston PS
    Zootaxa, 2013;3680:1-211.
    PMID: 26146692 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.3680.1.1
    Donald Henry Colless (24 August 1922–16 February 2012) was a taxonomist at the Australian National Insect Collection (ANIC) from 1960 until his retirement in 1987. He continued working in ANIC as an Honorary Fellow until his death in 2012. Don’s main scientific interests were in the taxonomy and biology of true flies, and in the theory of phylogenetic reconstruction and classification. Don was trained in entomology at the University of Sydney, and spent nearly two decades of his early career in Asia studying mosquitoes and disease transmission, first in the Army during the Second World War in New Guinea and Borneo (1942–45), then after the war in North Borneo (1947–1952) and as a lecturer in the Department of Parasitology at the University of Malaya (1952–1960) in Singapore. We list the 127 scientific papers and book chapters that Don published during his scientific career that spanned 64 years. Six of these papers were published in the prestigious international journal Nature, and he was Chief Curator of the ANIC from 1971–1977. Don had extremely broad taxonomic interests, publishing on the taxonomy of 18 families of Diptera that spanned the phylogenetic breadth of the order. He described as new to science the fly families Perissommatidae and Axiniidae, thirteen new genera and over 120 species and, with David McAlpine, authored the Diptera chapters in both editions of The Insects of Australia (Melbourne University Press, 1970 and 1991). He published a number of influential critiques of cladistic theory in the 1960's and 1970's, and advocated a phenetic approach to the discovery of taxonomic groups, and phylogenetic reconstruction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Animal Structures/growth & development; Diptera/growth & development
  12. Cheong WH, Rajamanikam C, Mahadevan S
    PMID: 749234
    Matched MeSH terms: Hymenoptera/growth & development*; Wasps/growth & development*
  13. Lee HL, Chandrawathani P, Wong WY, Tharam S, Lim WY
    Malays J Pathol, 1995 Dec;17(2):109-11.
    PMID: 8935136
    A case of true enteric myiasis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Two larvae were obtained from the vomitus of the patient. After processing and identification, the larvae were found to be those of Hermetia illucens (Soldier Fly). This is the first case of true enteric myiasis due to these larvae in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Diptera/growth & development*
  14. Musa MI, Shohaimi S, Hashim NR, Krishnarajah I
    Geospat Health, 2012 Nov;7(1):27-36.
    PMID: 23242678
    Malaria remains a major health problem in Sudan. With a population exceeding 39 million, there are around 7.5 million cases and 35,000 deaths every year. The predicted distribution of malaria derived from climate factors such as maximum and minimum temperatures, rainfall and relative humidity was compared with the actual number of malaria cases in Sudan for the period 2004 to 2010. The predictive calculations were done by fuzzy logic suitability (FLS) applied to the numerical distribution of malaria transmission based on the life cycle characteristics of the Anopheles mosquito accounting for the impact of climate factors on malaria transmission. This information is visualized as a series of maps (presented in video format) using a geographical information systems (GIS) approach. The climate factors were found to be suitable for malaria transmission in the period of May to October, whereas the actual case rates of malaria were high from June to November indicating a positive correlation. While comparisons between the prediction model for June and the case rate model for July did not show a high degree of association (18%), the results later in the year were better, reaching the highest level (55%) for October prediction and November case rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Anopheles/growth & development
  15. Mat Ariffin N, Islahudin F, Kumolosasi E, Makmor-Bakry M
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2017 12 08;17(1):759.
    PMID: 29216842 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-017-2868-9
    BACKGROUND: Recurrence rates of Plasmodium vivax infections differ across various geographic regions. Interestingly, South-East Asia and the Asia-Pacific region are documented to exhibit the most frequent recurrence incidences. Identifying patients at a higher risk for recurrences gives valuable information in strengthening the efforts to control P. vivax infections. The aim of the study was to develop a tool to identify P. vivax- infected patients that are at a higher risk of recurrence in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Patient data was obtained retrospectively through the Ministry of Health, Malaysia, from 2011 to 2016. Patients with incomplete data were excluded. A total of 2044 clinical P. vivax malaria cases treated with primaquine were included. Data collected were patient, disease, and treatment characteristics. Two-thirds of the cases (n = 1362) were used to develop a clinical risk score, while the remaining third (n = 682) was used for validation.

    RESULTS: Using multivariate analysis, age (p = 0.03), gametocyte sexual count (p = 0.04), indigenous transmission (p = 0.04), type of treatment (p = 0.12), and incomplete primaquine treatment (p = 0.14) were found to be predictors of recurrence after controlling for other confounding factors; these predictors were then used in developing the final model. The beta-coefficient values were used to develop a clinical scoring tool to predict possible recurrence. The total scores ranged between 0 and 8. A higher score indicated a higher risk for recurrence (odds ratio [OR]: 1.971; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.562-2.487; p ≤ 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the developed (n = 1362) and validated model (n = 682) was of good accuracy (ROC: 0.728, 95% CI: 0.670-0.785, p value 

    Matched MeSH terms: Plasmodium vivax/growth & development
  16. Hussein Z, Tress B, Colman PG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jun;60(2):232-6.
    PMID: 16114168
    Thyrotoxicosis due to Graves disease is a relatively common endocrine disorder. The occurrence of a prolactinoma with co-secretion of growth hormone (GH) is on the other hand, rare. We report the rare co-existence of Graves' disease in a patient with macroprolactinoma and GH hypersecretion and describe the successful response to medical therapy with dopamine agonist and antithyroid therapy. We hypothesize that hyperprolactinaemia played a role in promoting autoimmune thyroid disease in our patient and that treatment of hyperprolactinaemia may have been important in suppressing autoimmune disease activity in Graves' disease. This case also reflects on the close and complex interactions between thyroid hormones, prolactin (PRL), GH and testosterone (T).
    Matched MeSH terms: Growth Hormone/blood; Growth Hormone/secretion*
  17. Li Z, Allingham RR, Nakano M, Jia L, Chen Y, Ikeda Y, et al.
    Hum. Mol. Genet., 2015 Jul 01;24(13):3880-92.
    PMID: 25861811 DOI: 10.1093/hmg/ddv128
    Primary open angle glaucoma (POAG), a major cause of blindness worldwide, is a complex disease with a significant genetic contribution. We performed Exome Array (Illumina) analysis on 3504 POAG cases and 9746 controls with replication of the most significant findings in 9173 POAG cases and 26 780 controls across 18 collections of Asian, African and European descent. Apart from confirming strong evidence of association at CDKN2B-AS1 (rs2157719 [G], odds ratio [OR] = 0.71, P = 2.81 × 10(-33)), we observed one SNP showing significant association to POAG (CDC7-TGFBR3 rs1192415, ORG-allele = 1.13, Pmeta = 1.60 × 10(-8)). This particular SNP has previously been shown to be strongly associated with optic disc area and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, which are regarded as glaucoma-related quantitative traits. Our study now extends this by directly implicating it in POAG disease pathogenesis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Receptors, Transforming Growth Factor beta/genetics*
  18. Noor YM, Samsulrizal NH, Jema'on NA, Low KO, Ramli AN, Alias NI, et al.
    Gene, 2014 Jul 25;545(2):253-61.
    PMID: 24811681 DOI: 10.1016/j.gene.2014.05.012
    Bacillus lehensis G1 is a Gram-positive, moderately alkalitolerant bacterium isolated from soil samples. B. lehensis produces cyclodextrin glucanotransferase (CGTase), an enzyme that has enabled the extensive use of cyclodextrin in foodstuffs, chemicals, and pharmaceuticals. The genome sequence of B. lehensis G1 consists of a single circular 3.99 Mb chromosome containing 4017 protein-coding sequences (CDSs), of which 2818 (70.15%) have assigned biological roles, 936 (23.30%) have conserved domains with unknown functions, and 263 (6.55%) have no match with any protein database. Bacillus clausii KSM-K16 was established as the closest relative to B. lehensis G1 based on gene content similarity and 16S rRNA phylogenetic analysis. A total of 2820 proteins from B. lehensis G1 were found to have orthologues in B. clausii, including sodium-proton antiporters, transport proteins, and proteins involved in ATP synthesis. A comparative analysis of these proteins and those in B. clausii and other alkaliphilic Bacillus species was carried out to investigate their contributions towards the alkalitolerance of the microorganism. The similarities and differences in alkalitolerance-related genes among alkalitolerant/alkaliphilic Bacillus species highlight the complex mechanism of pH homeostasis. The B. lehensis G1 genome was also mined for proteins and enzymes with potential viability for industrial and commercial purposes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Bacillus/growth & development
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