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  1. Tan HY, Yong YK, Andrade BB, Shankar EM, Ponnampalavanar S, Omar SF, et al.
    AIDS, 2015 Feb 20;29(4):421-31.
    PMID: 25565499 DOI: 10.1097/QAD.0000000000000557
    Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is a substantial problem in HIV/TB coinfected patients commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART). The immunopathogenesis of TB-IRIS includes increased production of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines, including interleukin-18, which is a signature cytokine of the nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat pyrin containing protein-3 inflammasome. We compared plasma levels of interleukin-18 and other biomarkers of monocyte/macrophage activation in the prediction and characterization of TB-IRIS.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/physiopathology
  2. Labarga P
    AIDS Rev, 2013 Jul-Sep;15(3):189-90.
    PMID: 24002203
    The link between HIV and reduced bone mineral density, including osteopenia and the more severe osteoporosis, is well established. HIV infection has also been associated with an increased risk of fractures. It is so far unclear whether this is due to HIV itself, resulting inflammatory and metabolic changes, antiretroviral toxicity, or some combination of factors. This topic was the focus of major debate at the 7th IAS Conference held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, in early July 2013.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/physiopathology*
  3. Kariminia A, Durier N, Jourdain G, Saghayam S, Do CV, Nguyen LV, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 Sep 1;67(1):71-6.
    PMID: 24872132 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000227
    To evaluate the value of time-updated weight and height in predicting clinical progression, and immunological and virological failure in children receiving combination antiretroviral therapy (cART).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/physiopathology*
  4. Moy FS, Fahey P, Nik Yusoff NK, Razali KA, Nallusamy R, TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database (TApHOD)
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2015 Feb;51(2):204-8.
    PMID: 25142757 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12712
    To describe outcome and examine factors associated with mortality among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children in Malaysia after anti-retroviral therapy (ART).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/physiopathology
  5. Leng LK, Pancharoen C, Bunupuradah T, Thisyakorn U, Trinavarat P, Sosothikul D, et al.
    J Med Assoc Thai, 2007 Sep;90(9):1937-42.
    PMID: 17957942
    This report documents a case of infiltrating cervical spinal mass, most likely a spinal tumor, in a girl with HIV infection that regressed following HAART and without treatment of the tumor or any anti-infectives.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/physiopathology
  6. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/physiopathology
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