Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Zelenev A, Long E, Bazazi AR, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2016 11;37:98-106.
    PMID: 27639995 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.08.008
    BACKGROUND: HIV is primarily concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia, where currently HIV prevention and treatment coverage is inadequate. To improve the targeting of interventions, we examined HIV clustering and the role that social networks and geographical distance play in influencing HIV transmission among PWID.

    METHODS: Data were derived from a respondent-driven survey sample (RDS) collected during 2010 of 460 PWID in greater Kuala Lumpur. Analysis focused on socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural, and network information. Spatial probit models were developed based on a distinction between the influence of peers (individuals nominated through a recruitment network) and neighbours (residing a close distance to the individual). The models were expanded to account for the potential influence of the network formation.

    RESULTS: Recruitment patterns of HIV-infected PWID clustered both spatially and across the recruitment networks. In addition, HIV-infected PWID were more likely to have peers and neighbours who inject with clean needles were HIV-infected and lived nearby (<5km), more likely to have been previously incarcerated, less likely to use clean needles (26.8% vs 53.0% of the reported injections, p<0.01), and have fewer recent injection partners (2.4 vs 5.4, p<0.01). The association between the HIV status of peers and neighbours remained significantly correlated even after controlling for unobserved variation related to network formation and sero-sorting.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between HIV status across networks and space in Kuala Lumpur underscores the importance of these factors for surveillance and prevention strategies, and this needs to be more closely integrated. RDS can be applied to identify injection network structures, and this provides an important mechanism for improving public health surveillance, accessing high-risk populations, and implementing risk-reduction interventions to slow HIV transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  2. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  3. Wong LP, Chin CK, Low WY, Jaafar N
    Medscape J Med, 2008;10(6):148.
    PMID: 18679535
    HIV/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among young adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  4. Wolffers I, Fernandez I
    Lancet, 1995 Nov 11;346(8985):1303.
    PMID: 7475751
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  5. Wolfe N
    Sci. Am., 2009 Apr;300(4):76-81.
    PMID: 19363924
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  6. Wickersham JA, Marcus R, Kamarulzaman A, Zahari MM, Altice FL
    Bull. World Health Organ., 2013 Feb 01;91(2):124-9.
    PMID: 23554524 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.12.109132
    PROBLEM: In Malaysia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is highly concentrated among people who inject opioids. For this reason, the country undertook a three-phase roll-out of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. In Phase 3, described in this paper, MMT was implemented within prisons and retention in care was assessed.

    APPROACH: After developing standard operating procedures and agreement between its Prisons Department and Ministry of Health, Malaysia established pilot MMT programmes in two prisons in the states of Kelantan (2008) and Selangor (2009) - those with the highest proportions of HIV-infected prisoners. Community-based MMT programmes were also established in Malaysia to integrate treatment activities after prisoners' release.

    LOCAL SETTING: Having failed to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, in 2005 Malaysia embarked on a harm reduction strategy.

    RELEVANT CHANGES: STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES WERE MODIFIED TO: (i) escalate the dose of methadone more slowly; (ii) provide ongoing education and training for medical and correctional staff and inmates; (iii) increase the duration of methadone treatment before releasing prisoners; (iv) reinforce linkages with community MMT programmes after prisoners' release; (v) screen for and treat tuberculosis; (vi) escalate the dose of methadone during treatment for HIV infection and tuberculosis; and (vii) optimize the daily oral dose of methadone (> 80 mg) before releasing prisoners.

    LESSONS LEARNT: Prison-based MMT programmes can be effectively implemented but require adequate dosing and measures are needed to improve communication between prison and police authorities, prevent police harassment of MMT clients after their release, and improve systems for tracking release dates.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  7. Wai BH, Singh S, Varma SL
    Addiction, 1996 Mar;91(3):435-8.
    PMID: 8867206
    One hundred and seventy-one drug-dependent females in a drug rehabilitation centre were studied to estimate the prevalence of HIV infection among them. Twenty-four (14%) were positive on the Western Blot test. The presence of HIV infection was significantly correlated with syphilis (p < 0.03) and age (p < 0.001); 83% of those who were HIV positive were intravenous drug users. The need for harm reduction programmes to prevent spread of HIV infection among injecting drug users is stressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  8. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Navaratnam V
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2009 Jul;28(4):447-54.
    PMID: 19594801 DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00087.x
    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among heroin dependants in treatment was estimated at 89.9%; however, virtually no information exists on the prevalence or risk behaviour among the larger population of drug users not in treatment. This study assessed the prevalence of HCV and associated risk factors among this group with a view to designing more effective intervention programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  9. Tham JS, Zanuddin H
    PMID: 26867387
    Abstract. This paper examines the effectiveness of media in public awareness of the HIV/AIDS issue among the public in an area in central Selangor, comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey questionnaires were distributed to 384 respondents about accessing the public awareness of modes of HIV transmission, perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, as well as people's understanding about government policies to curb HIV/AIDS. Health care practitioners and newspapers were the preferred sources of information seeking on HIV/AIDS among the public. Most of the respondents were aware of the modes of HIV transmission. However, they were some respondents who still have misconceptions about the modes of transmission. Most of the respondents were not aware about the government's significant policies to address HIV/AIDS in the region. Overall, the respondents had certain knowledge about HIV transmission modes and moderate positive perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Future studies should be conducted to examine about who sets the agenda in the media, and apart from gatekeepers, who are the real decision makers in deciding what is important to inform the public.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  10. Tee KK, Kantor R, Sungkanuparph S, Takebe Y, Li P, Ditangco R, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2015 Sep 1;70(1):e28-30.
    PMID: 25835606 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000614
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  11. Suarn S, Nor Adam M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):117-23.
    PMID: 8350785
    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  12. Song A, Richters J, Crawford J, Kippax S
    J Adolesc Health, 2005 Sep;37(3):243.
    PMID: 16109347
    PURPOSE: To examine differences between Australian-born and Asian-born first-year university students in Sydney in their sexual behavior and knowledge about the prevention and transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other sexually transmissible infections (STIs).
    METHODS: Students were recruited from a stall during the student Orientation Week in both 2002 and 2003 at the University of New South Wales. A short questionnaire was completed and returned anonymously. Data on age, gender, country of birth, sexual behavior, and sexual health knowledge were collected. A score was calculated based on the sum of the correct answers given to 12 HIV/STI transmission and prevention questions. The students were then divided into three groups according to their country of birth (Australia, Asia, and elsewhere) and their knowledge scores were compared. Students born in certain Asian countries were also asked their perception of the HIV epidemic in their home country compared with Australia.
    RESULTS: A total of 1185 first-year students completed the questionnaire. Although older on average, Asian-born students were less likely to have had sexual intercourse and had had fewer sexual partners. They also had consistently poorer HIV/STI knowledge scores than Australian-born students. Students born in China, Hong Kong, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Singapore but not Thailand underestimated the prevalence of HIV in their country of birth in comparison with Australia.
    CONCLUSION: The combination of poorer knowledge, apparent misconception of the extent of HIV epidemic in their home country (or Australia), and potential later frequent travel indicates a potential risk for later transmission of HIV/STIs. The university is an underused setting for prevention health education.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  13. Singh S, Crofts N
    AIDS Care, 1993;5(3):273-81.
    PMID: 8218462 DOI: 10.1080/09540129308258610
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has spread widely among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries to the north and west of the 'Golden Triangle' region of South-East Asia; it is likely to have spread southwards to Malaysia as well. In order to assess HIV seroprevalence among IDUs in north-east Malaysia and describe risk factors for HIV infection in this population, we performed a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study among 210 IDUs recruited at the detoxification ward of the General Hospital in the capital city of the north-eastern Malaysian state, Kelantan. Subjects were sequential entrants to the detoxification ward, interviewed about HIV risk behaviour, and tested for antibody to HIV and to syphilis. Nearly a third (62/210, 30%) of these IDUs were HIV seropositive. Three-quarters (159/210) had travelled to Thailand in the preceding 5 years, of whom 32% (51/159) were HIV seropositive; this was associated with injecting in Thailand, but not with sexual contact there. Of those who had not left Malaysia in the preceding 5 years, 26% (11/43) were HIV seropositive, a rate not significantly different from those who had travelled. Travel within Malaysia was common (144/210, 69%) among IDUs interviewed, as was unsafe injecting and unsafe sexual behaviour (20% had shared injecting equipment and 21% had had unprotected intercourse) in other states. In every locale, rates of unsafe injecting behaviour were high (55% sharing in last month), even among those who knew they were HIV infected, and rates of condom usage were low (93% of 160 sexually active IDUs had never used a condom). Syphilis was not associated with HIV infection, but with contact with Thai prostitutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  14. Roshan TM, Rosline H, Ahmed SA, Rapiaah M, Khattak MN
    PMID: 20578467
    Blood donors with reactive screening test results are requested to come in for counseling by letter and telephone call. It has been noticed many donors responded to neither the letters nor the telephone calls. We evaluated 589 cases with reactive screening test results (208 positive for hepatitis C, 209 for hepatitis B, 85 for VDRL and 87 for HIV). In the hepatitis C positive group 61 donors (29.3%) did not respond and 4.7% missed their follow-up appointment. Similarly low response rates were noted with the HBV (58.9%) and VDRL (67.1%) positive groups. Among HIV positive donors 46.0% failed to respond to multiple calls. We conclude that blood donors in Malaysia have a poor response to calls from the blood transfusion unit. A review of the effectiveness of the current deferral system and an increased public knowledge of transmissible infectious diseases may encourage blood donors to have a better response rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  15. Root R
    Med Anthropol Q, 2006 Sep;20(3):321-44.
    PMID: 16937620
    Minah Karan, the stigmatizing label appended to Malay factory women in the 1980s, signaled a dangerous female sexuality that risked spreading beyond the factory gates and infecting Malaysia's idea(l)s of its traditional kampung culture. This article narrates how Minah Karan, as the former antihero of development, was reconstituted in the 1990s, with the government's labeling of factories as "high-risk settings" for HIV/AIDS. This is an ethnoetiology based not on any evidential epidemiological data but on the racial and gendered "mixing" that transpires behind factory walls: a fear that the "mixing of the sexes" means ipso facto "sexual mixing" among the races. The article demonstrates how importation of the high-risk label articulates at the local level the new and contested linkages, economic, religious, and scientific, constitutive of globalization. The pragmatic nature and imperatives of this high-risk process are discerned in factory women's accounts of how they negotiate the interactional imperatives of factory work, because transnational structures of productivity violate the social boundaries that have long connoted political stability, moral integrity, ethnic community, and individual safety. The article concludes by questioning whether ethnoetiologies, especially when they concern sexual networks, become social etiologies, because this would locate ethnoetiologies as central to conventional public health praxis rather than as ethnographic exotica in the margins.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  16. Reid G, Kamarulzaman A, Sran SK
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2007 Mar;18(2):136-40.
    PMID: 17689356
    In Malaysia the response to illicit drug use has been largely punitive with the current goal of the Malaysian government being to achieve a drug-free society by 2015. This paper outlines the results of a desk-based situation assessment conducted over a 3-week period in 2004. Additional events, examined in 2005, were also included to describe more recent policy developments and examine how these came about. Despite punitive drug policy there has been a substantial rise in the number of drug users in the country. Over two-thirds of HIV/AIDS cases are among injecting drug users (IDUs) and there has been an exponential rise in the number of cases reported. Further, data suggest high risk drug use practices are widespread. Harm reduction initiatives have only recently been introduced in Malaysia. The successful piloting of substitution therapies, in particular methadone and buprenorphine, is cause for genuine hope for the rapid development of such interventions. In 2005 the government announced it will allow methadone maintenance programmes to operate beyond the pilot phase and needle and syringe exchange programmes will be established to serve the needs of IDUs.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  17. Poshyachinda V
    Bull Narc, 1993;45(1):77-90.
    PMID: 8305908
    Opium has been produced and consumed since the nineteenth century in the areas of Asia currently referred to as the Golden Crescent and the Golden Triangle. In the 1970s and 1980s, most countries from Afghanistan to Japan experienced a heroin epidemic of varying degrees of severity. Opium and heroin abuse appeared to be more severe in countries and areas where those drugs were produced, an exception being Hong Kong, which has had a large population of heroin abusers for more than two decades. Drug injecting was far more common in countries of the Golden Triangle than in those of the Golden Crescent. In Myanmar and Thailand, for example, up to 90 per cent of chronic heroin abusers practised intravenous injection, which appeared to spread to heroin abusers in nearby territories such as the State of Manipur in India. Yunnan province in China, as well as Malaysia and Viet Nam. Amphetamine abuse was more frequent in Japan and the Republic of Korea for a number of years, while illicit production and consumption in the Philippines have recently shown significant increases. The injection of amphetamines was common only in the Republic of Korea. The prevalence of injecting among institutionalized methamphetamine abusers was reported at about 90 per cent. Most countries in Asia first reported cases of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in the mid-1980s. An extremely rapid spead of the epidemic and high prevalence, at rates of from 30 to 90 per cent, of HIV infection among the sample of intravenous heroin abusers were observed in a few countries with a high prevalence of intravenous injecting, such as India (in the State of Manipur), Myanmar and Thailand. The rest had either few reported cases or none at all, even though needle-sharing was found to be common. Great caution should be exercised in interpreting prevalence because of vast differences in methods of assessment. Given the vulnerability of intravenous drug abusers to rapid transmission of HIV infection, the prevention of drug injecting is of paramount importance in arresting the spread of the epidemic. Efforts to contain drug abuse, though difficult, are a principal means of achieving that end.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  18. Poshyachinda V
    Forensic Sci. Int., 1993 Nov;62(1-2):15-28.
    PMID: 8300028
    Opium dependence was indigenous to countries in the Golden Triangle area in south-east Asia (SA). Heroin epidemics developed in most SA countries in the 1960s and early 1970s and remained a significant problem particularly in Myanmar, Thailand and Malaysia until now. In contrast, the island countries in SA seemed quite free from opiate abuse. Intravenous injection (IV) of drugs appeared after the heroin epidemic and currently prevails in countries with a significant opiate abuse problem. IV of opium was particularly common in the highly urbanized cities in Vietnam. Most SA countries started HIV seroscreening in IV drug users (IVDU) around the middle of the 1980s. Rapid epidemic spread of HIV infection was observed in 1988-89 in Thailand and Myanmar. The Highest prevalence of more than 80% was reported from a study of IVDUs in Yangon, Myanmar, followed by Thailand at about 40%. Although HIV infected IVDUs were identified at the same time in Malaysia and later in Singapore and the Philippines, there was no evidence of such a rapid and severe epidemic.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  19. Phanuphak P, Sirivichayakul S, Jiamsakul A, Sungkanuparph S, Kumarasamy N, Lee MP, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 May 1;66(1):74-9.
    PMID: 24413039 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
    We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  20. Oyomopito RA, Chen YJ, Sungkanuparph S, Kantor R, Merati T, Yam WC, et al.
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2015 Sep;31(9):445-53.
    PMID: 26362956 DOI: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.07.002
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
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