Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Wickersham JA, Marcus R, Kamarulzaman A, Zahari MM, Altice FL
    Bull. World Health Organ., 2013 Feb 01;91(2):124-9.
    PMID: 23554524 DOI: 10.2471/BLT.12.109132
    PROBLEM: In Malaysia, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is highly concentrated among people who inject opioids. For this reason, the country undertook a three-phase roll-out of a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. In Phase 3, described in this paper, MMT was implemented within prisons and retention in care was assessed.

    APPROACH: After developing standard operating procedures and agreement between its Prisons Department and Ministry of Health, Malaysia established pilot MMT programmes in two prisons in the states of Kelantan (2008) and Selangor (2009) - those with the highest proportions of HIV-infected prisoners. Community-based MMT programmes were also established in Malaysia to integrate treatment activities after prisoners' release.

    LOCAL SETTING: Having failed to reduce the incidence of HIV infection, in 2005 Malaysia embarked on a harm reduction strategy.

    RELEVANT CHANGES: STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURES WERE MODIFIED TO: (i) escalate the dose of methadone more slowly; (ii) provide ongoing education and training for medical and correctional staff and inmates; (iii) increase the duration of methadone treatment before releasing prisoners; (iv) reinforce linkages with community MMT programmes after prisoners' release; (v) screen for and treat tuberculosis; (vi) escalate the dose of methadone during treatment for HIV infection and tuberculosis; and (vii) optimize the daily oral dose of methadone (> 80 mg) before releasing prisoners.

    LESSONS LEARNT: Prison-based MMT programmes can be effectively implemented but require adequate dosing and measures are needed to improve communication between prison and police authorities, prevent police harassment of MMT clients after their release, and improve systems for tracking release dates.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  2. Bachireddy C, Bazazi AR, Kavasery R, Govindasamy S, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Drug Alcohol Depend, 2011 Jul 1;116(1-3):151-7.
    PMID: 21232882 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.12.001
    Pre-incarceration HIV transmission behaviors and current attitudes toward opioid substitution therapy (OST) among HIV-infected male prisoners in Malaysia have important implications for secondary HIV prevention efforts.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  3. Kamarulzaman A, Reid SE, Schwitters A, Wiessing L, El-Bassel N, Dolan K, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Sep 10;388(10049):1115-1126.
    PMID: 27427456 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30769-3
    The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release. Effective treatment of opioid use disorders with opioid agonist therapies (eg, methadone and buprenorphine) prevents blood-borne infections via reductions in injection in prison and after release. However, large gaps exist in the implementation of these strategies across all regions. Collaboration between the criminal justice and public health systems will be required for successful implementation of these strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  4. Zelenev A, Long E, Bazazi AR, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2016 11;37:98-106.
    PMID: 27639995 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.08.008
    BACKGROUND: HIV is primarily concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia, where currently HIV prevention and treatment coverage is inadequate. To improve the targeting of interventions, we examined HIV clustering and the role that social networks and geographical distance play in influencing HIV transmission among PWID.

    METHODS: Data were derived from a respondent-driven survey sample (RDS) collected during 2010 of 460 PWID in greater Kuala Lumpur. Analysis focused on socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural, and network information. Spatial probit models were developed based on a distinction between the influence of peers (individuals nominated through a recruitment network) and neighbours (residing a close distance to the individual). The models were expanded to account for the potential influence of the network formation.

    RESULTS: Recruitment patterns of HIV-infected PWID clustered both spatially and across the recruitment networks. In addition, HIV-infected PWID were more likely to have peers and neighbours who inject with clean needles were HIV-infected and lived nearby (<5km), more likely to have been previously incarcerated, less likely to use clean needles (26.8% vs 53.0% of the reported injections, p<0.01), and have fewer recent injection partners (2.4 vs 5.4, p<0.01). The association between the HIV status of peers and neighbours remained significantly correlated even after controlling for unobserved variation related to network formation and sero-sorting.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between HIV status across networks and space in Kuala Lumpur underscores the importance of these factors for surveillance and prevention strategies, and this needs to be more closely integrated. RDS can be applied to identify injection network structures, and this provides an important mechanism for improving public health surveillance, accessing high-risk populations, and implementing risk-reduction interventions to slow HIV transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  5. Choon SE, Sapiah W, Ismail Z, Balan V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):318-24.
    PMID: 10968107
    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  6. Csete J, Kamarulzaman A, Kazatchkine M, Altice F, Balicki M, Buxton J, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Apr 02;387(10026):1427-1480.
    PMID: 27021149 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00619-X
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  7. Oyomopito RA, Chen YJ, Sungkanuparph S, Kantor R, Merati T, Yam WC, et al.
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2015 Sep;31(9):445-53.
    PMID: 26362956 DOI: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.07.002
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  8. Singh S, Crofts N
    AIDS Care, 1993;5(3):273-81.
    PMID: 8218462 DOI: 10.1080/09540129308258610
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has spread widely among injecting drug users (IDUs) in countries to the north and west of the 'Golden Triangle' region of South-East Asia; it is likely to have spread southwards to Malaysia as well. In order to assess HIV seroprevalence among IDUs in north-east Malaysia and describe risk factors for HIV infection in this population, we performed a cross-sectional seroepidemiological study among 210 IDUs recruited at the detoxification ward of the General Hospital in the capital city of the north-eastern Malaysian state, Kelantan. Subjects were sequential entrants to the detoxification ward, interviewed about HIV risk behaviour, and tested for antibody to HIV and to syphilis. Nearly a third (62/210, 30%) of these IDUs were HIV seropositive. Three-quarters (159/210) had travelled to Thailand in the preceding 5 years, of whom 32% (51/159) were HIV seropositive; this was associated with injecting in Thailand, but not with sexual contact there. Of those who had not left Malaysia in the preceding 5 years, 26% (11/43) were HIV seropositive, a rate not significantly different from those who had travelled. Travel within Malaysia was common (144/210, 69%) among IDUs interviewed, as was unsafe injecting and unsafe sexual behaviour (20% had shared injecting equipment and 21% had had unprotected intercourse) in other states. In every locale, rates of unsafe injecting behaviour were high (55% sharing in last month), even among those who knew they were HIV infected, and rates of condom usage were low (93% of 160 sexually active IDUs had never used a condom). Syphilis was not associated with HIV infection, but with contact with Thai prostitutes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  9. Cutting WA
    BMJ, 1992 Oct 03;305(6857):788-9.
    PMID: 1422355
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  10. Wolffers I, Fernandez I
    Lancet, 1995 Nov 11;346(8985):1303.
    PMID: 7475751
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  11. Khairy-Shamel ST, Shatriah I, Adil H, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Rohaizan Y, et al.
    Orbit, 2008;27(5):388-90.
    PMID: 18836940 DOI: 10.1080/01676830802336629
    We reported a case of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with an intracranial extension in an HIV-infected child. It was an uncommon sarcoma in a retroviral-positive patient that resulted in a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The child is currently asymptomatic following surgery, chemotherapy, and reinstitution of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  12. Hooi LS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):232-5.
    PMID: 8350803
    Four cases of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV-1) infection, probably following living unrelated donor renal transplantation done in India, are reported. One of them subsequently developed Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  13. Huang M, Hussein H
    AIDS Educ Prev, 2004 Jun;16(3 Suppl A):100-9.
    PMID: 15262569
    Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was identified in 1986 in Malaysia, the number of infected individuals has increased steadily each year, so that by the end of 2002 the cumulative number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 57,835 (51,256 with HIV and 6,579 with AIDS), with 5,676 AIDS deaths. The epidemic in Malaysia, currently in a concentrated epidemic stage, is primarily fueled by drug use, but there is ample evidence that heterosexual transmission has increased over the last few years. A strategic plan that includes prevention, care, support, and treatment run by both the government and nongovernmental organizations has been in place since the beginning of the epidemic. However, Malaysia will need to take a more pragmatic approach to reduce new infections (which numbered 19 each day in 2002) among the youth on whom the country relies for development. Leaders need to recognize that HIV/AIDS is not just a health issue, but also a socioeconomic concern that can eliminate all the developmental gains achieved over the years. Working together, Malaysians can overcome the epidemic, but there is a need to act quickly and to act in effective ways so that the devastating effects (already evident in the number of AIDS orphans and widows) can be reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  14. Khan MAN, Md Rosly NA, Abdul Majeed AB, Ismail NE
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2018 Sep;31(5):1985-1990.
    PMID: 30150198
    The school students are of particular importance in the HIV/AIDS awareness policies at both local and international level. This study was conducted to assess the level of knowledge of the modes of HIV transmission among urban and rural public secondary school students in Malaysia. In this cross-sectional study, post local ethics approval, 600self-administered questionnaires were randomly disseminated to students in 6 different secondary schools and areas (i.e. 3 urban schools and 3 rural schools). Data were descriptively and inferentially analyzed using Statistical Package of Social Sciences (SPSS®), version 17. The Pearson Chi-Square test was applied where applicable. Most respondents had heard about HIV (overall response rate: 96.2%). However, 8.9% of rural respondents (27/302) never heard about HIV and were excluded. Therefore, 275 urban students (Kuala Lumpur, Selangor, and Pahang) and 275 rural students (Terengganu) who successfully completed and returned the questionnaires were included in data analysis. Many respondents were female and within the age range of 15-16 years old. Most respondents in both areas knew that sharing needles can transmit HIV (93.5% urban; 97.1% rural). Out of 15 items concerning transmission modes of HIV, eight items showed significant values (p < 0.05) of rural vs. urban: saliva, urine, tears, using same swimming pool, blood transfusion, mosquito bites, sharing foods and donating blood to HIV patients. About 90.2% and 79.6% of respondents in urban and rural areas used television and newspapers as main source of knowledge on HIV, respectively. The implementation of incessant HIV and AIDS education programme could be useful in order to enhance and sustain awareness concerning HIV/AIDS among secondary school students.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  15. Ismail R
    Clin. Dermatol., 1999 5 20;17(2):127-35; discussion 105-6.
    PMID: 10330595
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  16. Wong LP, Chin CK, Low WY, Jaafar N
    Medscape J Med, 2008;10(6):148.
    PMID: 18679535
    HIV/AIDS poses a serious threat to young people, both in Malaysia and throughout the world. A nationwide cross-sectional survey was conducted to assess the knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HIV/AIDS among the Malaysian public. This article reports the findings of knowledge about HIV/AIDS among young adults.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  17. Kamarulzaman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):1-4.
    PMID: 16250272
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  18. Phanuphak P, Sirivichayakul S, Jiamsakul A, Sungkanuparph S, Kumarasamy N, Lee MP, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 May 1;66(1):74-9.
    PMID: 24413039 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
    We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  19. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
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