Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 48 in total

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  1. Phanuphak P, Sirivichayakul S, Jiamsakul A, Sungkanuparph S, Kumarasamy N, Lee MP, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2014 May 1;66(1):74-9.
    PMID: 24413039 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000108
    We compared treatment outcomes of transmitted drug resistance (TDR) in patients on fully or partially sensitive drug regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  2. Tee KK, Kantor R, Sungkanuparph S, Takebe Y, Li P, Ditangco R, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2015 Sep 1;70(1):e28-30.
    PMID: 25835606 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000614
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  3. Jagdagsuren D, Hayashida T, Takano M, Gombo E, Zayasaikhan S, Kanayama N, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(12):e0189605.
    PMID: 29244859 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0189605
    OBJECTIVE: Our previous 2005-2009 molecular epidemiological study in Mongolia identified a hot spot of HIV-1 transmission in men who have sex with men (MSM). To control the infection, we collaborated with NGOs to promote safer sex and HIV testing since mid-2010. In this study, we carried out the second molecular epidemiological survey between 2010 and 2016 to determine the status of HIV-1 infection in Mongolia.

    METHODS: The study included 143 new cases of HIV-1 infection. Viral RNA was extracted from stocked plasma samples and sequenced for the pol and the env regions using the Sanger method. Near-full length sequencing using MiSeq was performed in 3 patients who were suspected to be infected with recombinant HIV-1. Phylogenetic analysis was performed using the neighbor-joining method and Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo method.

    RESULTS: MSM was the main transmission route in the previous and current studies. However, heterosexual route showed a significant increase in recent years. Phylogenetic analysis documented three taxa; Mongolian B, Korean B, and CRF51_01B, though the former two were also observed in the previous study. CRF51_01B, which originated from Singapore and Malaysia, was confirmed by near-full length sequencing. Although these strains were mainly detected in MSM, they were also found in increasing numbers of heterosexual males and females. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis estimated transmission of CRF51_01B into Mongolia around early 2000s. An extended Bayesian skyline plot showed a rapid increase in the effective population size of Mongolian B cluster around 2004 and that of CRF51_01B cluster around 2011.

    CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 infection might expand to the general population in Mongolia. Our study documented a new cluster of HIV-1 transmission, enhancing our understanding of the epidemiological status of HIV-1 in Mongolia.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  4. Zelenev A, Long E, Bazazi AR, Kamarulzaman A, Altice FL
    Int. J. Drug Policy, 2016 11;37:98-106.
    PMID: 27639995 DOI: 10.1016/j.drugpo.2016.08.008
    BACKGROUND: HIV is primarily concentrated among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Malaysia, where currently HIV prevention and treatment coverage is inadequate. To improve the targeting of interventions, we examined HIV clustering and the role that social networks and geographical distance play in influencing HIV transmission among PWID.

    METHODS: Data were derived from a respondent-driven survey sample (RDS) collected during 2010 of 460 PWID in greater Kuala Lumpur. Analysis focused on socio-demographic, clinical, behavioural, and network information. Spatial probit models were developed based on a distinction between the influence of peers (individuals nominated through a recruitment network) and neighbours (residing a close distance to the individual). The models were expanded to account for the potential influence of the network formation.

    RESULTS: Recruitment patterns of HIV-infected PWID clustered both spatially and across the recruitment networks. In addition, HIV-infected PWID were more likely to have peers and neighbours who inject with clean needles were HIV-infected and lived nearby (<5km), more likely to have been previously incarcerated, less likely to use clean needles (26.8% vs 53.0% of the reported injections, p<0.01), and have fewer recent injection partners (2.4 vs 5.4, p<0.01). The association between the HIV status of peers and neighbours remained significantly correlated even after controlling for unobserved variation related to network formation and sero-sorting.

    CONCLUSION: The relationship between HIV status across networks and space in Kuala Lumpur underscores the importance of these factors for surveillance and prevention strategies, and this needs to be more closely integrated. RDS can be applied to identify injection network structures, and this provides an important mechanism for improving public health surveillance, accessing high-risk populations, and implementing risk-reduction interventions to slow HIV transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  5. Huang M, Hussein H
    AIDS Educ Prev, 2004 Jun;16(3 Suppl A):100-9.
    PMID: 15262569
    Since the first case of HIV/AIDS was identified in 1986 in Malaysia, the number of infected individuals has increased steadily each year, so that by the end of 2002 the cumulative number of people living with HIV/AIDS was 57,835 (51,256 with HIV and 6,579 with AIDS), with 5,676 AIDS deaths. The epidemic in Malaysia, currently in a concentrated epidemic stage, is primarily fueled by drug use, but there is ample evidence that heterosexual transmission has increased over the last few years. A strategic plan that includes prevention, care, support, and treatment run by both the government and nongovernmental organizations has been in place since the beginning of the epidemic. However, Malaysia will need to take a more pragmatic approach to reduce new infections (which numbered 19 each day in 2002) among the youth on whom the country relies for development. Leaders need to recognize that HIV/AIDS is not just a health issue, but also a socioeconomic concern that can eliminate all the developmental gains achieved over the years. Working together, Malaysians can overcome the epidemic, but there is a need to act quickly and to act in effective ways so that the devastating effects (already evident in the number of AIDS orphans and widows) can be reduced.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  6. Kamarulzaman A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):1-4.
    PMID: 16250272
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  7. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  8. Ismail R
    Clin. Dermatol., 1999 5 20;17(2):127-35; discussion 105-6.
    PMID: 10330595
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  9. Choon SE, Sapiah W, Ismail Z, Balan V
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):318-24.
    PMID: 10968107
    A study was conducted in the Dermatology cum Genitourinary Clinic, Hospital Sultanah Aminah Johor Bahru to determine a local population's knowledge of HIV and their sexual behaviour in relation to it. A total of 231 men and 217 women were interviewed. The sexual culture seen is one of relatively late age of first sexual intercourse, low level of partner change and low level of condom use. Men reported a higher involvement in risk behaviour. Nearly all the respondents (95.8%) have heard of HIV/AIDS but had incorrect perceptions of its mode of transmission and its associations with risk groups. This study enable us to gain background information about our patients sexual behaviour and HIV knowledge. There is a need to continue HIV education to improve our public's HIV knowledge and the results of this study provides a baseline against which future educational interventions can be gauged.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  10. Oyomopito RA, Chen YJ, Sungkanuparph S, Kantor R, Merati T, Yam WC, et al.
    Kaohsiung J. Med. Sci., 2015 Sep;31(9):445-53.
    PMID: 26362956 DOI: 10.1016/j.kjms.2015.07.002
    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 epidemics in Asian countries are driven by varying exposures. The epidemiology of the regional pandemic has been changing with the spread of HIV-1 to lower-risk populations through sexual transmission. Common HIV-1 genotypes include subtype B and circulating recombinant form (CRF) 01_AE. Our objective was to use HIV-1 genotypic data to better quantify local epidemics. TASER-M is a multicenter prospective cohort of HIV-infected patients. Associations between HIV exposure, patient sex, country of sample origin and HIV-1 genotype were evaluated by multivariate logistic regression. Phylogenetic methods were used on genotypic data to investigate transmission relationships. A total of 1086 patients from Thailand, Hong Kong, Malaysia and the Philippines were included in analyses. Proportions of male patients within countries varied (Thailand: 55.6%, Hong Kong: 86.1%, Malaysia: 81.4%, Philippines: 93.8%; p HIV exposures (heterosexual contact: Thailand: 85.7%, Hong Kong, 46.2%, Malaysia: 47.8%, Philippines: 25.0%; p HIV-1 genotype. Homosexual exposure patients had higher odds of being infected with subtype B. Where HIV-1 genotypes circulate within countries or patient risk-groups, local monitoring of genotype-specific transmissions may play a role in focusing public health prevention strategies. Phylogenetic evaluations provide complementary information for surveillance and monitoring of viruses with high mutation rates such as HIV-1 and Ebola.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  11. Suarn S, Nor Adam M
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):117-23.
    PMID: 8350785
    Sixty-one serologically positive HIV infected drug abusers admitted to the Drug Ward, General Hospital, Kota Bharu, were interviewed for possible risk behaviour and AIDS awareness. Fifty-eight subjects were IV abusers while the other 3 were non-IV abusers. All the IV abusers had shared injecting equipment with no regard for sterility. There was non-usage of condoms among those sexually active. Though AIDS awareness was high, there was a lack of risk behaviour change. The drug abusers appear to be a problem group in HIV control measures. Educating the drug abusers and commitment by them to alter risk behaviour is needed.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  12. Roshan TM, Rosline H, Ahmed SA, Rapiaah M, Khattak MN
    PMID: 20578467
    Blood donors with reactive screening test results are requested to come in for counseling by letter and telephone call. It has been noticed many donors responded to neither the letters nor the telephone calls. We evaluated 589 cases with reactive screening test results (208 positive for hepatitis C, 209 for hepatitis B, 85 for VDRL and 87 for HIV). In the hepatitis C positive group 61 donors (29.3%) did not respond and 4.7% missed their follow-up appointment. Similarly low response rates were noted with the HBV (58.9%) and VDRL (67.1%) positive groups. Among HIV positive donors 46.0% failed to respond to multiple calls. We conclude that blood donors in Malaysia have a poor response to calls from the blood transfusion unit. A review of the effectiveness of the current deferral system and an increased public knowledge of transmissible infectious diseases may encourage blood donors to have a better response rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  13. Csete J, Kamarulzaman A, Kazatchkine M, Altice F, Balicki M, Buxton J, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Apr 02;387(10026):1427-1480.
    PMID: 27021149 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)00619-X
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  14. Tham JS, Zanuddin H
    PMID: 26867387
    Abstract. This paper examines the effectiveness of media in public awareness of the HIV/AIDS issue among the public in an area in central Selangor, comprising Kuala Lumpur and its surroundings and suburbs in Malaysia. Cross-sectional survey questionnaires were distributed to 384 respondents about accessing the public awareness of modes of HIV transmission, perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, as well as people's understanding about government policies to curb HIV/AIDS. Health care practitioners and newspapers were the preferred sources of information seeking on HIV/AIDS among the public. Most of the respondents were aware of the modes of HIV transmission. However, they were some respondents who still have misconceptions about the modes of transmission. Most of the respondents were not aware about the government's significant policies to address HIV/AIDS in the region. Overall, the respondents had certain knowledge about HIV transmission modes and moderate positive perceptions and attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Future studies should be conducted to examine about who sets the agenda in the media, and apart from gatekeepers, who are the real decision makers in deciding what is important to inform the public.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  15. Kamarulzaman A, Reid SE, Schwitters A, Wiessing L, El-Bassel N, Dolan K, et al.
    Lancet, 2016 Sep 10;388(10049):1115-1126.
    PMID: 27427456 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(16)30769-3
    The prevalence of HIV, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, and tuberculosis are higher in prisons than in the general population in most countries worldwide. Prisons have emerged as a risk environment for these infections to be further concentrated, amplified, and then transmitted to the community after prisoners are released. In the absence of alternatives to incarceration, prisons and detention facilities could be leveraged to promote primary and secondary prevention strategies for these infections to improve prisoners health and reduce risk throughout incarceration and on release. Effective treatment of opioid use disorders with opioid agonist therapies (eg, methadone and buprenorphine) prevents blood-borne infections via reductions in injection in prison and after release. However, large gaps exist in the implementation of these strategies across all regions. Collaboration between the criminal justice and public health systems will be required for successful implementation of these strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  16. Wolfe N
    Sci. Am., 2009 Apr;300(4):76-81.
    PMID: 19363924
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  17. Vicknasingam B, Narayanan S, Navaratnam V
    Drug Alcohol Rev, 2009 Jul;28(4):447-54.
    PMID: 19594801 DOI: 10.1111/j.1465-3362.2009.00087.x
    The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) among heroin dependants in treatment was estimated at 89.9%; however, virtually no information exists on the prevalence or risk behaviour among the larger population of drug users not in treatment. This study assessed the prevalence of HCV and associated risk factors among this group with a view to designing more effective intervention programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  18. Khairy-Shamel ST, Shatriah I, Adil H, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Rohaizan Y, et al.
    Orbit, 2008;27(5):388-90.
    PMID: 18836940 DOI: 10.1080/01676830802336629
    We reported a case of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with an intracranial extension in an HIV-infected child. It was an uncommon sarcoma in a retroviral-positive patient that resulted in a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The child is currently asymptomatic following surgery, chemotherapy, and reinstitution of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission*
  19. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
  20. Chow WZ, Ong LY, Razak SH, Lee YM, Ng KT, Yong YK, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2013;8(5):e62560.
    PMID: 23667490 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0062560
    Since the discovery of HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) 33_01B in Malaysia in the early 2000 s, continuous genetic diversification and active recombination involving CRF33_01B and other circulating genotypes in the region including CRF01_AE and subtype B' of Thai origin, have led to the emergence of novel CRFs and unique recombinant forms. The history and magnitude of CRF33_01B transmission among various risk groups including people who inject drugs (PWID) however have not been investigated despite the high epidemiological impact of CRF33_01B in the region. We update the most recent molecular epidemiology of HIV-1 among PWIDs recruited in Malaysia between 2010 and 2011 by population sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of 128 gag-pol sequences. HIV-1 CRF33_01B was circulating among 71% of PWIDs whilst a lower prevalence of other previously dominant HIV-1 genotypes [subtype B' (11%) and CRF01_AE (5%)] and CRF01_AE/B' unique recombinants (13%) were detected, indicating a significant shift in genotype replacement in this population. Three clusters of CRF01_AE/B' recombinants displaying divergent yet phylogenetically-related mosaic genomes to CRF33_01B were identified and characterized, suggestive of an abrupt emergence of multiple novel CRF clades. Using rigorous maximum likelihood approach and the Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) sampling of CRF33_01Bpol sequences to elucidate the past population dynamics, we found that the founder lineages of CRF33_01B were likely to have first emerged among PWIDs in the early 1990 s before spreading exponentially to various high and low-risk populations (including children who acquired infections from their mothers) and later on became endemic around the early 2000 s. Taken together, our findings provide notable genetic evidence indicating the widespread expansion of CRF33_01B among PWIDs and into the general population. The emergence of numerous previously unknown recombinant clades highlights the escalating genetic complexity of HIV-1 in the Southeast Asian region.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/transmission
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