Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Chow WZ, Takebe Y, Syafina NE, Prakasa MS, Chan KG, Al-Darraji HA, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(1):e85250.
    PMID: 24465513 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0085250
    The HIV epidemic is primarily characterised by the circulation of HIV-1 group M (main) comprising of 11 subtypes and sub-subtypes (A1, A2, B-D, F1, F2, G, H, J, and K) and to date 55 circulating recombinant forms (CRFs). In Southeast Asia, active inter-subtype recombination involving three main circulating genotypes--subtype B (including subtype B', the Thai variant of subtype B), CRF01_AE, and CRF33_01B--have contributed to the emergence of novel unique recombinant forms. In the present study, we conducted the molecular epidemiological surveillance of HIV-1 gag-RT genes among 258 people who inject drugs (PWIDs) in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, between 2009 and 2011 whereby a novel CRF candidate was recently identified. The near full-length genome sequences obtained from six epidemiologically unlinked individuals showed identical mosaic structures consisting of subtype B' and CRF01_AE, with six unique recombination breakpoints in the gag-RT, pol, and env regions. Among the high-risk population of PWIDs in Malaysia, which was predominantly infected by CRF33_01B (>70%), CRF58_01B circulated at a low but significant prevalence (2.3%, 6/258). Interestingly, the CRF58_01B shared two unique recombination breakpoints with other established CRFs in the region: CRF33_01B, CRF48_01B, and CRF53_01B in the gag gene, and CRF15_01B (from Thailand) in the env gene. Extended Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo sampling analysis showed that CRF58_01B and other recently discovered CRFs were most likely to have originated in Malaysia, and that the recent spread of recombinant lineages in the country had little influence from neighbouring countries. The isolation, genetic characterization, and evolutionary features of CRF58_01B among PWIDs in Malaysia signify the increasingly complex HIV-1 diversity in Southeast Asia that may hold an implication on disease treatment, control, and prevention.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  2. Rabasseda X
    Drugs Today, 2013 Aug;49(8):509-17.
    PMID: 23977668 DOI: 10.1358/dot.2013.49.8.2033100
    Effective antiretroviral drugs have been developed that, if continuously administered (although with simplification strategies once a patient's viral titer is suppressed) allow for a functional cure resulting in an almost normal life despite the presence of viral reservoirs. In that sense, observations that combination antiretroviral therapy has an untoward suppressive effect on antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity against T cells permitting the establishment of such viral reservoirs were discussed for its implications in the use of vaccines and/or modulators of the immune function to clear latent infections and the risk for reactivation (Madhavi, V. et al., Abst MOLBPE05). In addition to latent viral reservoirs, individual patient characteristics may also influence response to antiretroviral therapy, as exemplified by the increased likelihood of highly active antiretroviral therapy in patients carrying certain polymorphic variants (rs2229109, rs6961419) of the P-glycoprotein 1 gene (Dias, J. et al., Abst MOPE034). These, and many other important news derived from research into novel approaches to fight HIV infection were discussed during the International AIDS Society (IAS) meeting in Kuala Lumpur, as summarized in the following report.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  3. Ng KP, He J, Saw TL, Lyles CM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2000 Mar;55(1):58-64.
    PMID: 11072492 MyJurnal
    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is a RNA virus transmitted enterically. A study of anti-HEV antibodies in 145 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infected subjects found that 14.4% of them were reactive to anti-HEV antibodies. Anti-HEV IgG and anti-HEV IgM was detected in 10.3% and 4.1% of the subjects respectively. Prevalence of anti-HEV (either IgG or IgM) was similar across all adult ages (p = 0.154), between the three ethnic groups (p = 0.378), and across risk groups (p = 0.120). The results showed that HEV infection in subjects recruited in this study was most likely transmitted via faecal-route.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  4. Lam EP, Moore CL, Gotuzzo E, Nwizu C, Kamarulzaman A, Chetchotisakd P, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2016 09;32(9):841-50.
    PMID: 27346600 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2015.0331
    We investigate mutations and correlates according to HIV-1 subtype after virological failure (VF) of standard first-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) (non-nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [NNRTI] +2 nucleoside/nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor [N(t)RTI]). SECOND-LINE study participants were assessed at baseline for HIV-1 subtype, demographics, HIV-1 history, ART exposure, viral load (VL), CD4(+) count, and genotypic ART resistance. We used backward stepwise multivariate regression (MVR) to assess associations between baseline variables and presence of ≥3 N(t)RTI mutations, ≥1 NNRTI mutation, ≥3 thymidine analog-N(t)RTI [ta-N(t)RTI] mutations (TAMs), the K65/K70 mutation, and predicted etravirine (ETV)/rilpivirine (RPV) activity. The inclusion p-value for MVR was p  .05. Of 541 participants, 491 (91%) had successfully characterized baseline viral isolates. Subtype distribution: B (n = 123, 25%), C (n = 202, 41%), CRF01_AE (n = 109, 22%), G (n = 25, 5%), and CRF02_AG (n = 27, 5%). Baseline CD4(+) 200-394 cells/mm(3) were associated with <3 N(t)RTI mutations (OR = 0.47; 95% CI 0.29-0.77; p = .003), absence of the K65/K70 mutation (OR = 0.43; 95% CI 0.26-0.73; p = .002), and higher ETV sensitivity (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.35-0.78; p = .002). Recent tenofovir (TDF) use was associated with K65/K70 mutations (OR = 8.91; 95% CI 5.00-15.85; p HIV-1 subtypes in this study are consistent with knowledge derived from subtype B, with some exceptions. Patterns of resistance after failure of a first-line ta-N(t)RTI regimen support using TDF in N(t)RTI-containing second-line regimens, or using N(t)RTI-sparing regimens.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  5. Ariffin TA, Mohamad S, Yusuf WN, Shueb RH
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2014 Aug;8(8):1063-7.
    PMID: 25116676 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.4095
    INTRODUCTION: The widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and continuous reports of HIV-1 strains developing resistance to these drugs is rather alarming, as transmission of resistant viruses to newly infected persons is possible. This study aimed to determine HIV-1 subtypes and the prevalence of primary mutations associated with antiretroviral (ARV) resistance among treatment-naive prisoners on the east coast of Malaysia.
    METHODOLOGY: Viral RNA was extracted from plasma samples of 21 treatment-naive prisoners. Protease (PR) and reverse transcriptase (RT) regions were amplified and sequenced. Stanford HIV database algorithms were used for interpretation of resistance, and phylogenetic analysis was performed for subtype assignment.
    RESULTS: In the PR gene, no antiviral resistance-associated mutation was detected. For RT-associated mutations, K103N was the most prevalent in sequenced samples (14.3%). Genetic subtyping on the pol gene revealed that the majority of the prisoners were infected with subtype CRF33_01B (52.4%).
    CONCLUSION: Continuous surveillance of newly infected individuals is required to help strategize the best antiviral treatment for these patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  6. Mohamad S, Deris ZZ, Yusoff NK, Ariffin TA, Shueb RH
    Braz J Infect Dis, 2012 May-Jun;16(3):284-8.
    PMID: 22729198
    Antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has dramatically reduced morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infected children. However, development of ARV resistance in these children is a major public health problem due to lack of availability of and access to new drugs. This study was conducted in order to identify circulating HIV subtypes and recombinant forms and evaluate the drug resistance mutation patterns in 18 HIV-1 infected children failing ARV treatment in Kelantan, Malaysia. Genotyping for codon 1-99 of protease (PR) and 1-250 of reverse transcriptase (RT) were performed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and DNA sequencing. Subsequently, these were phylogenetically analyzed to determine the subtypes. CRF33_01B (44.4%) was found to be the predominant HIV subtype, followed by B (27.8%), CRF15_01B (16.7%) and CRF01_AE (11.1%) subtypes. The most prevalent RT mutations were T215F/V/Y (66.7%), D67G/N (55.6%), K219Q/E/R (44.4%), M184V/I (38.9%), K70R/E (27.8%) and M41L (27.8%), associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTI) resistance; and K103N (55.6%), G190A (33.3%), and K101P/E/H (27.8%) associated with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) resistance. The results showed a possible emergence of CRF33_01B as current predominant subtypes/circulating recombinant forms (CRFs), and a high frequency of primary mutations among HIV-1 infected children after failure of ARV therapy in Kelantan, Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  7. Boyd MA, Amin J, Mallon PW, Kumarasamy N, Lombaard J, Wood R, et al.
    Lancet HIV, 2017 01;4(1):e13-e20.
    PMID: 27815068 DOI: 10.1016/S2352-3018(16)30189-8
    BACKGROUND: Lipoatrophy is one of the most feared complications associated with the use of nucleoside or nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (N[t]RTIs). We aimed to assess soft-tissue changes in participants with HIV who had virological failure of a first-line antiretroviral (ART) regimen containing a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor plus two N(t)RTIs and were randomly assigned to receive a second-line regimen containing a boosted protease inhibitor given with either N(t)RTIs or raltegravir.

    METHODS: Of the 37 sites that participated in the randomised, open-label, non-inferiority SECOND-LINE study, eight sites from five countries (Argentina, India, Malaysia, South Africa, and Thailand) participated in the body composition substudy. All sites had a dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner and all participants enrolled in SECOND-LINE were eligible for inclusion in the substudy. Participants were randomly assigned (1:1), via a computer-generated allocation schedule, to receive either ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus raltegravir (raltegravir group) or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir plus two or three N(t)RTIs (N[t]RTI group). Randomisation was stratified by site and screening HIV-1 RNA. Participants and investigators were not masked to group assignment, but allocation was concealed until after interventions were assigned. DXA scans were done at weeks 0, 48, and 96. The primary endpoint was mean percentage and absolute change in peripheral limb fat from baseline to week 96. We did intention-to-treat analyses of available data. This substudy is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01513122.

    FINDINGS: Between Aug 1, 2010, and July 10, 2011, we recruited 211 participants into the substudy. The intention-to-treat population comprised 102 participants in the N(t)RTI group and 108 participants in the raltegravir group, of whom 91 and 105 participants, respectively, reached 96 weeks. Mean percentage change in limb fat from baseline to week 96 was 16·8% (SD 32·6) in the N(t)RTI group and 28·0% (37·6) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 10·2%, 95% CI 0·1-20·4; p=0·048). Mean absolute change was 1·04 kg (SD 2·29) in the N(t)RTI group and 1·81 kg (2·50) in the raltegravir group (mean difference 0·6, 95% CI -0·1 to 1·3; p=0·10).

    INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that for people with virological failure of a first-line regimen containing efavirenz plus tenofovir and lamivudine or emtricitabine, the WHO-recommended switch to a ritonavir-boosted protease inhibitor plus zidovudine (a thymidine analogue nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) and lamivudine might come at the cost of peripheral lipoatrophy. Further study could help to define specific groups of people who might benefit from a switch to an N(t)RTI-sparing second-line ART regimen.

    FUNDING: The Kirby Institute and the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  8. HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, Cain LE, Phillips A, Olson A, Sabin C, Jose S, et al.
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 2015 Apr 15;60(8):1262-8.
    PMID: 25567330 DOI: 10.1093/cid/ciu1167
    BACKGROUND: Current clinical guidelines consider regimens consisting of either ritonavir-boosted atazanavir or ritonavir-boosted lopinavir and a nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone among their recommended and alternative first-line antiretroviral regimens. However, these guidelines are based on limited evidence from randomized clinical trials and clinical experience.

    METHODS: We compared these regimens with respect to clinical, immunologic, and virologic outcomes using data from prospective studies of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals in Europe and the United States in the HIV-CAUSAL Collaboration, 2004-2013. Antiretroviral therapy-naive and AIDS-free individuals were followed from the time they started a lopinavir or an atazanavir regimen. We estimated the 'intention-to-treat' effect for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens on each of the outcomes.

    RESULTS: A total of 6668 individuals started a lopinavir regimen (213 deaths, 457 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths), and 4301 individuals started an atazanavir regimen (83 deaths, 157 AIDS-defining illnesses or deaths). The adjusted intention-to-treat hazard ratios for atazanavir vs lopinavir regimens were 0.70 (95% confidence interval [CI], .53-.91) for death, 0.67 (95% CI, .55-.82) for AIDS-defining illness or death, and 0.91 (95% CI, .84-.99) for virologic failure at 12 months. The mean 12-month increase in CD4 count was 8.15 (95% CI, -.13 to 16.43) cells/µL higher in the atazanavir group. Estimates differed by NRTI backbone.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our estimates are consistent with a lower mortality, a lower incidence of AIDS-defining illness, a greater 12-month increase in CD4 cell count, and a smaller risk of virologic failure at 12 months for atazanavir compared with lopinavir regimens.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  9. Sakkhachornphop S, Hadpech S, Wisitponchai T, Panto C, Kantamala D, Utaipat U, et al.
    Viruses, 2018 11 13;10(11).
    PMID: 30428529 DOI: 10.3390/v10110625
    Certain proteins have demonstrated proficient human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) life cycle disturbance. Recently, the ankyrin repeat protein targeting the HIV-1 capsid, AnkGAG1D4, showed a negative effect on the viral assembly of the HIV-1NL4-3 laboratory strain. To extend its potential for future clinical application, the activity of AnkGAG1D4 in the inhibition of other HIV-1 circulating strains was evaluated. Chimeric NL4-3 viruses carrying patient-derived Gag/PR-coding regions were generated from 131 antiretroviral drug-naïve HIV-1 infected individuals in northern Thailand during 2001⁻2012. SupT1, a stable T-cell line expressing AnkGAG1D4 and ankyrin non-binding control (AnkA32D3), were challenged with these chimeric viruses. The p24CA sequences were analysed and classified using the K-means clustering method. Among all the classes of virus classified using the p24CA sequences, SupT1/AnkGAG1D4 demonstrated significantly lower levels of p24CA than SupT1/AnkA32D3, which was found to correlate with the syncytia formation. This result suggests that AnkGAG1D4 can significantly interfere with the chimeric viruses derived from patients with different sequences of the p24CA domain. It supports the possibility of ankyrin-based therapy as a broad alternative therapeutic molecule for HIV-1 gene therapy in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  10. Petoumenos K, Choi JY, Hoy J, Kiertiburanakul S, Ng OT, Boyd M, et al.
    Antivir. Ther. (Lond.), 2017;22(8):659-668.
    PMID: 28291735 DOI: 10.3851/IMP3155
    BACKGROUND: In the era of effective antiretroviral treatment (ART) CD4:CD8 ratio is proposed as a potential marker for HIV-positive (HIV+) patients at increased risk for non-AIDS comorbidities. The current study aims to compare CD4:CD8 ratio between Asian and Caucasian HIV+ patients.

    METHODS: HIV+ patients from the Australian HIV Observational Database (AHOD) and the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD) meeting specific criteria were included. In these analyses Asian and Caucasian status were defined by cohort. Factors associated with a low CD4:CD8 ratio (cutoff <0.2) prior to ART commencement, and with achieving a normal CD4:CD8 ratio (>1) at 12 and 24 months post ART commencement were assessed using logistic regression.

    RESULTS: There were 591 patients from AHOD and 2,620 patients from TAHOD who met the inclusion criteria. TAHOD patients had a significantly (P<0.001) lower odds of having a baseline (prior to ART initiation) CD4:CD8 ratio greater than 0.2. After 12 months of ART, AHOD patients were more than twice as likely to achieve a normal CD4:CD8 ratio compared to TAHOD patients (15% versus 6%). However, after adjustment for confounding factors there was no significant difference between cohorts in the odds of achieving a CD4:CD8 ratio >1 (P=0.475).

    CONCLUSIONS: We found a significantly lower CD4:CD8 ratio prior to commencing ART in TAHOD compared to AHOD even after adjusting for confounders. However, after adjustment, there was no significant difference between the cohorts in odds of achieving normal ratio. Baseline CD4+ and CD8+ counts seem to be the main driver for this difference between these two populations.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  11. Ou W, Li K, Feng Y, Huang Q, Ge Z, Sun J, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2019 04;35(4):414-418.
    PMID: 30229664 DOI: 10.1089/AID.2018.0197
    To date, there are 16 types of CRF01_AE/B circulating recombinant forms identified, and most of them are distributed in Asian countries such as China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Previous HIV molecular epidemiological surveys showed that CRF01_AE (27.6%) and B (9.6%) subtypes are predominant strains in mainland of China. At the same time, the HIV-1 virus spreads faster in the men who have sex with men (MSM) population than in other risk groups. In Shanghai district, ∼66.0% of newly reported cases were infected through homosexual transmission. In this study, we report a novel recombinant strain of CRF01_AE/B. The near full-length genome phylogenetic tree showed that the strain clustered with the CRF01_AE reference sequence and placed in the peripheral position within the branch of the CRF01_AE strain. Subregional evolutionary results indicated that the CRF01_AE subtype was derived from cluster 4 of CRF01_AE, which is mainly distributed in northern China. The subtype B was correlated with the U.S./Europe B, which are widely prevalent in the Chinese MSM population. In recent years, a large number of recombinant forms between CRF01_AE and B strains are continuously emerging in China. Therefore, understanding the current epidemic recombinant forms will have significant implications for prevention and treatment of HIV/AIDS.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  12. Jiamsakul A, Chaiwarith R, Durier N, Sirivichayakul S, Kiertiburanakul S, Van Den Eede P, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Feb;88(2):234-43.
    PMID: 26147742 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24320
    HIV drug resistance assessments and interpretations can be obtained from genotyping (GT), virtual phenotyping (VP) and laboratory-based phenotyping (PT). We compared resistance calls obtained from GT and VP with those from PT (GT-PT and VP-PT) among CRF01_AE and subtype B HIV-1 infected patients. GT predictions were obtained from the Stanford HIV database. VP and PT were obtained from Janssen Diagnostics BVBA's vircoType(TM) HIV-1 and Antivirogram®, respectively. With PT assumed as the "gold standard," the area under the curve (AUC) and the Bland-Altman plot were used to assess the level of agreement in resistance interpretations. A total of 80 CRF01_AE samples from Asia and 100 subtype B from Janssen Diagnostics BVBA's database were analysed. CRF01_AE showed discordances ranging from 3 to 27 samples for GT-PT and 1 to 20 samples for VP-PT. The GT-PT and VP-PT AUCs were 0.76-0.97 and 0.81-0.99, respectively. Subtype B showed 3-61 discordances for GT-PT and 2-75 discordances for VP-PT. The AUCs ranged from 0.55 to 0.95 for GT-PT and 0.55 to 0.97 for VP-PT. Didanosine had the highest proportion of discordances and/or AUC in all comparisons. The patient with the largest didanosine FC difference in each subtype harboured Q151M mutation. Overall, GT and VP predictions for CRF01_AE performed significantly better than subtype B for three NRTIs. Although discrepancies exist, GT and VP resistance interpretations in HIV-1 CRF01_AE strains were highly robust in comparison with the gold-standard PT.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  13. Wang B, Lau KA, Ong LY, Shah M, Steain MC, Foley B, et al.
    Virology, 2007 Oct 25;367(2):288-97.
    PMID: 17604072
    The HIV protease-reverse transcriptase (PR-RT) (1047 bp), gp120-env (891 bp) and gp41-env (547 bp) regions from the plasma of 115 HIV-1-infected patients in Kuala Lumpur (KL), Malaysia were sequenced. Detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses were performed to determine the mosaic structure of the HIV-1 strains and their recombination breakpoint(s). Among the 50 patient samples in which all three regions could be amplified, the HIV-1 CRF01_AE subtype (46%) was predominant followed by subtypes B (10%) and B' (6%). A total of 9/50 (18%) patients were infected with a CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinant, displaying a recombinant form (RF)(PR-RT), CRF01_AE(gp120-env) and CRF01_AE(gp41-env). This RF was derived from the Thai variants of CRF01_AE and B' subtype, with two distinct B' subtype segments in the backbone of CRF01_AE, similar to the newly identified CRF33_01B. In addition, one sample demonstrated a close structural relationship with the new CRF33_01B in the PR-RT region but displayed B' segment in part of the env region (RF(PR-RT), CRF01_AE/B'(gp120-env) and B'(gp41-env)) indicating continuing evolution of CRF33_01B. The remaining 18% of samples were identified as unique recombinant forms (URFs).
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  14. Lau KA, Wang B, Kamarulzaman A, Ngb KP, Saksena NK
    Curr. HIV Res., 2008 Mar;6(2):108-16.
    PMID: 18336258
    The Asian HIV epidemic appears to be complex, characterized by the prevalence of multiple subtypes and circulating recombinant forms with gradual replacement of pure HIV-1 subtypes in several geographical regions. The main objectives of the present study are to identify and analyse the full-length viral genomes of three unique recombinant forms (URFs); the HIV-1 isolates 07MYKLD47, 07MYKLD48 and 07MYKLD49 from Malaysia. Long-range polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of seven overlapping reading frames was used to derive near full-length HIV-1 genomes. Detailed phylogenetic and bootscanning analyses were performed to determine phylogenetic associations and subtypic assignments. We further confirmed the mosaic composition of these CRF01_AE/B inter-subtype recombinant forms, which are composed of B-subtype fragment(s) in the backbone of CRF01_AE. Both 07MYKLD47 and 07MYKLD48 have an insertion of B subtype (880 bp and 532 bp) in the gag-pol and gp41-env gene regions, respectively. Whereas the isolate 07MYKLD49 has three B-subtype fragments inserted in different gene region along the genome; one each in the gag-pol (1862 bp) and pol-vif (1935 bp) regions, and a short B-subtype insertion (541 bp) in the 5' LTR-gag region. This highlights the public health relevance of newly emerging second generation HIV-1 recombinant forms and their dispersal, along with their rapid and continuous evolution in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  15. Rich KM, Valencia Huamaní J, Kiani SN, Cabello R, Elish P, Florez Arce J, et al.
    AIDS Care, 2018 11;30(11):1341-1350.
    PMID: 29843518 DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2018.1476657
    In Peru, HIV is concentrated among men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). Between June 2015 and August 2016, 591 HIV-positive MSM and TGW were recruited at five clinical care sites in Lima, Peru. We found that 82.4% of the participants had achieved viral suppression (VS; VL HIV care were less likely to achieve VS (aOR = 0.47; 95% CI = 0.30-0.75) and MVS (aOR = 0.56; 95% CI = 0.37-0.84). Alcohol use disorders were negatively associated with MVS (aOR = 0.62; 95% CI = 0.30-0.75) and age was positively associated with achieving MVS (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.04-1.59). These findings underscore the need for more accessible HIV care with integrated behavioral health services in Lima, Peru.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  16. Sahbandar IN, Takahashi K, Djoerban Z, Firmansyah I, Naganawa S, Motomura K, et al.
    AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses, 2009 Jul;25(7):637-46.
    PMID: 19621986 DOI: 10.1089/aid.2008.0266
    HIV infection is a major problem in Indonesia. The number of people living with HIV has been increasing from year to year, especially among injecting drug users (IDUs). Since there were only limited data about molecular epidemiology profiles of HIV/AIDS in Indonesia, a cross-sectional study involving 208 HIV-1-seropositive individuals was conducted in 2007 in Jakarta. The majority of participants were 16-30 years of age (64.9%) and 74.5% were male. The most frequent risk factor was injecting drug use (IDU) (45.7%) followed by heterosexual transmission (34.1%). Phylogenetic analysis of gag (p17 and p6) and env C2V3 regions showed 200 (96.2%) of 208 DNA samples were CRF01_AE and only 3 (1.4%) were subtype B. Five samples (2.4%) indicated discordant subtypes between the three aforementioned regions: three of them showed unique CRF01_AE/B recombination patterns in 2.3-kbp nucleotide sequences (from p17 to part of RT), including one sample showing similarity to CRF33_01B, reported previously in Malaysia. This study shows the current predominant subtype is CRF01_AE in every risk group, with a decreasing number of pure subtype B, and the first identification of CRF01_AE/B recombinant forms among HIV-1-seropositive Indonesians.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  17. Ramesh Kumar MR, Arunagirinathan N, Srivani S, Dhanasezhian A, Vijaykanth N, Manikandan N, et al.
    Microb. Drug Resist., 2017 Jul;23(5):602-608.
    PMID: 27854149 DOI: 10.1089/mdr.2016.0034
    The antibiotic, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), is generally used for prophylaxis in HIV individuals to protect them from Pneumocystis jiroveci infection. Long-term use of TMP-SMX develops drug resistance among bacteria in HIV patients. The study was aimed to detect the TMP-SMX resistance genes among gram-negative bacteria from HIV patients. TMP-SMX-resistant isolates were detected by the Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method. While TMP resistance genes such as dfrA1, dfrA5, dfrA7, and dfrA17 and SMX resistance genes such as sul1 and sul2 were detected by multiplex PCR, class 1 and class 2 integrons were detected by standard monoplex PCR. Of the 151 TMP-SMX-resistant bacterial isolates, 3 were positive for sul1 alone, 48 for sul2 alone, 11 for dfrA7 alone, 21 for sul1 and sul2, 1 for sul1 and dfrA7, 23 for sul2 and dfrA7, 2 for sul2 and dfrA5, 41 for sul1, sul2, and dfrA7, and 1 for sul2, dfrA5, and dfrA7. Of 60 TMP-SMX-resistant isolates positive for integrons, 44 had class 1 and 16 had class 2 integrons. It was found that the prevalence of sul genes (n = 202; p HIV patients in India. Therefore, this study indicates that dissemination of TMP-SMX resistance genes and class 1 and class 2 integrons along with β-lactamase production among gram-negative bacteria in HIV patients will certainly make their treatment to bacterial infections more complicated in clinical settings.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  18. Razali SM
    Trop Doct, 2008 Apr;38(2):109-10.
    PMID: 18453507 DOI: 10.1258/td.2007.070001
    The prevalence of HIV/AIDS among drug addicts in Malaysia is high, especially among intravenous drug users. The present treatment and rehabilitation of drug addiction is considered as a failure. The government finally decided to start on Drug Substitution Therapy in early 2005 as an effort to prevent the spread of HIV/AIDS in the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
  19. Mu W, Bartlett AW, Bunupuradah T, Chokephaibulkit K, Kumarasamy N, Ly PS, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2019 03 01;80(3):308-315.
    PMID: 30531299 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000001921
    BACKGROUND: Virologic failure is a major threat to maintaining effective combination antiretroviral therapy, especially for children in need of lifelong treatment. With efforts to expand access to HIV viral load testing, our understanding of pediatric virologic failure is evolving.

    SETTING: An Asian cohort in 16 pediatric HIV services across 6 countries.

    METHODS: From 2005 to 2014, patients younger than 20 years who achieved virologic suppression and had subsequent viral load testing were included. Early virologic failure was defined as a HIV RNA ≥1000 copies per milliliter within 12 months of virologic suppression, and late virologic as a HIV RNA ≥1000 copies per milliliter after 12 months following virologic suppression. Characteristics at combination antiretroviral therapy initiation and virologic suppression were described, and a competing risk time-to-event analysis was used to determine cumulative incidence of virologic failure and factors at virologic suppression associated with early and late virologic failure.

    RESULTS: Of 1105 included in the analysis, 182 (17.9%) experienced virologic failure. The median age at virologic suppression was 6.9 years, and the median time to virologic failure was 24.6 months after virologic suppression. The incidence rate for a first virologic failure event was 3.3 per 100 person-years. Factors at virologic suppression associated with late virologic failure included older age, mostly rural clinic setting, tuberculosis, protease inhibitor-based regimens, and early virologic failure. No risk factors were identified for early virologic failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Around 1 in 5 experienced virologic failure in our cohort after achieving virologic suppression. Targeted interventions to manage complex treatment scenarios, including adolescents, tuberculosis coinfection, and those with poor virologic control are required.

    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology*
  20. Boettiger DC, Nguyen VK, Durier N, Bui HV, Heng Sim BL, Azwa I, et al.
    J. Acquir. Immune Defic. Syndr., 2015 Feb 1;68(2):186-95.
    PMID: 25590271 DOI: 10.1097/QAI.0000000000000411
    Roughly 4% of the 1.25 million patients on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Asia are using second-line therapy. To maximize patient benefit and regional resources, it is important to optimize the timing of second-line ART initiation and use the most effective compounds available.
    Matched MeSH terms: HIV Infections/virology
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