METHODS/DESIGN: This quasi-experimental study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of the SNP between intervention and comparison groups before and after the SNP, and after a 3-month follow-up. The SNP consisted of two main components, whereby three nutrition education sessions were implemented by trained teachers using three standardised modules, and healthy school food environment was implemented by the canteen food handlers with the provision of healthy menu to children during school recess times. Children from intervention group participated in the SNP, in addition to the standard Physical and Health Curriculum. The comparison group attended only the standardised Physical and Health Curriculum and the school canteen food handlers were reminded to follow the standard canteen guidelines from the Ministry of Education Malaysia. The assessment parameters in evaluating the effectiveness of the programme were knowledge, attitude and practice on nutrition, eating behaviours, physical activity, body composition, psychological distress, cognitive performance and health-related quality of life. Assessments were conducted at three time points: pre-intervention, post-intervention and 3-month follow-up.
DISCUSSION: It was hypothesised that the SNP would be effective in promoting healthy lifestyle among school children, and further contributes in preventing malnutrition problem, enhancing cognitive performance and improving health-related quality of life among school children. Findings of the present study can be expanded to other schools in future on ways to improve nutrition education and healthy school food environment.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: UMIN Clinical Trial Registration UMIN000032914 (Date of registration: 7th June 2018, retrospectively registered).
PROTOCOL VERSION: 16th September 2019 & Version 4.
Methods: A survey on building students' eating habits was conducted among primary school students of grade 4 (11 years) and 5 (12 years) from Kulim district, Malaysia. Data from 318 respondents were analysed. Descriptive statistics were used to find the present scenario of their knowledge, attitude and practices towards their eating habits while one-way ANOVA and independent sample t-test were used to find the differences between their practices based on students' gender, parents' educations and incomes.
Results: The study finds that the students have a good knowledge of types of healthy food but yet their preferences are towards the unhealthy food. Though the students' gender and parents' educations are not found significantly related to students' knowledge, attitude and practices towards healthy eating habits, parents' incomes have significant influence on promoting the healthy eating habit.
Discussion: Findings of this study can be useful to guide parents in healthy food choices and suggest them to be models to their children in building healthy eating habits.
Methods: A descriptive, cross sectional-survey was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire comprising of sections that focused on public preferences and options on weight management approaches, perceived availability of extended services and resources provided by community pharmacists in relation to weight management, utilization of these services and resources, and factors influencing acceptability of weight management services provided by community pharmacists. The questionnaires were distributed to the general public aged 18 years and above in Klang Valley, Malaysia.
Results: A total of 730 respondents with a median age of 31 years participated in this study. Majority of respondents ranked dieticians as their preferred first line of consultation, with only about a quarter of respondents ranking community pharmacists as their preferred first or second line of consultation. Although more than half show of the study respondents perceived that community pharmacies they had visited offered services for measuring weight, height, blood pressure, blood glucose and blood cholesterol, fewer perceived that community pharmacies provided advice on physical activity and healthy eating to achieve weight loss. Additionally, majority of the respondents indicated that they had not utilized these services. However, most respondents perceived that community pharmacists should provide weight management services. The main factors influencing acceptability show of services included training of pharmacists, payment, waiting time and the issue of privacy.
Conclusion: The findings of this study demonstrated that the majority of respondents were in support of weight management services in community pharmacy; however only a low percentage reported utilizing these services. Factors influencing acceptability of services included payment, waiting time and the issue of privacy. With adequate training among pharmacists and increased awareness of services among the public, community pharmacists could play a larger and important role in addressing the issue of obesity in Malaysia.
DESIGN: A qualitative study involving eight focus groups and twelve in-depth interviews. Focus groups and interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. An inductive thematic analysis approach was used to analyse the data.
SETTING: Four secondary schools in Perak and Selangor states (two urban and two rural schools) in Malaysia.
PARTICIPANTS: Focus groups were conducted with seventy-six adolescents aged 13-14 years, and in-depth interviews were conducted with four headmasters, four PA education teachers and four food canteen operators.
RESULTS: Stakeholders thought that adolescents' misperceptions, limited availability of healthy options, unhealthy food preferences and affordability were important challenges preventing healthy eating at school. Low-quality physical education (PE) classes, limited adolescent participation and teachers' commitment during lessons were perceived as barriers to adolescents being active at school. Affordability was the main challenge for adolescents from rural schools. Stakeholders perceived that a future school-based intervention should improve the availability and subsidies for healthy foods, provide health education/training for both adolescents and PE teachers, enhance active adolescent participation in PE and develop social support mechanisms to facilitate engagement with PA.
CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide important insights into developing school-based lifestyle interventions to improve healthy eating and strengthening PA of Malaysian adolescents.
OBJECTIVE: The aim of our present study is to determine the effectiveness of a comprehensive, multidomain intervention on CF; to evaluate its cost effectiveness and the factors influencing adherence toward this intensive intervention.
METHODS: A total of 1,000 community dwelling older adults, aged 60 years and above will be screened for CF. This randomized controlled trial involves recruitment of 330 older adults with CF from urban, semi-urban, and rural areas in Malaysia. Multidomain intervention comprised of physical, nutritional, cognitive, and psychosocial aspects will be provided to participants in the experimental group (n = 165). The control group (n = 165) will continue their usual care with their physician. Primary outcomes include CF status, physical function, psychosocial and nutritional status as well as cognitive performance. Vascular health and gut microbiome will be assessed using blood and stool samples. A 24-month intensive intervention will be prescribed to the participants and its sustainability will be assessed for the following 12 months. The effective intervention strategies will be integrated as a personalized telerehabilitation package for the reversal of CF for future use.
RESULTS: The multidomain intervention developed from this trial is expected to be cost effective compared to usual care as well as able is to reverse CF.
CONCLUSION: This project will be part of the World-Wide FINGERS (Finnish Geriatric Intervention Study to Prevent Cognitive Impairment and Disability) Network, of which common identifiable data will be shared and harmonized among the consortia.
METHODS: An analytical cross-sectional study using purposive sampling method was conducted at eight thalassemia societies in Peninsular Malaysia. 260 respondents comprised of patients and caregivers were assessed with two separate sets of questionnaires.
RESULTS: Knowledge on dietary iron among the respondents was unsatisfactory, despite them having good knowledge on thalassemia disorder. Female patients were found to have better dietary knowledge, attitude and practice compared to males. The percentage of caregivers with good attitude and good practice were significantly higher compared to adult patients. Caregivers with children on iron chelators were noted to have better dietary attitude and practice. Thalassemia knowledge and children on vitamins were found to be the predictors of dietary knowledge among the patients and caregivers respectively.
CONCLUSION: The level of knowledge on dietary iron among the patients and caregivers was unsatisfactory in spite of their attitude and practice towards dietary iron were good. Effective delivery of dietary information to the patients and caregivers is essential to enable them to choose a healthy diet for their condition.
OBJECTIVE: This study assessed the diet quality of households by their type of engagement in homestead aquaculture and/or horticulture. Socio-demographic determinants of diet quality were also studied.
METHOD: Diet quality was assessed using a nutrient adequacy ratio (NAR), based on the preceding 7 days' dietary recall at the household level. Adult male equivalent units (AMEs) were used for age- and sex-specific intra-household distribution of household intakes. Mean adequacy ratios (MAR) were computed as an overall measure of diet quality, using NAR.
RESULTS: Better diet quality (mean ± SD) was associated with households engaged in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture (0.43 ± 0.23; p < 0.001) compared to only one type of agriculture (0.38 ± 0.20) or none (0.36 ± 0.20). Tukey's post-hoc test confirmed significant differences in diet quality between both and either engagement (0.05 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), both and no engagement (0.07 ± 0.01, p < 0.001), and either and no engagement households (0.02 ± 0.01, p < 0.001). Beyond farm production of nutrient-rich foods, generalized estimating equations showed that diet quality was influenced by the higher educational level and occupation of adult household members, higher daily per capita food expenditure, sex, family size and region.
CONCLUSIONS: Projects that promote and support household engagement in both homestead aquaculture and horticulture have the potential to improve the diet quality of households.