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  1. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  2. Alexander MJ, Sinnatamby AS, Rohaimah MJ, Harun AH, Ng JS
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1990 May;19(3):344-6.
    PMID: 2393233
    Brunei Darussalam has a mixed population with entirely different cultures and religions. The overall incidence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is 6%. A racial analysis of the incidence of HBV infection in Brunei shows a significantly higher incidence in Chinese compared to the other races. This is consistent with the incidence in the neighbouring countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  3. André F
    Vaccine, 2000 Feb 18;18 Suppl 1:S20-2.
    PMID: 10683538
    Asia and Africa have previously been classified as areas of high endemicity for hepatitis B virus (HBV), but in some countries highly effective vaccination programmes have shifted this pattern towards intermediate or low endemicity. Thus, China is now the only country in Asia where HBV endemicity is high. Countries with intermediate endemicity include India, Korea, the Philippines, Taiwan and Thailand, and those with low endemicity include Japan, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Singapore, Sri Lanka and Malaysia. Most countries in Africa have high HBV endemicity, with the exceptions of Tunisia and Morocco, which have intermediate endemicity. Zambia has borderline intermediate/high endemicity. In the Middle East, Bahrain, Iran, Israel and Kuwait are areas of low endemicity, Cyprus, Iraq and the United Arab Emirates have intermediate endemicity, and Egypt, Jordan, Oman, Palestine, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have high endemicity. All of these Middle East countries reach a large proportion of their population with hepatitis B vaccination, which is reducing the infection rate, particularly in Saudi Arabia. The vaccination programme in Taiwan has also greatly reduced the HBV infection rate. Future vaccination programmes must take into account the mode of transmission of HBV, the healthcare infrastructure to deliver vaccination, and the socioeconomic and political factors in each individual country, to determine the most cost-effective way of infection control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  4. Aurpibul L, Kariminia A, Vibol U, Fong MS, Le ON, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2018 08;37(8):788-793.
    PMID: 29846357 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001901
    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    METHODS: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently <25 years old receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) who had HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), or HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) or HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) tested during 2012-2013. HBV coinfection was defined as having either a positive HBsAg test or being anti-HBc positive and anti-HBs negative, reflective of past HBV infection. HBV seroprotection was defined as having a positive anti-HBs test.

    RESULTS: A total of 3380 patients from 6 countries (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were included. The current median (interquartile range) age was 11.2 (7.8-15.1) years. Of the 2755 patients (81.5%) with HBsAg testing, 130 (4.7%) were positive. Of 1558 (46%) with anti-HBc testing, 77 (4.9%) were positive. Thirteen of 1037 patients with all 3 tests were anti-HBc positive and HBsAg and anti-HBs negative. One child was positive for anti-HBc and negative for anti-HBs but did not have HBsAg tested. The prevalence of HBV coinfection was 144/2759 (5.2%) (95% confidence interval: 4.4-6.1). Of 1093 patients (32%) with anti-HBs testing, 257 (23.5%; confidence interval: 21.0-26.0) had positive tests representing HBV seroprotection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of HBV coinfection in this cohort of Asian HIV-infected children and adolescents on ART was 5.2%. The majority of children and adolescents tested in this cohort (76.5%) did not have protective HBV antibody. The finding supports HBV screening of HIV-infected children and adolescents to guide revaccination, the use of ART with anti-HBV activity and future monitoring.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  5. Chan WK, Yeoh KY, Lim CY, Lai SM, Lee JL, Leow AHR, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):137-140.
    PMID: 29962496 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There have been no published data on the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of all the children of HBsAg-positive mothers who delivered at the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 and 2000.

    RESULTS: A total of 60 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 154 children participated in the study. HBsAg was detected in four children (2.6%) while IgG antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgG) was detected in seventeen children (11.0%). The mother's age at childbirth was significantly lower in the children with detectable HBsAg (22.5±6.1 years vs. 29.7±4.5 years, p=0.043) and anti-HBc IgG (26.6±6.1 years vs. 30.0±4.3 years, p=0.004). Children born in the 1980s were significantly more likely to have detectable HBsAg (18.8% vs. 0.7%, p=0.004) and anti-HBc IgG (37.5% vs. 8.0%, p=0.000) compared with those born later. All children with detectable HBsAg were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin was either not given or the administration status was unknown. The majority of mothers with chronic HBV infection (70.4%) were not under any regular follow-up for their chronic HBV infection and the main reason was the lack of awareness of the need to do so (47.4%).

    CONCLUSION: Transmission of HBV infection among children of HBsAg-positive mothers in Malaysia is low. However, attention needs to be given to the high rate of HBsAgpositive mothers who are not on any regular follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  6. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  7. Choong ML, Ton SH, Cheong SK
    Asian Pac. J. Allergy Immunol., 1996 Jun;14(1):19-24.
    PMID: 8980796
    The percentage of lymphocyte subsets from the peripheral blood of healthy adults and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) carriers were analyzed by flow cytometry. The five lymphocyte subsets studied were:- T (CD3) cells, B (CD19) cells, CD4 cells, CD8 cells, Natural Killer (CD3- CD16+/CD56+) cells (NK cells) and the CD4/CD8 ratio. The percentage (mean +/- SD) for the five lymphocyte subsets from the healthy adults were (67.5 +/- 8.5)%, (12.4 +/- 4.5)%, (35.5 +/- 7.8)%, (36.8 +/- 8.5)%, (17.9 +/- 8.1)% and 1.1 +/- 0.6, respectively. HBsAg carriers positive for HBV-DNA had a lower CD4/CD8 ratio than the healthy population (P = 0.030). The percentage of CD8 cells in HBsAg carriers increased significantly (r = 0.28; P = 0.019) with an increase in ALT levels but the values remained within normal range. The percentage of NK cells and CD4/CD8 ratio in HBsAg carriers positive for anti-HBe were higher than HBsAg carriers negative for anti-HBe (92% of which are HBeAg positive) (P = 0.045 and P = 0.035, respectively). The CD4/CD8 ratio in HBsAg carriers negative for anti-HBe (92% positive for HBeAg) was also lower than in the healthy population (P = 0.042). HBsAg carriers positive for HBV-DNA, HBeAg and raised ALT levels had a lower CD4/ CD8 ratio than did the healthy population. The lower ratio was due to an increase in the percentage of CD8 cells. This suggests an activated immune response triggered by the infection in an attempt to clear the virus. HBsAg carriers with normal ALT levels and who are negative for HBV-DNA may be in a state of tolerance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  8. Gan CY, Yap SF, Ngeow YF, Wong HC
    Sex Transm Dis, 1991 4 1;18(2):84-8.
    PMID: 1862464
    This study documents the prevalence of Hepatitis B serological markers among STD patients who have had multiple sexual partners in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, and compares the rates with those of a sample of the population with single or no sexual partners. A total of 336 Chinese STD patients (multiple partners group) and 234 Chinese control subjects (non-multiple partner group) were screened. Those with a history of blood transfusion or parenteral drug abuse had been excluded from the study, and all study subjects were heterosexuals. The overall carrier rate was 9.2% for the multiple partner group (MP group) and 6.8% for the non-multiple partner group (NMP group). Infection rates were 64.3% for the MP-group and 38.9% for the NMP group. After adjustments for age and sex, there was no significant difference in carrier rates between the two groups, but infection rates were significantly different with the MP group, being 3.2 times more likely to acquire infection than the NMP group. The study concludes that in heterosexuals, those with multiple sexual partners have increased chances of acquiring HBV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  9. Goh KT
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1980 Apr;9(2):136-41.
    PMID: 6775577
    257 cases of acute hepatitis B were reported between January 1977 and June 1979. This constituted about one-third of all reported acute viral hepatitis cases in Singapore. The mean annual morbidity and mortality rates per 100,000 was 4.4 and 0.12 respectively. The case-fatality rate was 2.7%. The age-specific morbidity rates were high in the 15-24 and 25-34 years age groups, while the ethnic specific morbidity rate was highest in Indians. The male to female ratio was 4.6: 1. Cases were concentrated in urban and suburban areas with high population density. Three outbreaks, one traced to contaminated needles and syringes, one to contaminated tattoo neeedles, and amongst close contacts, were described. Although parenteral procedures were associated with hepatitis B infection (p < 0.005), non-parenteral or inapparent parenteral mode of transmission probably contributes to a significant extent in the transmission of hepatitis B in Singapore. Studies to determine the role of perinatal transmission, and of vectors, in maintaining the endemicity of the disease, were suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  10. Hong YS, Chang Y, Ryu S, Cainzos-Achirica M, Kwon MJ, Zhang Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 04;7(1):4606.
    PMID: 28676706 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04206-6
    The role of hepatitis virus infection in glucose homeostasis is uncertain. We examined the associations between hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of diabetes in a cohort (N = 439,708) of asymptomatic participants in health screening examinations. In cross-sectional analyses, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for prevalent diabetes comparing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) to HBsAg (-) participants was 1.17 (95% CI 1.06-1.31; P = 0.003). The corresponding odds ratio comparing hepatitis C antibodies (HCV Ab) (+) to HCV Ab (-) participants was 1.43 (95% CI 1.01-2.02, P = 0.043). In prospective analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for incident diabetes comparing HBsAg (+) to HbsAg (-) participants was 1.23 (95% CI 1.08-1.41; P = 0.007). The number of incident cases of diabetes among HCV Ab (+) participants (10 cases) was too small to reliably estimate the prospective association between HCV infection and diabetes. In this large population at low risk of diabetes, HBV and HCV infections were associated with diabetes prevalence and HBV infection with the risk of incident diabetes. Our studies add evidence suggesting that diabetes is an additional metabolic complication of HBV and HCV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  11. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2014;16:69-78.
    PMID: 24014801
    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide, and more than 350 million people are chronic carriers, constituting a major global threat. Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have the highest levels of endemicity in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence ranging between 2% and 31%. Mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported in many parts of the world but are most common in Asian infants; such mutants have several clinical effects, such as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagnostic failures by commercial assays have reduced the diagnostic effectiveness of HBsAg detection. For example the substitution of an amino acid in the major hydrophilic region of the S gene reduces the binding of hepatitis B surface antibodies leading to immune escape. The safety of blood transfusion may be compromised by current screening tests due to escape from being neutralised by antibodies induced by HBsAg mutants, and undetectable levels of viral surface protein. Data on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific are scant; however, this manuscript has reviewed the available information on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  12. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Afr Health Sci, 2016 Sep;16(3):677-683.
    PMID: 27917199
    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

    PATIENT AND METHODS: A total of 1000 randomly selected hepatitis B surface antigen-negative sera from blood donors were tested for hepatitis B core antibody and hepatitis B surface antibody using an ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction was done using primers specific to the surface gene (S-gene).

    RESULTS: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result.

    CONCLUSION: This study reveals the 5.5% prevalence of occult hepatitis B among Malaysian blood donors as well as the reliability of using hepatitis B core antibody in screening for occult hepatitis B infection in low endemic, low socioeconomic settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  13. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2015 Jul;34(7):1349-59.
    PMID: 25792010 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2358-1
    Hepatitis B virus surface mutants are of enormous importance because they are capable of escaping detection by serology and can infect both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations, thus putting the whole population at risk. This study aimed to detect and characterise hepatitis B-escaped mutants among blood donors and vaccinees. One thousand serum samples were collected for this study from blood donors and vaccinees. Hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies and core antibodies were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. DNA detection was performed via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the S gene was sequenced and analysed using bioinformatics. Of the 1,000 samples that were screened, 5.5% (55/1,000) were found to be HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc- and HBV DNA-positive. All 55 isolates were found to belong to genotype B. Several mutations were found across all the sequences from synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, with the most nucleotide mutations occurring at position 342, where adenine was replaced by guanine, and cytosine at position 46 was replaced by adenine in 96.4% and 98% of the isolates, respectively. Mutation at position 16 of the amino acid sequence was found to be common to all the Malaysian isolates, with 85.7% of the mutations occurring outside the major hydrophilic region. This study revealed a prevalence of 5.5% for hepatitis B-escaped mutations among blood donors and vaccinated undergraduates, with the most common mutation being found at position 16, where glutamine was substituted with lysine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  14. Jamal R, Fadzillah G, Zulkifli SZ, Yasmin M
    PMID: 10772566
    Regular blood transfusions for patients with thalassemia have improved their overall survival although these transfusions carry a definite risk of the transmission of certain viruses. Infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), cytomegalovirus (CMV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to complications which contribute to the morbidity and mortality of patients with thalassemia. We analyzed the blood samples taken from 85 transfusion dependent thalassemics receiving treatment at the day care center in Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and found that the seroprevalence rates for HBV, HCV and CMV were 2.4%, 22.4% and 91.8% respectively. None of the patients tested positive for HIV. Those positive for HBV and HCV will require further tests and treatment if chronic hepatitis is confirmed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  15. Johnson DW, Dent H, Yao Q, Tranaeus A, Huang CC, Han DS, et al.
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2009 May;24(5):1598-603.
    PMID: 19096083 DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn684
    The impact of dialysis modality on the rates and types of infectious complications has not been well studied. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) patients in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  16. Kamath S, Lopez CG
    Med. J. Aust., 1973 Nov 3;2(18):867-8.
    PMID: 4782397
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  17. Khairullah NS, Merican DI
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2004 Mar;19 Suppl:S13-6.
    PMID: 15156929
    The MLF since its inception in 1996 has endeavored to develop a coordinated approach towards the improved care and treatment of liver diseases in Malaysia. Its close liaison with the Malaysian MOH, local medical associations, and corporate bodies has contributed to the success of its many programs. Educating the public, research, and training have been important elements of successful hepatitis disease control programs. Hepatitis Days have been proven to be very successful in raising the awareness of the general public to hepatitis disease. Rapid screening and vaccination has also helped to remove the social stigma associated with the disease, eliminated the need for numerous clinic appointments, and rendered vaccination more accessible to the public. The MLF perspective emphasizes the need for collaborative effort between Government bodies and other agencies, such as non-governmental organizations, laboratories, and the medical fraternity, to ensure the overall success of hepatitis disease management programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  18. Le Bras J, Larouze B, Geniteau M, Andrieu B, Dazza MC, Rodhain F
    Lab. Anim., 1984 Jan;18(1):61-4.
    PMID: 10628790
    Naturally occurring malaria, arbovirus infection and hepatitis in monkeys can be a hazard for the investigator and might interfere with the outcome of experiments. 63 young adult Macaca fascicularis from Malaysia were screened for these infections. About 1 year after their arrival in France, parasitaemia due to Plasmodium spp., was present in 6.4% of the animals and specific antibodies in 55.5%. 19 of 35 initially positive monkeys were tested again 2 years later. Parasitaemia was found in 1 of 4 monkeys and antibodies in 11 of 19 monkeys which were initially positive. 9 of the monkeys initially tested had low titres of antibodies to the Flavivirus genus. All animals were negative for the hepatitis B surface antigen and anti-HBc. The prevalence of IgG antibodies against hepatitis A was 46.0%. The implications in terms of control are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  19. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  20. Lopez CG
    Malays J Pathol, 1985 Aug;7:7-10.
    PMID: 3843253
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
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