Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 40 in total

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  1. Aurpibul L, Kariminia A, Vibol U, Fong MS, Le ON, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2018 08;37(8):788-793.
    PMID: 29846357 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000001901
    BACKGROUND: Hepatitis B (HBV)-HIV coinfection is associated with liver inflammation, which can progress to liver fibrosis/cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We determined HBV seroprevalence in children and adolescents participating in the TREAT Asia Pediatric HIV Observational Database.

    METHODS: A multisite cross-sectional study was conducted in HIV-infected patients currently <25 years old receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) who had HBV surface antigen (HBsAg), or HBV surface antibody (anti-HBs) or HBV core antibody (anti-HBc) tested during 2012-2013. HBV coinfection was defined as having either a positive HBsAg test or being anti-HBc positive and anti-HBs negative, reflective of past HBV infection. HBV seroprotection was defined as having a positive anti-HBs test.

    RESULTS: A total of 3380 patients from 6 countries (Vietnam, Thailand, Cambodia, Malaysia, Indonesia and India) were included. The current median (interquartile range) age was 11.2 (7.8-15.1) years. Of the 2755 patients (81.5%) with HBsAg testing, 130 (4.7%) were positive. Of 1558 (46%) with anti-HBc testing, 77 (4.9%) were positive. Thirteen of 1037 patients with all 3 tests were anti-HBc positive and HBsAg and anti-HBs negative. One child was positive for anti-HBc and negative for anti-HBs but did not have HBsAg tested. The prevalence of HBV coinfection was 144/2759 (5.2%) (95% confidence interval: 4.4-6.1). Of 1093 patients (32%) with anti-HBs testing, 257 (23.5%; confidence interval: 21.0-26.0) had positive tests representing HBV seroprotection.

    CONCLUSIONS: The estimated prevalence of HBV coinfection in this cohort of Asian HIV-infected children and adolescents on ART was 5.2%. The majority of children and adolescents tested in this cohort (76.5%) did not have protective HBV antibody. The finding supports HBV screening of HIV-infected children and adolescents to guide revaccination, the use of ART with anti-HBV activity and future monitoring.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  2. Chan WK, Yeoh KY, Lim CY, Lai SM, Lee JL, Leow AHR, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):137-140.
    PMID: 29962496 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There have been no published data on the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of all the children of HBsAg-positive mothers who delivered at the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 and 2000.

    RESULTS: A total of 60 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 154 children participated in the study. HBsAg was detected in four children (2.6%) while IgG antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgG) was detected in seventeen children (11.0%). The mother's age at childbirth was significantly lower in the children with detectable HBsAg (22.5±6.1 years vs. 29.7±4.5 years, p=0.043) and anti-HBc IgG (26.6±6.1 years vs. 30.0±4.3 years, p=0.004). Children born in the 1980s were significantly more likely to have detectable HBsAg (18.8% vs. 0.7%, p=0.004) and anti-HBc IgG (37.5% vs. 8.0%, p=0.000) compared with those born later. All children with detectable HBsAg were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin was either not given or the administration status was unknown. The majority of mothers with chronic HBV infection (70.4%) were not under any regular follow-up for their chronic HBV infection and the main reason was the lack of awareness of the need to do so (47.4%).

    CONCLUSION: Transmission of HBV infection among children of HBsAg-positive mothers in Malaysia is low. However, attention needs to be given to the high rate of HBsAgpositive mothers who are not on any regular follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  3. Hong YS, Chang Y, Ryu S, Cainzos-Achirica M, Kwon MJ, Zhang Y, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2017 07 04;7(1):4606.
    PMID: 28676706 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-017-04206-6
    The role of hepatitis virus infection in glucose homeostasis is uncertain. We examined the associations between hepatitis B virus (HBV) or hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and the development of diabetes in a cohort (N = 439,708) of asymptomatic participants in health screening examinations. In cross-sectional analyses, the multivariable-adjusted odds ratio for prevalent diabetes comparing hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) (+) to HBsAg (-) participants was 1.17 (95% CI 1.06-1.31; P = 0.003). The corresponding odds ratio comparing hepatitis C antibodies (HCV Ab) (+) to HCV Ab (-) participants was 1.43 (95% CI 1.01-2.02, P = 0.043). In prospective analyses, the multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio for incident diabetes comparing HBsAg (+) to HbsAg (-) participants was 1.23 (95% CI 1.08-1.41; P = 0.007). The number of incident cases of diabetes among HCV Ab (+) participants (10 cases) was too small to reliably estimate the prospective association between HCV infection and diabetes. In this large population at low risk of diabetes, HBV and HCV infections were associated with diabetes prevalence and HBV infection with the risk of incident diabetes. Our studies add evidence suggesting that diabetes is an additional metabolic complication of HBV and HCV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  4. Wait S, Kell E, Hamid S, Muljono DH, Sollano J, Mohamed R, et al.
    Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2016 11;1(3):248-255.
    PMID: 28404097 DOI: 10.1016/S2468-1253(16)30031-0
    In 2015, the Coalition to Eradicate Viral Hepatitis in Asia Pacific gathered leading hepatitis experts from Bangladesh, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Thailand to discuss common challenges to the burden posed by hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), to learn from each other's experience, and identify sustainable approaches. In this report, we summarise these discussions. Countries differ in their policy responses to HBV and HCV; however, substantial systemic, cultural, and financial barriers to achievement of elimination of these infections persist in all countries. Common challenges to elimination include limited availability of reliable epidemiological data; insufficient public awareness of risk factors and modes of transmission, leading to underdiagnosis; high rates of transmission through infected blood products, including in medical settings; limited access to care for people who inject drugs; prevailing stigma and discrimination against people infected with viral hepatitis; and financial barriers to treatment and care. Despite these challenges, promising examples of effective programmes, public-private initiatives, and other innovative approaches are evident in all countries we studied in Asia Pacific. The draft WHO Global Health Sector Strategy on Viral Hepatitis 2016-21 provides a solid framework upon which governments can build their local strategies towards viral hepatitis. However, greater recognition by national governments and the international community of the urgency to comprehensively tackle both HBV and HCV are still needed. In all countries, strategic plans and policy goals need to be translated into resources and concrete actions, with national governments at the helm, to enable a sustainable response to the rising burden of hepatitis B and C in all countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  5. Teoh Bing Fei J, Yee A, Habil MH, Danaee M
    J Subst Abuse Treat, 2016 10;69:50-6.
    PMID: 27568510 DOI: 10.1016/j.jsat.2016.07.006
    Methadone maintenance therapy has been found to be an effective harm reduction treatment for opioid use disorder. However evidence of its benefits over a longer duration of treatment is limited as most studies focus on its short term benefits. As methadone maintenance therapy reaches a decade since its implementation in Malaysia, this study sought to examine the effectiveness of methadone treatment, change in quality of life among patients since entry to methadone treatment, as well as factors predicting the magnitude of change in quality of life. This study found that methadone maintenance therapy was effective in reducing heroin use, injecting practices and crime, and in improving in social functioning and physical symptoms, but not in reducing sex-related HIV risk-taking behavior. Though patients had a significantly better quality of life at follow-up than at entry to methadone maintenance therapy, the improvement in quality of life was not significantly greater as the duration of treatment increased. Age above 50 years old, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) positive status and physical symptoms predicted a poorer improvement in quality of life between baseline and follow-up. On the other hand, patients with hepatitis B showed a greater improvement in quality of life in the social relationships domain compared to patients without hepatitis B. In conclusion, methadone maintenance therapy is an effective treatment for opioid use disorder and improves quality of life but its benefits in further improving quality of life beyond a decade of treatment need further evaluation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  6. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Afr Health Sci, 2016 Sep;16(3):677-683.
    PMID: 27917199
    BACKGROUND: Occult hepatitis B infections are becoming a major global threat, but the available data on its prevalence in various parts of the world are often divergent.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to detect occult hepatitis B virus in hepatitis B surface antigen-negative serum using anti-HBc as a marker of previous infection.

    PATIENT AND METHODS: A total of 1000 randomly selected hepatitis B surface antigen-negative sera from blood donors were tested for hepatitis B core antibody and hepatitis B surface antibody using an ELISA and nested polymerase chain reaction was done using primers specific to the surface gene (S-gene).

    RESULTS: Of the 1000 samples 55 (5.5%) were found to be reactive, of which 87.3% (48/55) were positive for hepatitis B surface antibody, indicating immunity as a result of previous infection however, that does not exclude active infection with escaped mutant HBV. Nested PCR results showed the presence of hepatitis B viral DNA in all the 55 samples that were positive for core protein, which is in agreement with the hepatitis B surface antibody result.

    CONCLUSION: This study reveals the 5.5% prevalence of occult hepatitis B among Malaysian blood donors as well as the reliability of using hepatitis B core antibody in screening for occult hepatitis B infection in low endemic, low socioeconomic settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  7. Akhtar A, Khan AH, Sulaiman SA, Soo CT, Khan K
    J. Med. Virol., 2016 Mar;88(3):455-60.
    PMID: 26255632 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.24347
    According to WHO, Malaysia has been classified as a concentrated epidemic country due to progression of HIV infection in the population of injecting drug users. The main objectives of current study are to determine the prevalence of HBV among HIV-positive individuals in a tertiary care hospital of Malaysia and to assess the predictors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients. A retrospective, cross-sectional study is conducted at Hospital Palau Pinang, Malaysia. The collection of socio-demographic data as well as clinical data is done with the help of data collection form. Data were analyzed after putting the collected values of required data by using statistical software SPSS version 20.0 and P > 0.05 is considered as significant. Results show that the overall prevalence of HBV was 86 (13%) including 495 (74.5%) males and 169 (25.5%) females among a total of 664 HIV-infected patients. It was observed that there is a high prevalence of HIV-HBV co-infection in males 76 (11.4%) as compared to females 10 (1.5%) (P = 0.002). The median age of the study population was 39 years. The statistical significant risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were observed in the variables of gender, age groups, and injecting drug users. The findings of the present study shows that the prevalence of HBV infection among HIV-positive patients was 13% and the risk factors involved in the outcomes of HIV-HBV co-infected patients were gender, age, and intravenous drug users.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  8. Chen M, Wong WW, Law MG, Kiertiburanakul S, Yunihastuti E, Merati TP, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2016;11(3):e0150512.
    PMID: 26933963 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0150512
    BACKGROUND: We assessed the effects of hepatitis B (HBV) or hepatitis C (HCV) co-infection on outcomes of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients enrolled in the TREAT Asia HIV Observational Database (TAHOD), a multi-center cohort of HIV-infected patients in the Asia-Pacific region.

    METHODS: Patients testing HBs antigen (Ag) or HCV antibody (Ab) positive within enrollment into TAHOD were considered HBV or HCV co-infected. Factors associated with HBV and/or HCV co-infection were assessed by logistic regression models. Factors associated with post-ART HIV immunological response (CD4 change after six months) and virological response (HIV RNA <400 copies/ml after 12 months) were also determined. Survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and log rank test.

    RESULTS: A total of 7,455 subjects were recruited by December 2012. Of patients tested, 591/5656 (10.4%) were HBsAg positive, 794/5215 (15.2%) were HCVAb positive, and 88/4966 (1.8%) were positive for both markers. In multivariate analysis, HCV co-infection, age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, and HIV-1 subtype were associated with immunological recovery. Age, route of HIV infection, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA, ART regimen, prior ART and HIV-1 subtype, but not HBV or HCV co-infection, affected HIV RNA suppression. Risk factors affecting mortality included HCV co-infection, age, CDC stage, baseline CD4 count, baseline HIV RNA and prior mono/dual ART. Shortest survival was seen in subjects who were both HBV- and HCV-positive.

    CONCLUSION: In this Asian cohort of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection, but not HBV co-infection, was associated with lower CD4 cell recovery after ART and increased mortality.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  9. Hudu SA, Harmal NS, Saeed MI, Alshrari AS, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, et al.
    Eur. J. Clin. Microbiol. Infect. Dis., 2015 Jul;34(7):1349-59.
    PMID: 25792010 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-015-2358-1
    Hepatitis B virus surface mutants are of enormous importance because they are capable of escaping detection by serology and can infect both vaccinated and unvaccinated populations, thus putting the whole population at risk. This study aimed to detect and characterise hepatitis B-escaped mutants among blood donors and vaccinees. One thousand serum samples were collected for this study from blood donors and vaccinees. Hepatitis B surface antigen, antibodies and core antibodies were tested using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. DNA detection was performed via nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and the S gene was sequenced and analysed using bioinformatics. Of the 1,000 samples that were screened, 5.5% (55/1,000) were found to be HBsAg-negative and anti-HBc- and HBV DNA-positive. All 55 isolates were found to belong to genotype B. Several mutations were found across all the sequences from synonymous and non-synonymous mutations, with the most nucleotide mutations occurring at position 342, where adenine was replaced by guanine, and cytosine at position 46 was replaced by adenine in 96.4% and 98% of the isolates, respectively. Mutation at position 16 of the amino acid sequence was found to be common to all the Malaysian isolates, with 85.7% of the mutations occurring outside the major hydrophilic region. This study revealed a prevalence of 5.5% for hepatitis B-escaped mutations among blood donors and vaccinated undergraduates, with the most common mutation being found at position 16, where glutamine was substituted with lysine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  10. Hudu SA, Malik YA, Niazlin MT, Harmal NS, Sekawi Z
    Curr Issues Mol Biol, 2014;16:69-78.
    PMID: 24014801
    Hepatitis B virus infection is a serious health problem worldwide, and more than 350 million people are chronic carriers, constituting a major global threat. Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific have the highest levels of endemicity in the world, with an estimated seroprevalence ranging between 2% and 31%. Mutations in the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) have been reported in many parts of the world but are most common in Asian infants; such mutants have several clinical effects, such as the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diagnostic failures by commercial assays have reduced the diagnostic effectiveness of HBsAg detection. For example the substitution of an amino acid in the major hydrophilic region of the S gene reduces the binding of hepatitis B surface antibodies leading to immune escape. The safety of blood transfusion may be compromised by current screening tests due to escape from being neutralised by antibodies induced by HBsAg mutants, and undetectable levels of viral surface protein. Data on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific are scant; however, this manuscript has reviewed the available information on the epidemiology of HBsAg mutation in Asia Pacific.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  11. Louisirirotchanakul S, Olinger CM, Arunkaewchaemsri P, Poovorawan Y, Kanoksinsombat C, Thongme C, et al.
    J. Med. Virol., 2012 Oct;84(10):1541-7.
    PMID: 22930500 DOI: 10.1002/jmv.23363
    Phylogenetic analysis was performed on hepatitis B virus (HBV) strains obtained from 86 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive donors from Thailand originating throughout the country. Based on the S gene, 87.5% of strains were of genotype C while 10.5% were of genotype B, with all genotype B strains obtained from patients originating from the central or the south Thailand. No genotype B strains were found in the north of Thailand. Surprisingly, one patient was infected with a genotype H strain while another patient was infected with a genotype G strain. Complete genome sequencing and recombination analysis identified the latter as being a genotype G and C2 recombinant with the breakpoint around nucleotide position 700. The origin of the genotype G fragment was not identifiable while the genotype C2 fragment most likely came from strains circulating in Laos or Malaysia. The performance of different HBsAg diagnostic kits and HBV nucleic acid amplification technology (NAT) was evaluated. The genotype H and G/C2 recombination did not interfere with HBV detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  12. ul Haq N, Hassali MA, Shafie AA, Saleem F, Aljadhey H
    PMID: 22866752 DOI: 10.1186/1477-7525-10-91
    The study aims to assess Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) among Hepatitis B (HB) patients and to identify significant predictors of the HRQoL in HB patients of Quetta, Pakistan.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  13. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  14. Roshan TM, Rosline H, Ahmed SA, Rapiaah M, Khattak MN
    PMID: 20578467
    Blood donors with reactive screening test results are requested to come in for counseling by letter and telephone call. It has been noticed many donors responded to neither the letters nor the telephone calls. We evaluated 589 cases with reactive screening test results (208 positive for hepatitis C, 209 for hepatitis B, 85 for VDRL and 87 for HIV). In the hepatitis C positive group 61 donors (29.3%) did not respond and 4.7% missed their follow-up appointment. Similarly low response rates were noted with the HBV (58.9%) and VDRL (67.1%) positive groups. Among HIV positive donors 46.0% failed to respond to multiple calls. We conclude that blood donors in Malaysia have a poor response to calls from the blood transfusion unit. A review of the effectiveness of the current deferral system and an increased public knowledge of transmissible infectious diseases may encourage blood donors to have a better response rate.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  15. Johnson DW, Dent H, Yao Q, Tranaeus A, Huang CC, Han DS, et al.
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2009 May;24(5):1598-603.
    PMID: 19096083 DOI: 10.1093/ndt/gfn684
    The impact of dialysis modality on the rates and types of infectious complications has not been well studied. The aim of the present investigation was to evaluate the rates of hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections in peritoneal dialysis (PD) and haemodialysis (HD) patients in the Asia-Pacific region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  16. Yousuf R, Rapiaah M, Ahmed SA, Rosline H, Salam A, Selamah S, et al.
    PMID: 18613548
    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and trends in hepatitis B infection among blood donors attending the Transfusion Medicine Unit at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia. A retrospective study was carried out by reviewing the results of HBsAg among blood donors for the years 2000 to 2004. During this period, 44,658 blood donors were studied. We noted that there was a significant difference in the prevalence of hepatitis B infection between regular and first time donors. There was also a decreasing trend noticed in both study groups. The mean prevalence was significantly different between first time (1.83%) and regular donors (0.45%) (p < 0.005). There is a need to improve public awareness programs to lower the incidence of hepatitis B infection in the general population and consequently first time blood donors. Future studies are also required to determine the trends and outcomes of these programs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  17. Leung N
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2005 Jul;60 Suppl B:63-6.
    PMID: 16108176
    The association of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection and liver cancer is well documented in epidemiological study. Patients with chronic hepatitis B have increased risk of hepatocelluar carcinoma (HCC), in particular those with active liver disease and cirrhosis. The incidence of HCC increases with age and is more common among male patients. The introduction of universal HBV vaccination program for the newborn in endemic regions has started to show beneficial impact. Taiwan introduced this program two decades ago and the incidence of liver cancer among infants and young children have declined significantly. The carcinogenic events leading to HCC are under intense research. A number of hypotheses have been proposed. HBV is not directly hepatotoxic but its interaction with the host immune system creates opportunity for HBV DNA integration into the host genome. One of the main foci of research is the HBX-encoded X protein. Its integration and protein expression impose alteration in cell proliferation cycle and apoptosis process. Many other factors may be involved including viral-induced alterations in p53 and telemerase, HBV genotypes, co-infection with HCV or delta agents, patient's lifestyle such as smoking, alcohol excesses, and genetic factors of the host patient. The processes of necroinflammation, cell proliferation and fibrosis facilitate the initial carcinogenic development. HCC surveillance with tumor markers such as alpha-foetal protein, decarboxylated prothrombin, in conjunction with imaging techniques has identified early small HCC that is amenable to curative therapy. Viral load has been correlated with increase risk of HCC. The available anti-viral agents have demonstrated clinical benefit among those with maintained and sustained response. Interferon and lamivudine therapy have demonstrated reduction of HCC among responders. However, they only constitute a minority proportion of treated patients. The mainstay of prevention should lie in prevention of HBV infection and early effective therapy of chronic hepatitis B infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology*
  18. Ng KP, Saw TL, Baki A, Rozainah K, Pang KW, Ramanathan M
    Med. Microbiol. Immunol., 2005 May;194(3):163-8.
    PMID: 15834754
    The implementation of the Expanded Program of Immunization (EPI) in 1989 has dramatic impact on hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in school children in Malaysia. A cross-sectional seroprevalence study of HBV infection in 190,077 school children aged 7-12 years from 1997 to 2003 showed a steady decline of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) prevalence rate from 2.5% for children born in 1985 to 0.4% among school children born in 1996. The overall prevalence of HBsAg was 0.6%, 0.7% in males and 0.6% in females. Over 92.7% of school children had been vaccinated with HBV vaccine, in which 93.7% were vaccinated under the EPI and 6.3% on voluntary basis. The school children vaccinated under EPI had a 0.4% HBsAg carrier rate, which was significantly lower than school children vaccinated on a voluntary basis (HBsAg carrier rate 1.3%) and non-vaccinated school children (HBsAg carrier rate 2.7%), suggesting that HBV vaccination of infants was the most effective measure in preventing vertical transmission of HBV in the hyperendemic region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  19. Mohamed R, Desmond P, Suh DJ, Amarapurkar D, Gane E, Guangbi Y, et al.
    J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol., 2004 Sep;19(9):958-69.
    PMID: 15304110
    The Asia-Pacific Expert Committee on Hepatitis B Management recently reviewed the impact of hepatitis B in the region and assessed the differences and similarities observed in the practical management of the disease in individual Asia-Pacific countries. Hepatitis B is a major health concern in the Asia-Pacific region, and of all chronically infected carriers worldwide, approximately 75% are found in Asia. The disease poses a considerable burden on healthcare systems, and is likely to remain a cause of substantial morbidity and mortality for several decades. Disease prevention activities, including screening and vaccination programs, have been implemented successfully in some Asia-Pacific countries and similar measures are being established in other parts of the region. The management of hepatitis B in the Asia-Pacific varies throughout the region, with each country confronting different issues related to treatment options, disease monitoring and duration of therapy. The influence of cost, availability of diagnostic equipment, and patient awareness and compliance are of additional concern. Although guidelines such as those developed by the Asian Pacific Association for the Study of the Liver have been created to address problems encountered in the management of hepatitis B, many physicians in the region still find it difficult to make satisfactory management decisions because of the treatment choices available. This article examines the different approaches to hepatitis B management in a number of Asia-Pacific countries, and highlights the difficulties that can arise when adhering to treatment guidelines and disease prevention solutions that have proved to be successful in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
  20. Yap SF
    Malays J Pathol, 2004 Jun;26(1):1-12.
    PMID: 16190102
    "Parenteral" or "serum" hepatitis is known to have afflicted man for centuries. However, it was not until the mid-1960s that the causative agent of this infection, the hepatitis B virus, was discovered. Since then, the biology and the replication strategy of the virus, and the clinical features and the epidemiology of the hepatitis B infection have been determined. Knowledge about the virus and the infection it causes led to the development of firstly, a plasma-derived vaccine and later a recombinant vaccine for the prevention of the infection. Integration of the hepatitis B vaccine into newborn vaccination programmes on a worldwide basis represents a major step in the effort to eliminate this infectious disease and its complications. Laboratory tests are available for the diagnosis and monitoring of the disease. Therapies have been developed to halt the progress of the chronic infection in affected individuals. While these developments have resulted in a decrease of the frequency of infection in many countries, particularly those that have implemented universal immunization of newborns, the chronic infection remains a significant global problem. Worldwide, over 300 million individuals are infected and each year, an estimated 1 million persons die from chronic complications of the disease including hepatocellular carcinoma and hepatic failure. The therapies currently available result in elimination of the virus in only a relatively small proportion of subjects and carry with it serious side effects. Geopolitical, economic and other factors hinder the vision of elimination of the infection through immunization programmes. Nevertheless, work continues to clarify further the underlying pathological mechanism of the infection, the host and viral factors that promote elimination or persistence of the virus in the human host. It is hoped that such investigations will reveal viral targets for the design of newer and potentially more effective drugs to treat the infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hepatitis B/epidemiology
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