INTRODUCTION: This study aims to examine the validity and reliability of the Malay version of Attitudes toward Lesbians and Gay Men (MVATL/MVATG) among a group of medical students in Malaysia.
METHODS: It is a cross-sectional study of 173 medical students in the Faculty of Medicine, University of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The participants were given the MVATL/MVATG, Index of Attitudes toward Homosexuals (IATH), Homosexuality Attitude Scale (HAS) and the English version of Attitude toward Lesbians and Gay Men. Two weeks later, these students were given the MVATLG again.
RESULTS: Significant correlation was found between the individual scores of MVATL and MVATG with IATH and HAS in the results. The scale was able to differentiate Muslim and Non-Muslim subjects. The internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) of both the MVATL and MVATG were good, at 0.76 and 0.82, respectively. The parallel form reliability (Pearson's correlation) of MVATL was 0.0.73 and 0.74 for MVATG. The test-retest reliability of MVATL/MVATG was good (Intraclass correlation coefficient, ICC = 0.67 for MVATL and 0.60 for MVATG).
DISCUSSION: The MVATLG demonstrated good psychometric properties in measuring attitudes toward homosexuality among a group of medical students in Malaysia and it could be used as a simple instrument on young educated Malaysian adults.
KEYWORDS: Malaysia; attitude; gay men; homosexuality; lesbians; validation
An ethnographic study of female psychiatric patients was undertaken in East Malaysia. Findings indicate that these service users were subject to a number of sexist and oppressive practices that militate against their freedom of movement on the wards as well as their social interaction in the wider context of the hospital. Stereotypic notions of female sexuality and morality act as forms of moral containment and are interpreted in the hospital context as requiring heavy custodial care by the hospital authorities.