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  1. Dhabali AA, Awang R, Zyoud SH
    J Clin Pharm Ther, 2012 Aug;37(4):426-30.
    PMID: 22081958 DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2710.2011.01314.x
    WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Drug-drug interactions (DDIs) cause considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide and may lead to hospital admission. Sophisticated computerized drug information and monitoring systems, more recently established in many of the emerging economies, including Malaysia, are capturing useful information on prescribing. Our aim is to report on an investigation of potentially serious DDIs, using a university primary care-based system capturing prescription records from its primary care services.
    METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from two academic years over 20 months from computerized databases at the Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) from users of the USM primary care services.
    RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Three hundred and eighty-six DDI events were observed in a cohort of 208 exposed patients from a total of 23,733 patients, representing a 2-year period prevalence of 876·4 per 100,000 patients. Of the 208 exposed patients, 138 (66·3%) were exposed to one DDI event, 29 (13·9%) to two DDI events, 15 (7·2%) to three DDI events, 6 (2·9%) to four DDI events and 20 (9·6%) to more than five DDI events. Overall, an increasing mean number of episodes of DDIs was noted among exposed patients within the age category ≥70 years (P=0·01), an increasing trend in the number of medications prescribed (P<0·001) and an increasing trend in the number of long-term therapeutic groups (P<0·001).
    WHAT IS NEW AND CONCLUSION: We describe the prevalence of clinically important DDIs in an emerging economy setting and identify the more common potentially serious DDIs. In line with the observations in developed economies, a higher number of episodes of DDIs were seen in patients aged ≥70 years and with more medications prescribed. The easiest method to reduce the frequency of DDIs is to reduce the number of medications prescribed. Therapeutic alternatives should be selected cautiously.

    Study site: e Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  2. Dhabali AA, Awang R, Hamdan Z, Zyoud SH
    Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther, 2012 Dec;50(12):851-61.
    PMID: 23006441 DOI: 10.5414/CP201689
    OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were 1) to obtain information regarding the prescribing pattern of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) in the primary care setting at a Malaysian university, 2) to determine the prevalence and types of potential NSAID prescription related problems (PRPs), and 3) to identify patient characteristics associated with exposure to these potential PRPs.
    METHODS: We retrospectively collected data from 1 academic year using the electronic medical records of patients in the University Sains Malaysia (USM) primary care system. The defined daily dose (DDD) methodology and the anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) drug classification system were used in the analysis and comparison of the data. Statements representing potential NSAID PRPs were developed from authoritative drug information sources. Then, algorithms were developed to screen the databases for these potential PRPs. Descriptive and comparative statistics were used to characterize DRPs.
    RESULTS: During the study period, 12,470 NSAID prescriptions were prescribed for 6,509 patients (mean ± SD = 1.92 ± 1.83). This represented a prevalence of 35,944 per 100,000 patients, or 36%. Based on their DDDs, mefenamic acid and diclofenac were the most prescribed NSAIDs. 573 potential NSAID-related PRPs were observed in a cohort of 432 patients, representing a prevalence of 6,640 per 100,000 NSAIDs users, or 6.6% of all NSAID users. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that patients with a Malay ethnic background (p < 0.001), members of the staff (p < 0.001), having 4 or more prescribers (p < 0.001) or having 2 - 3 prescribers (p = 0.02), and representing 4 or more long-term therapeutic groups (LTTGs) (p < 0.001) or 2 - 3 LTTGs (p < 0.001) were significantly associated with an increased chance of exposure to potential NSAID related PRPs.
    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study in Malaysia that presents data on the prescribing pattern of NSAIDs and the characteristics of potential NSAID-related PRPs. The prevalence of potential NSAID-related PRPs is frequent in the primary care setting. Exposure to these PRPs is associated with specific sociodemographic and health status factors. These results should help to raise the awareness of clinicians and patients about serious NSAID PRPs.

    Study site: University Sains Malaysia (USM) primary care system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  3. Chew KS, Wan Masliza WM, Nik Hisamuddin NA, Mohd Hashairi F, Shaik Farid AW, Tuan Hairulnizam TK, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Feb;70(1):6-11.
    PMID: 26032522 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: Good coronary care begins from the patient's home, including early transportation. As such, it is recommended that the patients activate ambulances, rather than to use their own transportations to reach the hospitals. It is not known whether Malaysian patients prefer to use private transportations or ambulances when they develop chest pain.

    OBJECTIVES: This study is conducted to explore the question of the choice of transportation modes among patients with acute coronary syndrome and the reasons behind their choices.

    METHODS: This is a structured interview survey on patients diagnosed with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in emergency department of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia from April 2012 to September 2012.

    RESULTS: Out of the 110 patients surveyed, 105 (95.5%) patients chose to use own transportation when they developed symptoms suggestive of ACS. Only 3 patients (2.7%) came to the emergency department within 1 hour of onset, and all these 3 patients chose to use ambulances as their modes of transportation. None of the patients who chose own transportation came within the first hour of symptoms onset. This is shown to be statistically significant (p<0.001). The level of education as well as past history of ischemic heart disease did not significantly influence the patients' choice of transportation.

    CONCLUSION: The admonishment by various international resuscitation councils that patients with chest pain should be transported via ambulances may not be as straightforward as it seems. Numerous local and regional socio-cultural and logistic factors may need to be addressed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  4. Liza-Sharmini AT, Sharina YN, Dolaboladi AJ, Zaid NA, Azhany Y, Zunaina E
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2014 Feb;69(1):21-6.
    PMID: 24814624 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There is limited knowledge on primary angle closure (PAC) in Malays. Understanding the clinical presentation and progression of PAC in Malays is important for prevention of blindness in Southeast Asia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A retrospective record review study was conducted on Malay patients seen in the eye clinic of two tertiary hospitals in Kelantan, Malaysia. Based on the available data, Malay patients re-diagnosed as primary angle closure suspect (PACS), primary angle closure (PAC), and primary angle closure glaucoma (PACG) based on the International Society Geographical Epidemiological classification. Clinical data was collected from initial presentation including the presence of acute primary angle closure until at least 5 years follow up. Progression was defined based on gonioscopic changes, vertical cup to disc ratio (VCDR), intraocular pressure (IOP) and Humphrey visual field (HVF) analysis. Progression and severity of PACG was defined based Hodapp-Parrish-Anderson classification on reliable HVF central 24-2 or 30-2 analysis.

    RESULTS: A total of 100 patients (200 eyes) with at least 5 years follow up were included. 94 eyes (47%) presented with APAC. During initial presentation, 135 eyes (67.5%) were diagnosed with glaucomatous changes with 91 eyes already blind. After 5 years of follow up, 155 eyes (77.5%) progressed. There was 4 times risk of progression in eyes with PAC (p=0.071) and 16 times risk of progression in PACG (p=0.001). Absence of laser peripheral iridotomy was associated with 10 times the risk of progression.

    CONCLUSION: Angle closure is common in Malays. Majority presented with optic neuropathy at the initial presentation and progressed further. Preventive measures including promoting public awareness among Malay population is important to prevent blindness.

    Study site: Eye clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia and Hospital
    Raja Perempuan Zainab II
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  5. Norlaili M, Bakiah S, Zunaina E
    BMC Ophthalmol, 2011;11:36.
    PMID: 22111945 DOI: 10.1186/1471-2415-11-36
    BACKGROUND: Diabetic macular oedema is the leading causes of blindness. Laser photocoagulation reduces the risk of visual loss. However recurrences are common and despite laser treatment, patients with diabetic macular oedema experienced progressive loss of vision. Stabilization of the blood retinal barrier introduces a rationale for intravitreal triamcinolone treatment in diabetic macular oedema. This study is intended to compare the best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) and the macular oedema index (MEI) at 3 month of primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema between intravitreal triamcinolone acetonide (IVTA) and laser photocoagulation.
    METHODS: This comparative pilot study consists of 40 diabetic patients with diabetic macular oedema. The patients were randomized into two groups using envelope technique sampling procedure. Treatment for diabetic macular oedema was based on the printed envelope technique selected for every patient. Twenty patients were assigned for IVTA group (one injection of IVTA) and another 20 patients for LASER group (one laser session). Main outcome measures were mean BCVA and mean MEI at three months post treatment. The MEI was quantified using Heidelberg Retinal Tomography II.
    RESULTS: The mean difference for BCVA at baseline [IVTA: 0.935 (0.223), LASER: 0.795 (0.315)] and at three months post treatment [IVTA: 0.405 (0.224), LASER: 0.525 (0.289)] between IVTA and LASER group was not statistically significant (p = 0.113 and p = 0.151 respectively). The mean difference for MEI at baseline [IVTA: 2.539 (0.914), LASER: 2.139 (0.577)] and at three months post treatment [IVTA: 1.753 (0.614), LASER: 1.711 (0.472)] between IVTA and LASER group was also not statistically significant (p = 0.106 and p = 0.811 respectively).
    CONCLUSIONS: IVTA demonstrates good outcome comparable to laser photocoagulation as a primary treatment for diabetic macular oedema at three months post treatment.
    TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN05040192 (http://www.controlled-trial.com).
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  6. Azidah AK, Hasniza H, Zunaina E
    Curr Gerontol Geriatr Res, 2012;2012:539073.
    PMID: 22693496 DOI: 10.1155/2012/539073
    The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence of falls and its associated factors among elderly diabetes type 2 patients attending a tertiary center in Malaysia. We conducted a cross-sectional study among 288 elderly diabetes type 2. The data collected includes data on sociodemographic, diabetes history, comorbid diseases, drug use, and activity of daily living (Barthel's index). The patient also was examined physically, and balance and gait assessment was carried out. Prevalence of falls among elderly diabetes was 18.8%. Female gender (OR: 2.54, P < 0.05), age group more than 75 (OR: 2.97, P < 0.05), retinopathy (OR: 2.19, P < 0.05), and orthostatic hypotension (OR: 2.87, P < 0.05) were associated with higher risk for falls. High balance and gait score was associated with reduced risk of fall in elderly diabetes (OR: 0.89, P < 0.05). In conclusion, the factors that are associated with higher risk for falls among elderly diabetes were female sex, age group more than 75, presence of retinopathy, and orthostatic hypotension. Those who had higher balance and gait score were found to be less likely to fall compared with those with lower score.
    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
    Questionnaires, Scales, Device: Tinetti Balance and Gait Assessment; 5.07 Semmes- Weinstein monofilament; Barthel’s index
    Study site: Diabetic clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  7. Tan GH, Azrif M, Shamsul AS, Ho CC, Praveen S, Goh EH, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2011;12(10):2727-30.
    PMID: 22320982
    INTRODUCTION: Testicular cancer mainly affects young men worldwide. There is lack of published data on patients with this malignant condition from the Southeast Asian region. The aim of this study was therefore to determine the clinicopathologic features of testicular cancer patients treated in a Southeast Asian university hospital and their overall survival rate.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective study of testicular cancer patients treated between January 2001 and February 2011. Their epidemiological data, clinical presentation, pathologic diagnosis, stage of disease and treatment were gathered and the overall survival rate of this cohort was analyzed.

    RESULTS: Thirty-one patients were included in this study. The majority of them were of Malay ethnicity. The average age at presentation was 33.7 years. The commonest testicular cancer was non-seminomatous germ cell tumour, followed by seminoma, lymphoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. More than half of all testicular germ cell tumour (GCT) patients had some form of metastasis at diagnosis. All the patients were treated with radical orchidectomy. Adjuvant chemotherapy was given to those with metastatic disease. Four seminoma patients received radiotherapy to the para-aortic lymph nodes. The 5-year survival rate for all testicular cancers in this cohort was 83.9%. The survival rate was 88.9% in 5 years when GCT were analyzed separately.

    CONCLUSION: GCT affects patients in their third and fourth decades of life while lymphoma patients are generally older. Most of the patients treated for GCT are of Malay ethnicity. The majority have late presentation for treatment. The survival rate of GCT patients treated here is comparable to other published series in other parts of the world.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  8. Nadzri M, Hing EY, Hamzaini AH, Faizah MZ, AbAziz A, Kanaheswari Y, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):346-50.
    PMID: 26988207 MyJurnal
    BACKGROUND: to determine the usefulness of Doppler ultrasound measurement of resistive index (RI) in differentiating obstructive from non-obstructive hydronephrosis in children.
    METHODS: From August 2011 to November 2012, renal Doppler assessments of the intra-renal renal arteries were performed on 16 children (19 kidneys) with congenital hydronephrosis. the independent t-test was used to assess for significant difference in RI values between those with obstructive hydronephrosis (6 kidneys) and those with non-obstructive hydronephrosis (13 kidneys) as determined by dynamic renal scintigraphy. the assessor was blinded to the clinical findings and scintigraphy results.
    RESULTS: RI was significantly different between obstructive and non-obstructive hydronephrosis. Obstructive hydronephrosis returned higher RI values, with mean RI of 0.78. Mean RI in non-obstructive hydronephrosis was 0.70, and the difference was significant (p <0.05). the sensitivity and specificity of Doppler ultrasound were 100% and 53% respectively.
    CONCLUSION: Doppler ultrasound measurement of resistive index is useful in differentiating obstructive from nonobstructive hydronephrosis and provides an alternative non-ionizing investigation.
    Study site: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia
    Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  9. Sridharan R, Yunos SM, Aziz S, Hussain RI, Alhabshi SM, Suria Hayati MP, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Dec;70(6):326-33.
    PMID: 26988204 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the use of semi-automated (Medax Velox 2; Poggio Rusco, Italy) and automated (Bard Magnum Biopsy Instrument; Covington, GA, USA) core biopsy needles, for ultrasound guided breast biopsy.
    MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 14G semi-automatic spring loaded core biopsy needle with a 22-mm-throw (Medax Velox 2; Poggio Rusco, Italy) and 14-gauge automated needle device with a 22-mm-throw biopsy gun (Bard-Magnum Biopsy Instrument, Covington, GA, USA) were used for breast biopsies under ultrasound guidance on alternate months during the study period between July 2009 and May 2011. One hundred and sixty lesions were biopsied and specimens were sent for histological evaluation.
    RESULTS: The automated needle obtained a higher number of histology reports at 84% (67/80) as compared with the semiautomated needle at 60% (48/80) (Fisher exact test, p value=0.023). Inadequate samples with the automated needle were much less at 9% (7/60) than with the semiautomated needle at 23% (18/60) (Fisher exact test, p value=0.028). The semi-automated needle showed slightly less fragmented samples. However, the number of fragmented samples with definitive diagnosis was slightly higher with the automated compared with the semiautomated needle, at 16% (13/80) and 13% (10/80) respectively. Compared with histology of 29 lesions that were excised, the semi-automated needle had higher sensitivity (100%) but lower specificity (75%) and accuracy (90%) compared with the automated needle (88% sensitivity, 100% specificity, 95% accuracy).
    CONCLUSION: Definitive diagnosis from the study samples slightly favours the use of automated core biopsy needle as compared to semi-automated core biopsy needle.
    Study site: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  10. Faizah MZ, Hamzaini AH, Kanaheswari Y, Dayang A AA, Zulfiqar MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Oct;70(5):269-72.
    PMID: 26556113 MyJurnal
    OBJECTIVE: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound has become increasingly utilised as an alternative imaging modality for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) in paediatric patients. The study objective is to evaluate the efficacy of contrast enhanced Voiding Urosonography (ce-VUS) compared with fluoroscopic micturating cystourethrography (MCU) in the detection of VUR.
    METHODS: This prospective study was carried out between July 2011 and January 2013 on paediatric patients who underwent MCU. All consented patients would undergo ce- VUS prior to MCU. We documented the epidemiology details, the number of Kidney-Ureter (K-U) unit studied, baseline renal and bladder sonogram, as well as presence of VUR on ce-VUR. The technique for ce-VUS was standardized using normal saline to fill the bladder prior to administration of SonoVue® (2.5 ml) to assess the kidney-ureter (K-U) unit. Dedicated contrast detection software was used to discern the presence of microbubbles in the pelvicaliceal system (PCS). The findings were then compared with MCU.
    RESULTS: 27 paediatric patients were involved in the study [17 males (63%) and 10 females (37%)] involving 55 K-U units (one patient had a complete duplex system). MCU detected VUR in 10 K-U units while ce-VUS detected VUR in 8 out of the 10 K-U units. There were 2 false negative cases (both Grade 1) with ce-VUS. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of ce-VUS were 80%, 98%, 95%, 89% and 96%, respectively.
    CONCLUSION: ce-VUS is a sensitive and specific radiation-free alternative for the detection of VUR in the paediatric population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  11. Salinawati B, Hing EY, Fam XI, Zulfiqar MA
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2015 Aug;70(4):238-42.
    PMID: 26358021 MyJurnal
    AIM: To determine the (i) sensitivity and specificity of ultrasound (USG) in the detection of urinary tract calculi, (ii) size of renal calculi detected on USG, and (iii) size of renal calculi not seen on USG but detected on computed tomography urogram (CTU).
    METHODS: A total of 201 patients' USG and CTU were compared retrospectively for the presence of calculi. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of USG were calculated with CTU as the gold standard.
    RESULTS: From the 201 sets of data collected, 59 calculi were detected on both USG and CTU. The sensitivity and specificity of renal calculi detection on USG were 53% and 85% respectively. The mean size of the renal calculus detected on USG was 7.6 mm ± 4.1 mm and the mean size of the renal calculus not visualised on USG but detected on CTU was 4 mm ± 2.4 mm. The sensitivity and specificity of ureteric calculi detection on USG were 12% and 97% respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of urinary bladder calculi detection on USG were 20% and 100% respectively.
    CONCLUSION: This study showed that the accuracy of US in detecting renal, ureteric and urinary bladder calculi were 67%, 80% and 98% respectively.
    Study site: Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre, Kuala Lumpur
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  12. Al-Khateeb A, Al-Talib H, Mohamed MS, Yusof Z, Zilfalil BA
    Adv Clin Exp Med, 2013 Jan-Feb;22(1):57-67.
    PMID: 23468263
    BACKGROUND: Familial hypercholesterolemia and familial defective apo lipoprotein B are genetic disorders caused by defects in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene and apo lipoprotein B 100 genes, respectively. The clinical phenotype of both diseases is characterized by increased plasma levels of total cholesterol and low density lipoprotein cholesterol, tendinous xanthomata, and premature coronary heart disease.
    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to perform an association study between different gene sequence variants in low-density lipoprotein and apo lipoprotein B 100 genes to the clinical finding and lipid profile parameters of the study subjects.
    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A group of 164 familial hypercholesterolemic patients were recruited. The promoter region, exon 2-15 of the low density lipoprotein gene and parts of exon 26 and 29 of apo lipoprotein B 100 gene were screened by Denaturating Gradient High Performance Liquid Chromatography.
    RESULTS: For the apo lipoprotein B 100 gene, those with apo lipoprotein B 100 gene mutation have a significantly higher frequency of cardiovascular disease (P = 0.045), higher low density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol: high density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio than those without mutation (P = 0.03 and 0.02, respectively). For the low density lipoprotein gene defect those with frame shift mutation group showed the worst clinical presentation in terms of low density lipoprotein cholesterol level and cardiovascular frequency.
    CONCLUSIONS: There was a statistically significant association between mutations of low density lipoprotein gene and apo lipoprotein B 100 genes and history of cardiovascular disease, younger age of presentation, family history of hyperlipidemia, tendon xanthoma and low density lipoprotein cholesterol level.
    Study site: Cardiology Clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  13. Rosdinom, R., Norzarina, M.Z., Ruzanna, Z., Zanariah, M.S.
    MyJurnal
    Caring for a family member with dementia is associated with distress and several caregiver factors are known to be determinants of burden of care.
    Objective: To determine the relationship between the caregivers’ sociodemographic variables and their perceived burden of care. 
    Methods: Patients diagnosed as having dementia with their caregivers were selected through a non-randomised sampling method from the psychogeriatric and memory clinics in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre and Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Burden of care was assessed using the Zarit Burden Interview.
    Results: Age, gender, educational achievement, ethnicity and kinship of the 65 caregivers did not show any significant statistical difference in relation to their perceived burden. Conclusion: Burden in caring after patients with dementia was not significantly determined by the sociodemographic characteristics of their caregivers
    Study site: Psychogeriartic clinics and memory clinics of Pusat Perubatan University Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM) and Hospital Kuala Lumpur (HKL), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  14. Abu Bakar MH, Hairunisa N, Zaman Huri H
    Clin. Exp. Med., 2018 Aug;18(3):373-382.
    PMID: 29550985 DOI: 10.1007/s10238-018-0495-4
    Altered mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the most common denominator to numerous metabolic diseases. The present study sought to investigate the correlation between mtDNA content in lymphocytes and associated clinical risk factors for impaired fasting glucose (IFG). We included 23 healthy control and 42 IFG participants in this cross-sectional study. The measurements of mtDNA content in lymphocytes and pro-inflammatory markers derived from both normal and diseased individuals were quantified. Spearman partial correlation and multivariate statistical analyses were employed to evaluate the association between mtDNA content and other metabolic covariates in IFG. Reduced mtDNA content was observed in the IFG group with microvascular complications than those without complications. The IFG patients with lowest median of mtDNA content had considerably elevated hyperglycemia, insulin resistance and inflammation. The adjusted partial correlation analysis showed that mtDNA content was positively correlated with HDL-cholesterol and IL-10 (P 
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  15. Rafi Mahmoud Alnjadat, Aasim Adnan, Zalina Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Aim: The objective of the present study was to assess the validity and reliability of Malay version of the QOLLTI-F questionnaire.
    Methods: A total of 80 Malay caregivers of cancer patients in an outpatient oncology clinic were enrolled in this study. A translated QOLLTI-F questionnaire of 16 items was used in order to assess their quality of life. Demographic characteristics were recorded. Both face and content validity of the translated version were carried out by professionals and the construct validity of the questionnaire was assessed by exploratory factor analysis.
    Results: Exploratory factor analysis led to the extraction of seven factors and this was consistent with the English version. Cronbach Alpha coefficient showed good consistency of the questions within the sub-scales (Cronbach's alpha > 0.7).
    Conclusion: This study was confined to a Malay population, and the analyses were potentially limited by a small sample size .Nevertheless, the translated questionnaire demonstrated valid and reliable psychometric properties when administered to Malay caregivers. Future studies are needed to see if this instrument can fit other samples in different settings and populations.
    Study site: Oncology clinic, Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM), Kelantan, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  16. Razak NA, Mn K, Zubairi YZ, Naing NN, Zaki NM
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(2):825-8.
    PMID: 23621246
    OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the five-year survival among patients with cervical cancer treated in Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia.

    METHODS: One hundred and twenty cervical cancer patients diagnosed between 1st July 1995 and 30th June 2007 were identified. Data were obtained from medical records. The survival probability was determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and the log-rank test was applied to compare the survival distribution between groups.

    RESULTS: The overall five-year survival was 39.7% [95%CI (Confidence Interval): 30.7, 51.3] with a median survival time of 40.8 (95%CI: 34.0, 62.0) months. The log-rank test showed that there were survival differences between the groups for the following variables: stage at diagnosis (p=0.005); and primary treatment (p=0.0242). Patients who were diagnosed at the latest stage (III-IV) were found to have the lowest survival, 18.4% (95%CI: 6.75, 50.1), compared to stage I and II where the five-year survival was 54.7% (95%CI: 38.7, 77.2) and 40.8% (95%CI: 27.7, 60.3), respectively. The five-year survival was higher in patients who received surgery [52.6% (95%CI: 37.5, 73.6)] as a primary treatment compared to the non-surgical group [33.3% (95%CI: 22.9, 48.4)].

    CONCLUSION: The five-year survival of cervical cancer patients in this study was low. The survival of those diagnosed at an advanced stage was low compared to early stages. In addition, those who underwent surgery had higher survival than those who had no surgery for primary treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  17. Jagwani AV, Fathi NQ, Jailani RF, Zakaria AD
    BMJ Case Rep, 2017 Jan 06;2017.
    PMID: 28062430 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2016-217865
    Polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is a systemic necrotising vasculitis preferentially targeting medium-sized arteries and not related with glomerulonephritis or small vessel involvement. Clinical manifestations of PAN are multisystem. The gastrointestinal, renal, cardiac, musculoskeletal, skin and central nervous systems may be involved. The aetiology remains unknown, and the ensuing vasculitis may lead to aneurysm formation and thrombosis in any organs of the body with resultant ischaemia. PAN of the intestines is a relatively common manifestation of this disease but rarely causes bowel ischaemia resulting in necrosis. Here we report a case of a young Chinese patient who presented with an acute abdomen requiring surgery and made good recovery post operatively. He remains free of symptoms while on steroid therapy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  18. Norhaya MR, Yap TM, Zainudin BM
    Respirology, 1999 Mar;4(1):77-81.
    PMID: 10339734 DOI: 10.1046/j.1440-1843.1999.00153.x
    The effect of adding inhaled salmeterol to inhaled corticosteroids was studied in patients with poorly controlled nocturnal asthma. In a double-blind, cross-over study, 20 patients were randomized to receive either salmeterol 50 micrograms twice daily or placebo via a Diskhaler after a 1-week run-in period. After 4 weeks of treatment, patients were subsequently crossed over to receive the other treatment for a further 4 weeks with a 2-week wash-out period in between. The response to treatment was assessed by peak expiratory flow rates (PEF) measured in the morning and evening, symptom scores of asthma, number of bronchodilators used, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) at regular intervals. Patients' preference for the Diskhaler or metered-dose inhaler was assessed at the last visit. The results showed that morning PEF was significantly higher while on salmeterol than on placebo (296.9 +/- 70.2 vs 274.6 +/- 77.4 L/min). Evening PEF showed a trend towards a higher value while on salmeterol than on placebo (321.1 +/- 73.4 vs 288.7 +/- 79.4 L/min), but the difference was not significant. There was no statistically significant improvement in symptom scores, number of rescue bronchodilators used and FEV1 or FVC between the two treatment groups. The occurrence of side effects in terms of tremors and palpitations between treatment and placebo were similar. There were more patients who preferred Diskhaler to metered-dose inhaler (70% vs 30%). We conclude that salmeterol 50 micrograms twice daily produces significant improvement in morning PEF and is well tolerated in patients with nocturnal asthma. Diskhaler is a device which is easy to use and preferred to a metered-dose inhaler.
    Study site: Respiratory Clinic, Pusat Perubatan Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (PPUKM), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  19. Sufarlan AW, Zainudin BM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1993 Jun;48(2):166-70.
    PMID: 8394502
    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) disseminates early and has poor prognosis. However, SCLC is highly chemosensitive, thus chemotherapy has been established as the primary mode of treatment. Seventeen patients (15 males and 2 females) with median age of 60 years (range 49 to 74 years) were treated with combination cyclophosphamide 750 mg/m2, adriamycin 40 mg/m2, vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 on day 1 and etoposide (VP 16) 75 mg/m2 on days 1 to 3 (CAVE). This combination was given in 6 courses at 3 weekly intervals. The response to the chemotherapy and the quality of life of patients was assessed at the third cycle and after the completion of therapy (sixth cycle). The overall response rate was 76.4%; 52.9% achieved complete response and 23.5% had partial response. The survival rate at 6 months was 70.8% and 4 patients (23.5%) were still alive after 1 year of chemotherapy. The median survival after therapy was 36 weeks. There was a 30% overall improvement in the Karnofsky performance score at the completion of chemotherapy. This study illustrated that the CAVE regimen is effective and beneficial in the majority of our patients with small cell lung cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
  20. Ahmad R, Rahmat R, Hisamudin N, Rahman NA, Noh AY, Mohammad N, et al.
    PMID: 20578468
    Early identification and rapid treatment of red tag patients may decrease morbidity and mortality. We examined the clinical characteristics, etiologies and one week mortality rate of red tag (life threatening and potentially life threatening illness) patients at the Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysai (HUSM). A cross-sectional study was conducted at the Emergency Department of the HUSM from 1 August 2006 to 31 January 2007; 440 eligible patients were analyzed. The group had a mean age of 47.2 +/- 22 years, with 67.3% of the patients being male. Twenty-three percent were trauma cases with motor vehicle accident being the major mechanism of injury. Fifty-four percent of the cases had cardiac related illnesses. The mean duration of stay in the Emergency Department (ED) was 3.9 +/- 1.5 hours. The survival rate at one week was 76.6%. The non-trauma group comprised 74.0% of death cases. Acute coronary syndrome and road traffic accidents comprised 22.0% of total death cases at one week. Red tag patients constitute a large proportion of ED cases and may remain in the ED for significant periods of time.

    Study site: Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM)
    Matched MeSH terms: Hospitals, University
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