PATIENTS AND METHODS: We compared a prospectively collected group of 48 patients undergoing oxaliplatin/irinotecan-based perioperative systemic chemotherapy (s-CT) with targeted agents, and cytoreductive surgery (CRS) (no-HIPEC group) with 48 controls undergoing the same perioperative s-CT and CRS/HIPEC (HIPEC group). Patients were matched (1:1) according to the Peritoneal Surface Disease Severity Score, completeness of cytoreduction, history of extraperitoneal disease (EPD), and Peritoneal Cancer Index.
RESULTS: The groups were comparable, except for a higher number of patients in the HIPEC group with World Health Organization performance status 0, pN2 stage primary tumor, and treated with preoperative s-CT. Forty-one patients in the no-HIPEC group and 43 patients in the HIPEC group had optimal comprehensive treatment (P = 0.759), defined as complete cytoreduction of PM and margin-negative EPD resection. Median follow-up was 31.6 months in the no-HIPEC group and 39.9 months in the HIPEC group. Median overall survival was 39.3 months in the no-HIPEC group and 34.8 months in the HIPEC group (P = 0.702). In the two groups, severe morbidity occurred in 14 (29.2%) and 13 (27.1%) patients, respectively (P = 1.000), with no operative deaths. On multivariate analysis, left-sided primary and curative treatment independently correlated with better survival while HIPEC did not (hazard ratio 0.73; 95% confidence interval 0.47-1.15; P = 0.178).
CONCLUSIONS: Our results confirmed that, in selected patients, perioperative s-CT and surgical treatment of CRC-PM resulted in unexpectedly high survival rates. Mitomycin C-based HIPEC did not increase morbidity but did not impact prognosis.
Materials and Methods: This study introduced a simple and green synthesis of Fe3O4 NPs using a low-cost stabilizer of plant waste extract rich in polyphenols content with a well-known antioxidant property as well as anticancer ability to eliminate colon cancer cells. Herein, Fe3O4 NPs were fabricated via a facile co-precipitation method using the crude extract of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel as a green stabilizer at different weight percentages (1, 2, 5, and 10 wt.%). The samples were analyzed for magnetic hyperthermia and then in vitro cytotoxicity assay was performed.
Results: The XRD planes of the samples were corresponding to the standard magnetite Fe3O4 with high crystallinity. From TEM analysis, the green synthesized NPs were spherical with an average size of 13.42±1.58 nm and displayed diffraction rings of the Fe3O4 phase, which was in good agreement with the obtained XRD results. FESEM images showed that the extract covered the surface of the Fe3O4 NPs well. The magnetization values for the magnetite samples were ranging from 49.80 emu/g to 69.42 emu/g. FTIR analysis verified the functional groups of the extract compounds and their interactions with the NPs. Based on DLS results, the hydrodynamic sizes of the Fe3O4 nanofluids were below 177 nm. Furthermore, the nanofluids indicated the zeta potential values up to -34.92±1.26 mV and remained stable during four weeks of storage, showing that the extract favorably improved the colloidal stability of the Fe3O4 NPs. In the hyperthermia experiment, the magnetic nanofluids showed the acceptable specific absorption rate (SAR) values and thermosensitive performances under exposure of various alternating magnetic fields. From results of in vitro cytotoxicity assay, the killing effects of the synthesized samples against HCT116 colon cancer cells were mostly higher compared to those against CCD112 colon normal cells. Remarkably, the Fe3O4 NPs containing 10 wt.% of the extract showed a lower IC50 value (99.80 µg/mL) in HCT116 colon cancer cell line than in CCD112 colon normal cell line (140.80 µg/mL).
Discussion: This research, therefore, introduced a new stabilizer of Garcinia mangostana fruit peel extract for the biosynthesis of Fe3O4 NPs with desirable physiochemical properties for potential magnetic hyperthermia and colon cancer treatment.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: PMNPs were produced using cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide template and then coated by a polyethylene glycol layer with molecular weight of 1500 Da (PEG1500) and phase transition temperature of 48 ± 2 °C to endow a thermosensitive behavior. The profile of drug release from the nanostructure was studied at various hyperthermia conditions generated by waterbath, magnetic resonance-guided focused ultrasound (MRgFUS), and alternating magnetic field (AMF). The in vitro cytotoxicity and hyperthermia efficacy of the doxorubicin-loaded nanoparticles (DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs) were assessed using human lung adenocarcinoma (A549) cells.
RESULTS: Heat treatment of DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs containing 235 ± 26 mg·g-1 DOX at 48 °C by waterbath, MRgFUS, and AMF, respectively led to 71 ± 4%, 48 ± 3%, and 74 ± 5% drug release. Hyperthermia treatment of the A549 cells using DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs led to 77% decrease in the cell viability due to the synergistic effects of magnetic hyperthermia and chemotherapy.
CONCLUSION: The large pores generated in the PMNPs structure could provide a sufficient space for encapsulation of the chemotherapeutics as well as fast drug encapsulation and release kinetics, which together with thermosensitive characteristics of the PEG1500 shell, make DOX-PEG1500-PMNPs promising adjuvants to the magnetic hyperthermia modality.
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