Methods: The modified Delphi method was used to obtain the consensus. The initial indicators, based on a literature review, were evaluated and assessed by members of the expert panel through three rounds of repetition until the consensus was reached. The expert panel members were selected based on their knowledge of or expertise in pharmacy service performance and geographical considerations. Analysis of the expert panel consensus level was determined by calculating the mean and interquartile range.
Results: Fifteen expert panel members started the first round (93.7% of the 16 targets) with 12 of them (75%) completing the third round of the modified Delphi method. Three expert panel members were representatives of the Regency Health Office, and the others were pharmacist practitioners at primary health centres from three different regencies. The consensus results were 26 indicators of drug management, 19 indicators of clinical pharmacy services, and two indicators of overall pharmacy performance.
Conclusion: The consensus indicators for measuring drug management, clinical pharmacy services, and overall pharmacy performance can be used as a reference and standard to measure the quality of pharmacy services at primary health centres. Therefore, the measurement results are more relevant if compared between one and other studies.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between -174 G>C IL-6 polymorphism gene on the level of IL-6 and CRP in the population of western Indonesia obese who are obese.
METHODS: In this study, we examined 178 subjects consisting of 89 who are obese with BMI> 25, and controls with BMI between 18.5 and 23. Fasting blood was taken from each subject for the examination of IL-6 and CRP levels by the ELISA method. Determination of genotype -174 G>C IL-6 gene was examined by Polymerase Chain reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods.
RESULTS: The results of this study showed increased levels of IL-6 and CRP in the obese group compared to the controls. In the obese group, CC genotype had higher CRP and lower IL-6 levels than the GC and GG genotypes. The frequency of CC genotype in the obese group was 47.2% compared with 28.1% in controls and this genotype was considered a risk factor for obesity. Carriers of the C genotype as a dominant or a recessive model had greater risk of obesity.
CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the polymorphism - 174G>C IL-6 gene is a risk factor for obesity and is associated with increased levels of IL-6 and CRP in an obese group of the Western Indonesian ethnic population.