The author summarizes the information given by 13 governments-Afghanistan, Burma, Ceylon, China, India, Indonesia, Malaya, Netherlands New Guinea, Philippines, Portuguese India, Sarawak, Thailand, and Viet Nam-on their existing and proposed malaria-control programmes in response to a questionnaire prepared by WHO for discussion at the First Asian Malaria Conference, which was held in Bangkok in September 1953.Although in late 1953 nearly 46.5 million of the 271 million people living in malarious regions were protected against the disease, more than 224 million others were still unprotected.It is noted that residual-insecticide spraying-the basis of most campaigns-has significantly reduced spleen- and parasite-rates; that the minor opposition to spraying initially encountered in some places quickly disappeared as the benefits became apparent; that malaria control has resulted in general improvements in public health and has promoted socio-economic development; that anopheline resistance to the insecticides used has not been observed; that ten governments voiced the need for indoctrination of public officials concerning malaria control; and that there is a trend among governments to make financial provision for long-term malaria-control schemes.
The author discusses some of the features of the cholera epidemic caused by El Tor vibrios in 1961-62 in the Western Pacific. The disease originated in the Celebes and spread from there to other parts of Indonesia, to Sarawak and, possibly, to Kwangtung. Hong Kong and Macau were most probably infected from Kwangtung. Subsequently the disease reached the Philippines, progressing from Manila southwards to the other islands, whence it invaded British Borneo. The El Tor epidemic did not differ clinically or epidemiologically from other cholera outbreaks observed during the past decade. The disease attacked poor, under-nourished people living under insanitary conditions. It spread along the coastline and, to a limited extent, along inland waterways. The authorities in the affected territories recommended that the quarantine regulations, sanitary measures and treatment methods used against cholera caused by the so-called "true" cholera vibrios be applied also to cholera caused by El Tor vibrios.
Five patterns of dyadic foreign conflict behavior were delineated for 1963. The first of these patterns was negative communications, which accounted for patterns, violence intensity, and warning and defensive acts, marked the general decrease in military activity from 1966 to 1963. The most militant conflict behavior in 1963 was that of China to Taiwan and Taiwan to China. There were a number of warning and defensive acts, most noteworthy being those of Indonesia to Malaysia and Malaysia to Indonesia. Negative sanctions and unofficial incidence of violence were the most stable patterns of foreign conflict behavior between 1966 to 1963, each accounting for about ten percent of foreign conflict behavior. The United States was involved in a number of sanctions directed against Cuba, the Dominican Republic, Russia, and South Vietnam. The unofficial incidents of violence occurred most frequently in the less developed, smaller nations, and were frequently directed against major world powers. The negative communication pattern characterized the primary behavior of the major world powers.