METHODS: This study was based on the fourth survey of the consortium known as the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antipsychotics. Fifteen Asian countries/territories participated in this survey, including Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Basic demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standardized data collection form.
RESULTS: Among the 879 older adults with schizophrenia included in the survey, the rate of APP was 40.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic doses (P < .001, odds ratio [OR] = 1.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.003), longer duration of illness (P = .02, OR = 1.845, 95% CI: 1.087-3.132), and the prescription of anticholinergics (P < .001, OR = 1.871, 95% CI: 1.329-2.635), second-generation antipsychotics (P = .001, OR = 2.264, 95% CI: 1.453-3.529), and first-generation antipsychotics (P < .001, OR = 3.344, 95% CI: 2.307-4.847) were significantly associated with APP.
CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic polypharmacy was common in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the use of APP showed a declining trend over time. Considering the general poor health status of older patients with schizophrenia and their increased risk of drug-induced adverse events, the use of APP in this population needs careful consideration.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine professional values among Indonesian undergraduate nursing students and examine the relationship between students' demographic factors and professional values.
DESIGN: A cross-sectional study using convenience sampling was applied to recruit 391 Indonesian undergraduate nursing students. The 26 items of Nurses Professional Values Scale Revision (NPVS-R) with five dimensions was employed to collect data. Descriptive and inferential statistics, independent samples t-test were applied to analyse and interpret data.
RESULTS: The result showed that the total score of nurse professional values was high (95.80 ± 12.93). The most important professional value dimension was caring, while activism was the least important values. The NPVS-R total score had a significant association with length of professional clinical practice of the students (p
OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers.
METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers.
RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides.
CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.
AIMS: This study aims to examine sex-related differences in stroke metrics across Southeast Asia in 2015. Furthermore, relative changes between sexes are compared from 1990 to 2015.
METHODS: Data were sourced from the Global Burden of Disease Study. Incidence and mortality from ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes were explored with the following statistics derived: (1) women-to-men incidence/mortality ratio and (2) relative percentage change in rate.
RESULTS: Women had lower incidence and mortality from stroke compared to men. Notable findings include higher ischemic stroke incidence for women at 30-34 years in high-income countries (women-to-men ratio: 1.3, 95% CI: 0.1, 16.2 in Brunei and 1.3, 95% CI: 0.5, 3.2 in Singapore) and the largest difference between sexes for ischemic stroke mortality in Vietnam and Myanmar across most ages. Within the last 25 years, greater reductions for ischemic stroke metrics were observed among women compared to men. Nevertheless, women below 40 years in some countries showed an increase in ischemic stroke incidence between 0.5% and 11.4%, whereas in men, a decline from -4.2% to -44.2%. Indonesia reported the largest difference between sexes for ischemic stroke mortality; a reduction for women whereas an increase in men. For hemorrhagic stroke, findings were similar: higher incidence among young women in high-income countries and greater reductions for stroke metrics in women than men over the last 25 years.
CONCLUSIONS: Distinct sex-specific differences observed across Southeast Asia should be accounted in future stroke preventive guidelines.
AIM: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between -174 G>C IL-6 polymorphism gene on the level of IL-6 and CRP in the population of western Indonesia obese who are obese.
METHODS: In this study, we examined 178 subjects consisting of 89 who are obese with BMI> 25, and controls with BMI between 18.5 and 23. Fasting blood was taken from each subject for the examination of IL-6 and CRP levels by the ELISA method. Determination of genotype -174 G>C IL-6 gene was examined by Polymerase Chain reaction- Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) methods.
RESULTS: The results of this study showed increased levels of IL-6 and CRP in the obese group compared to the controls. In the obese group, CC genotype had higher CRP and lower IL-6 levels than the GC and GG genotypes. The frequency of CC genotype in the obese group was 47.2% compared with 28.1% in controls and this genotype was considered a risk factor for obesity. Carriers of the C genotype as a dominant or a recessive model had greater risk of obesity.
CONCLUSION: It was concluded that the polymorphism - 174G>C IL-6 gene is a risk factor for obesity and is associated with increased levels of IL-6 and CRP in an obese group of the Western Indonesian ethnic population.
METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey assessing knowledge and attitudes towards ZIKV infection on multiple-item scales was sent to GPs in the Sumatra and Java islands of Indonesia. The associations between independent factors and either knowledge or attitude were assessed with logistic regressions. The correlation and association between knowledge and attitude were estimated.
RESULTS: We included 457 (53.7%) out of 850 responses in the analysis. Among these, 304 (66.5%) and 111 (24.2%) respondents had a good knowledge and attitude, respectively. No demographic, workplace, professional development, or experiential characteristics related to ZIKV infection were associated with knowledge. In the multivariate analysis, only contact experience was associated with attitude. There was a significant, positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores.
CONCLUSIONS: Although knowledge of pregnancy-related complications of ZIKV infection is relatively high among GPs in Indonesia, more than 75% of them had a poor attitude towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika. Strategies for enhancing the capacity of GPs to develop positive attitudes and respond to ZIKV infection are needed.
Materials and Methods: The study started with the identification of selected LAB by 16S rRNA, followed by optimization of GABA production by culture conditions using different initial pH, temperature, glutamate concentration, incubation time, carbon, and nitrogen sources. 16S rRNA polymerase chain reaction and analysis by phylogenetic were used to identify Lactobacillus plantarum (coded as N5) responsible for the production of GABA.
Results: GABA production by high-performance liquid chromatography was highest at pH of 5.5, temperature of 36°C, glutamate concentration of 500 mM, and incubation time of 84 h. Peptone and glucose served as the nitrogen and carbon sources, respectively, whereas GABA was produced at optimum fermentation condition of 211.169 mM.
Conclusion: Production of GABA by L. plantarum N5 was influenced by initial pH of 5.5, glutamic acid concentration, nitrogen source, glucose as carbon source, and incubation temperature and time.