Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 613 in total

  1. Dong M, Zeng LN, Zhang Q, Yang SY, Chen LY, Sim K, et al.
    J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol, 2019 Nov;32(6):304-311.
    PMID: 31480982 DOI: 10.1177/0891988719862636
    BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Antipsychotic polypharmacy (APP) is a controversial topic in the treatment of older adults with schizophrenia. The objective of this study was to examine the use of APP in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia and its associated demographic and clinical factors.

    METHODS: This study was based on the fourth survey of the consortium known as the Research on Asian Psychotropic Prescription Pattern for Antipsychotics. Fifteen Asian countries/territories participated in this survey, including Bangladesh, Mainland China, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Malaysia, Myanmar, Pakistan, Singapore, Sri Lanka, Taiwan, Thailand, and Vietnam. Basic demographic and clinical characteristics were collected using a standardized data collection form.

    RESULTS: Among the 879 older adults with schizophrenia included in the survey, the rate of APP was 40.5%. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that higher antipsychotic doses (P < .001, odds ratio [OR] = 1.003, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.002-1.003), longer duration of illness (P = .02, OR = 1.845, 95% CI: 1.087-3.132), and the prescription of anticholinergics (P < .001, OR = 1.871, 95% CI: 1.329-2.635), second-generation antipsychotics (P = .001, OR = 2.264, 95% CI: 1.453-3.529), and first-generation antipsychotics (P < .001, OR = 3.344, 95% CI: 2.307-4.847) were significantly associated with APP.

    CONCLUSION: Antipsychotic polypharmacy was common in older adult Asian patients with schizophrenia. Compared to the results of previous surveys, the use of APP showed a declining trend over time. Considering the general poor health status of older patients with schizophrenia and their increased risk of drug-induced adverse events, the use of APP in this population needs careful consideration.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  2. Rajapakse S, de Silva NL, Weeratunga P, Rodrigo C, Sigera C, Fernando SD
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2019 Oct 11;19(1):265.
    PMID: 31601215 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-019-2678-2
    BACKGROUND: Carica papaya (CP) extract is becoming popular as an unlicensed herbal remedy purported to hasten recovery in dengue infection, mostly based on observations that it may increase platelet counts. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to critically analyze the evidence from controlled clinical trials on the efficacy and safety of CP extract in the treatment of dengue infection.

    METHODS: PubMed, LILACS and Google Scholar were searched for randomized or non-randomized trials enrolling patients with suspected or confirmed dengue where CP extract was compared, as a treatment measure, against standard treatment. Recovery of platelet counts as well as other clinical indicators of favourable outcome (duration of hospital stay, prevention of plasma leakage, life threatening complications, and mortality) were assessed.

    RESULTS: Nine studies (India-6, Pakistan-1, Indonesia-1, Malaysia-1) met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies showed an increase in platelet counts in patients receiving CP extract, while one study showed no significant difference between the two groups, and direct comparison was not possible in the remaining study. Serious adverse events were not reported. CP extract may reduce the duration of hospital stay (mean difference - 1.98 days, 95% confidence interval - 1.83 to - 2.12, 3 studies, 580 participants, low quality evidence), and cause improvement in mean platelet counts between the first and fifth day of treatment (mean difference 35.45, 95% confidence interval 23.74 to 47.15, 3 studies, 129 participants, low quality evidence). No evidence was available regarding other clinical outcomes.

    CONCLUSIONS: The clinical value of improvement in platelet count or early discharge is unclear in the absence of more robust indicators of favourable clinical outcome. Current evidence is insufficient to comment on the role of CP extract in dengue. There is a need for further well designed clinical trials examining the effect of CP on platelet counts, plasma leakage, other serious manifestations of dengue, and mortality, with clearly defined outcome measures.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  3. Nijman V
    Folia Primatol., 2019 Oct 02.
    PMID: 31578029 DOI: 10.1159/000502093
    Great progress has been made in unravelling the evolutionary history of Asian colobines, largely through the use of dated molecular phylogenies based on multiple markers. The Presbytis langurs are a case in point, with more allopatric species being identified, recognition of Presbytis thomasi from Sumatra rather than P. potenziani from the Mentawai Islands as being the most basal species of the group, and the discovery that P. rubicunda from Borneo is nested among the Sumatran species and only made it to Borneo in the last 1.3 million years. Based on variation in mitochondrial d-loop, it has recently been argued that Malaysia's P. femoralis femoralis is actually P. neglectus neglectus. Unfortunately, despite being available, sequences from the type locality, Singapore, were excluded from the analysis, and none of the newly generated sequences was deposited in GenBank. I manually reconstructed these sequences, which allowed me to present a molecular phylogeny that includes 8 additional sequences from West Malaysia and Singapore. P. neglectus from Malaysia and P. femoralis from Singapore form one monophyletic clade, with minimal divergence. I conclude that recognition of P. neglectus is erroneous and the name is a junior synonym of P. femoralis. Colobine taxonomy and systematics have advanced, and continue to advance, mostly by considering evidence from a wide range of individuals, species and data sets (molecular, behavioural and morphological) rather than focusing on single molecular markers from 1 or 2 species from one small geographic area. For an orderly taxonomic debate where evidence can be evaluated and reinterpreted it is essential that newly generated sequences are deposited in public repositories.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  4. Emmett SD, Sudoko CK, Tucci DL, Gong W, Saunders JE, Global HEAR (Hearing Loss Evaluation, Advocacy, and Research) Collaborative:, et al.
    Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;161(4):672-682.
    PMID: 31210566 DOI: 10.1177/0194599819849917
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cost-effectiveness of cochlear implantation (CI) with mainstream education and deaf education with sign language for treatment of children with profound sensorineural hearing loss in low- and lower-middle income countries in Asia.

    STUDY DESIGN: Cost-effectiveness analysis.

    SETTING: Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Indonesia, Nepal, Pakistan, Philippines, and Sri Lanka participated in the study.

    SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Costs were obtained from experts in each country with known costs and published data, with estimation when necessary. A disability-adjusted life-years model was applied with 3% discounting and 10-year length of analysis. A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of device cost, professional salaries, annual number of implants, and probability of device failure. Cost-effectiveness was determined with the World Health Organization standard of cost-effectiveness ratio per gross domestic product (CER/GDP) per capita <3.

    RESULTS: Deaf education was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 3.59). CI was cost-effective in all countries except Nepal (CER/GDP, 6.38) and Pakistan (CER/GDP, 3.14)-the latter of which reached borderline cost-effectiveness in the sensitivity analysis (minimum, maximum: 2.94, 3.39).

    CONCLUSION: Deaf education and CI are largely cost-effective in participating Asian countries. Variation in CI maintenance and education-related costs may contribute to the range of cost-effectiveness ratios observed in this study.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  5. Lingam TMC, Tan KY, Tan CH
    Toxicon, 2019 Oct;168:95-97.
    PMID: 31254600 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.06.227
    Daboia siamensis monovalent antivenom (DSMAV, Thailand) exhibited comparable immunoreactivity toward the venoms of eastern Russell's vipers from Thailand and Indonesia. It also effectively neutralized the procoagulant and lethal effects of both venoms, showing high potency. The Indonesian heterologous trivalent antivenom SABU (Serum Anti Bisa Ular), however, has very weak immunoreactivity and it failed to neutralize the Russell's viper venoms. DSMAV appears to be the appropriate choice of antivenom to treat Russell's viper envenoming.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  6. Zaw MT, Lin Z
    J Microbiol Immunol Infect, 2019 Oct;52(5):679-684.
    PMID: 31320238 DOI: 10.1016/j.jmii.2019.05.012
    Plasmodium knowlesi is now regarded as the fifth malaria parasite causing human malaria as it is widely distributed in South-East Asian countries especially east Malaysia where two Malaysian states namely Sabah and Sarawak are situated. In 2004, Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) was applied for diagnosing knowlesi malaria in the Kapit Division of Sarawak, Malaysia, so that human P. knowlesi infections could be detected correctly while blood film microscopy diagnosed incorrectly as Plasmodium malariae. This parasite is transmitted from simian hosts to humans via Anopheles vectors. Indonesia is the another country in South East Asia where knowlesi malaria is moderately prevalent. In the last decade, Sarawak and Sabah, the two states of east Malaysia became the target of P. knowlesi research due to prevalence of cases with occasional fatal infections. The host species of P. knowlesi are three macaque species namely Macaca fascicularis, Macaca nemestrina and Macaca leonina while the vector species are the Leucosphyrus Complex and the Dirus Complex of the Leucophyrus Group of Anopheles mosquitoes. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) are non-existent for knowlesi malaria although timely treatment is necessary for preventing complications, fatality and drug resistance. Development of RDT is essential in dealing with P. knowlesi infections in poor rural healthcare services. Genetic studies of the parasite on possibility of human-to-human transmission of P. knowlesi were recommended for further studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  7. Myzabella N, Fritschi L, Merdith N, El-Zaemey S, Chih H, Reid A
    Int J Occup Environ Med, 2019 10;10(4):159-173.
    PMID: 31586381 DOI: 10.15171/ijoem.2019.1576
    BACKGROUND: The palm oil industry is the largest contributor to global production of oils and fats. Indonesia and Malaysia are the largest producers of palm oil. More than a million workers are employed in this industry, yet there is a lack of information on their occupational health and safety.

    OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize occupational hazards among oil palm plantation workers.

    METHODS: A search was carried out in June 2018 in PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus, and Ovid. Relevant publications were identified by a systematic search of four databases and relevant journals. Publications were included if they examined occupational hazards in oil palm plantation workers.

    RESULTS: 941 publications were identified; of these, 25 studies were found eligible to be included in the final review. Of the 25 studies examined, 19 were conducted in Malaysia, 2 in Costa Rica, and one each in Ghana, Indonesia, Myanmar, Papua New Guinea, and Cameroon. Oil palm plantation workers were found to be at risk of musculoskeletal conditions, injuries, psychosocial disorders, and infectious diseases such as malaria and leptospirosis. In addition, they have potential exposure to paraquat and other pesticides.

    CONCLUSION: In light of the potential of palm oil for use as a biofuel, this is an industry with strong growth potential. The workers are exposed to various occupational hazards. Further research and interventions are necessary to improve the working conditions of this already vast and growing workforce.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  8. Putsathit P, Neela VK, Joseph NMS, Ooi PT, Ngamwongsatit B, Knight DR, et al.
    Vet. Microbiol., 2019 Oct;237:108408.
    PMID: 31585650 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2019.108408
    Information on the epidemiology of C. difficile infection (CDI) in South-East Asian countries is limited, as is data on possible animal reservoirs of C. difficile in the region. We investigated the prevalence and molecular epidemiology of C. difficile in piglets and the piggery environment in Thailand and Malaysia. Piglet rectal swabs (n = 224) and piggery environmental specimens (n = 23) were collected between 2015 and 2016 from 11 farms located in Thailand and Malaysia. All specimens were tested for the presence of C. difficile with toxigenic culture. PCR assays were performed on isolates to determine the ribotype (RT), and the presence of toxin genes. Whole genome sequencing was used on a subset of isolates to determine the evolutionary relatedness of RT038 (the most prevalent RT identified) common to pigs and humans from Thailand and Indonesia. C. difficile was recovered from 35% (58/165) and 92% (54/59) of the piglets, and 89% (8/9) and 93% (13/14) of the environmental specimens from Thailand and Malaysia, respectively. All strains from Thailand, and 30 strains from Malaysia (23 piglet and 7 environmental isolates) were non-toxigenic. To our knowledge, this is the first and only report with a complete lack of toxigenic C. difficile among piglets, a feature which could have a protective effect on the host. The most common strain belonged to RT038 (ST48), accounting for 88% (51/58) of piglet and 78% (7/9) of environmental isolates from Thailand, and all 30 isolates tested from Malaysia. Piglet RT038 isolates from Thailand and Malaysia differed by only 18 core-genome single nucleotide variants (cgSNVs) and both were, on average, 30 cgSNVs different from the human strains from Thailand and Indonesia, indicating a common ancestor in the last two decades.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  9. Malchione MD, Torres LM, Hartley DM, Koch M, Goodman JL
    Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 2019 Oct;54(4):381-399.
    PMID: 31369812 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.07.019
    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections have spread globally, leaving polymyxins, including colistin, as 'last-resort treatments'. Emerging colistin resistance raises the spectre of untreatable infections. Despite this threat, data remain limited for much of the world, including Southeast Asia where only 3 of 11 nations submitted data on carbapenem and colistin resistance for recent World Health Organization (WHO) reports. To improve our understanding of the challenge, we utilised broad strategies to search for and analyse data on carbapenem and colistin resistance among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella in Southeast Asia. We found 258 studies containing 526 unique reports and document carbapenem-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella in 8 and 9 of 11 nations, respectively. We estimated carbapenem resistance proportions through meta-analysis of extracted data for nations with ≥100 representative isolates. Estimated resistance among Klebsiella was high (>5%) in four nations (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam), moderate (1-5%) in two nations (Malaysia and Singapore) and low (<1%) in two nations (Cambodia and Brunei). For E. coli, resistance was generally lower but was high in two of seven nations with ≥100 isolates (Indonesia and Myanmar). The most common carbapenemases were NDM metallo-β-lactamases and OXA β-lactamases. Despite sparse data, polymyxin resistance was documented in 8 of 11 nations, with mcr-1 being the predominant genotype. Widespread presence of carbapenem and polymyxin resistance, including their overlap in eight nations, represents a continuing risk and increases the threat of infections resistant to both classes. These findings, and remaining data gaps, highlight the urgent need for sufficiently-resourced robust antimicrobial resistance surveillance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  10. Paton NI, Borand L, Benedicto J, Kyi MM, Mahmud AM, Norazmi MN, et al.
    Int. J. Infect. Dis., 2019 Oct;87:21-29.
    PMID: 31301458 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijid.2019.07.004
    Asia has the highest burden of tuberculosis (TB) and latent TB infection (LTBI) in the world. Optimizing the diagnosis and treatment of LTBI is one of the key strategies for achieving the WHO 'End TB' targets. We report the discussions from the Asia Latent TubERculosis (ALTER) expert panel meeting held in 2018 in Singapore. In this meeting, a group of 13 TB experts from Bangladesh, Cambodia, Hong Kong, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Singapore, Taiwan, Thailand and Vietnam convened to review the literature, discuss the barriers and propose strategies to improve the management of LTBI in Asia. Strategies for the optimization of risk group prioritization, diagnosis, treatment, and research of LTBI are reported. The perspectives presented herein, may help national programs and professional societies of the respective countries enhance the adoption of the WHO guidelines, scale-up the implementation of national guidelines based on the regional needs, and provide optimal guidance to clinicians for the programmatic management of LTBI.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  11. Braley C, Hondrogiannis EM
    J. Forensic Sci., 2019 Sep 27.
    PMID: 31560807 DOI: 10.1111/1556-4029.14201
    Kratom is a plant material exhibiting both analgesic and stimulant effects and is also forensically relevant since it is abused as a "legal high." It is regulated in several countries but not scheduled in the United States at the federal level. This study used inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) to measure the concentrations of 13 elements in 19 kratom samples obtained from an online distributor selling kratom, from Borneo, Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand, and Vietnam, for the purpose of using the elements to discriminate among purported country of origin, "suborigin," and strain. Analysis of variance revealed statistical differences in concentrations of elements from each group, while discriminant function analysis (using leave-one-out classification) successfully classified kratom samples by their purported country of origin (100%), "suborigin," (100%), and strain (86%). Our method illustrates the possibility of utilizing ICP-MS for determination of commercially available kratom samples by purported origin, "subororign," or by product line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  12. Taheripour F, Hertel TW, Ramankutty N
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 2019 Sep 17;116(38):19193-19199.
    PMID: 31481625 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1903476116
    The global demand for palm oil has grown rapidly over the past several decades. Much of the output expansion has occurred in carbon- and biodiversity-rich forest lands of Malaysia and Indonesia (M&I), contributing to record levels of terrestrial carbon emissions and biodiversity loss. This has led to a variety of voluntary and mandatory regulatory actions, as well as calls for limits on palm oil imports from M&I. This paper offers a comprehensive, global assessment of the economic and environmental consequences of alternative policies aimed at limiting deforestation from oil palm expansion in M&I. It highlights the challenges of limiting forest and biodiversity loss in the presence of market-mediated spillovers into related oilseed and agricultural commodity and factor markets, both in M&I and overseas. Indeed, limiting palm oil production or consumption is unlikely to halt deforestation in M&I in the absence of active forest conservation incentives. Policies aimed at restricting palm oil production in M&I also have broader consequences for the economy, including significant impacts on consumer prices, real wages, and welfare, that vary among different global regions. A crucial distinction is whether the initiative is undertaken domestically, in which case the M&I region could benefit, or by major palm oil importers, in which case M&I loses income. Nonetheless, all policies considered here pass the social welfare test of global carbon dioxide mitigation benefits exceeding their costs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  13. Kwan Z, Yong SS, Robinson S
    PMID: 31508854 DOI: 10.1111/phpp.12510
    BACKGROUND: Analysis of Internet search trends has been performed to evaluate interest in sun protection, artificial tanning, and skin cancers among the public, particularly in Western countries. This observational study aimed to investigate the relative popularity of search terms relating to sun protection, sunburn, skin cancers, and tanning used in Google Trends® in three South-East Asian countries (Malaysia, Singapore, and Indonesia).

    METHODS: The relevant search terms were queried using the Google Trends® in each location and worldwide. The search volume indices were compared between locations and over a time period from January 1, 2004, to January 31, 2019. Correlations between "sunblock" and "sunburn" as well as "sunblock" and search terms relating to skin cancers ("skin cancer," "melanoma," "basal cell carcinoma," and "squamous cell carcinoma") were evaluated.

    RESULTS: The favored search term relating to sun protection in this region was "sunblock" despite the term itself being a misnomer. The relative popularity of searches for "sunblock" also showed an increase over time and was generally higher compared with interest in sunburn, skin cancers, and artificial tanning practices. Positive correlations were noted between "sunblock" and "sunburn" in Malaysia and "sunblock" and "melanoma" in Singapore.

    CONCLUSION: Insights into search trends may assist public health promotion to raise awareness regarding sun protection and skin cancers in the region by targeting commonly used terms for each geographical location.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  14. Chandramouli C, Tay WT, Bamadhaj NS, Tromp J, Teng TK, Yap JJL, et al.
    PLoS Med., 2019 Sep;16(9):e1002916.
    PMID: 31550265 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002916
    BACKGROUND: Asians are predisposed to a lean heart failure (HF) phenotype. Data on the 'obesity paradox', reported in Western populations, are scarce in Asia and have only utilised the traditional classification of body mass index (BMI). We aimed to investigate the association between obesity (defined by BMI and abdominal measures) and HF outcomes in Asia.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: Utilising the Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in Heart Failure (ASIAN-HF) registry (11 Asian regions including Taiwan, Hong Kong, China, India, Malaysia, Thailand, Singapore, Indonesia, Philippines, Japan, and Korea; 46 centres with enrolment between 1 October 2012 and 6 October 2016), we prospectively examined 5,964 patients with symptomatic HF (mean age 61.3 ± 13.3 years, 26% women, mean BMI 25.3 ± 5.3 kg/m2, 16% with HF with preserved ejection fraction [HFpEF; ejection fraction ≥ 50%]), among whom 2,051 also had waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) measurements (mean age 60.8 ± 12.9 years, 24% women, mean BMI 25.0 ± 5.2 kg/m2, 7% HFpEF). Patients were categorised by BMI quartiles or WHtR quartiles or 4 combined groups of BMI (low, <24.5 kg/m2 [lean], or high, ≥24.5 kg/m2 [obese]) and WHtR (low, <0.55 [thin], or high, ≥0.55 [fat]). Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine a 1-year composite outcome (HF hospitalisation or mortality). Across BMI quartiles, higher BMI was associated with lower risk of the composite outcome (ptrend < 0.001). Contrastingly, higher WHtR was associated with higher risk of the composite outcome. Individuals in the lean-fat group, with low BMI and high WHtR (13.9%), were more likely to be women (35.4%) and to be from low-income countries (47.7%) (predominantly in South/Southeast Asia), and had higher prevalence of diabetes (46%), worse quality of life scores (63.3 ± 24.2), and a higher rate of the composite outcome (51/232; 22%), compared to the other groups (p < 0.05 for all). Following multivariable adjustment, the lean-fat group had higher adjusted risk of the composite outcome (hazard ratio 1.93, 95% CI 1.17-3.18, p = 0.01), compared to the obese-thin group, with high BMI and low WHtR. Results were consistent across both HF subtypes (HFpEF and HF with reduced ejection fraction [HFrEF]; pinteraction = 0.355). Selection bias and residual confounding are potential limitations of such multinational observational registries.

    CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of Asian patients with HF, the 'obesity paradox' is observed only when defined using BMI, with WHtR showing the opposite association with the composite outcome. Lean-fat patients, with high WHtR and low BMI, have the worst outcomes. A direct correlation between high WHtR and the composite outcome is apparent in both HFpEF and HFrEF.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Asian Sudden Cardiac Death in HF (ASIAN-HF) Registry ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01633398.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  15. Du S, Cao Y, Zhou T, Setiawan A, Thandar M, Koy V, et al.
    BMC Health Serv Res, 2019 Aug 27;19(1):602.
    PMID: 31455377 DOI: 10.1186/s12913-019-4402-9
    BACKGROUND: Primary health care (PHC) is usually the initial point of contact for individuals seeking to access health care and providers of PHC play a crucial role in the healthcare model. However, few studies have assessed the knowledge, ability, and skills (capacity) of PHC providers in delivering care. This study aimed to identify the capacity of PHC providers in countries of the Southeast and East Asian Nursing Education and Research Network (SEANERN).

    METHODS: A multi-national cross-sectional survey was performed among SEANERN countries. A 1-5 Likert scale was used to measure eight components of knowledge, ability, and skill of PHC providers. Descriptive statistics were employed, and radar charts were used to depict the levels of the three dimensions (knowledge, skill and ability) and eight components.

    RESULTS: Totally, 606 valid questionnaires from PHC providers were returned from seven countries of SEANERN (China, Myanmar, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Cambodia, and Malaysia), with a responsive rate of 97.6% (606/621). For the three dimensions the ranges of total mean scores were distributed as follows: knowledge dimension: 2.78~3.11; skill dimension: 2.66~3.16; ability dimension: 2.67~3.06. Furthermore, radar charts revealed that the transition of PHC provider's knowledge into skill and from skill into ability decreased gradually. Their competencies in four areas, including safe water and sanitation, nutritional promotion, endemic diseases prevention, and essential provision of drugs, were especially low.

    CONCLUSIONS: The general capacity perceived by PHC providers themselves seems relatively low and imbalanced. To address the problem, SEANERN, through the collaboration of the members, can facilitate the appropriate education and training of PHC providers by developing feasible, practical and culturally appropriate training plans.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  16. Alqadeeri F, Rukayadi Y, Abbas F, Shaari K
    Molecules, 2019 Aug 26;24(17).
    PMID: 31454974 DOI: 10.3390/molecules24173095
    Piper cubeba L. is the berry of a shrub that is indigenous to Java, Southern Borneo, Sumatra, and other islands in the Indian Ocean. The plant is usually used in folk traditional medicine and is an important ingredient in cooking. The purpose of this study was to isolate and purify the bioactive compounds from P. cubeba L. fractions. In addition, the isolated compounds were tested for their antibacterial and antispore activities against vegetative cells and spores of Bacilluscereus ATCC33019, B. subtilis ATCC6633, B.pumilus ATCC14884, and B.megaterium ATCC14581. The phytochemical investigation of the DCM fraction yielded two known compounds: β-asarone (1), and asaronaldehyde (2) were successfully isolated and identified from the methanol extract and its fractions of P. cubeba L. Results showed that exposing the vegetative cells of Bacillus sp. to isolated compounds resulted in an inhibition zone with a large diameter ranging between 7.21 to 9.61 mm. The range of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was between 63.0 to 125.0 µg/mL and had minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) at 250.0 to 500.0 µg/mL against Bacillus sp. Isolated compounds at a concentration of 0.05% inactivated more than 3-Log10 (90.99%) of the spores of Bacillus sp. after an incubation period of four hours, and all the spores were killed at a concentration of 0.1%. The structures were recognizably elucidated based on 1D and 2D-NMR analyses (1H, 13C, COSY, HSQC, and HMBC) and mass spectrometry data. Compounds 1, and 2 were isolated for the first time from this plant. In conclusion, the two compounds show a promising potential of antibacterial and sporicidal activities against Bacillus sp. and thus can be developed as an anti-Bacillus agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  17. Nguyen TTN, Pham HV, Lasko K, Bui MT, Laffly D, Jourdan A, et al.
    Environ. Pollut., 2019 Aug 24;255(Pt 1):113106.
    PMID: 31541826 DOI: 10.1016/j.envpol.2019.113106
    Satellite observations for regional air quality assessment rely on comprehensive spatial coverage, and daily monitoring with reliable, cloud-free data quality. We investigated spatiotemporal variation and data quality of two global satellite Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) products derived from MODIS and VIIRS imagery. AOD is considered an essential atmospheric parameter strongly related to ground Particulate Matter (PM) in Southeast Asia (SEA). We analyze seasonal variation, urban/rural area influence, and biomass burning effects on atmospheric pollution. Validation indicated a strong relationship between AERONET ground AOD and both MODIS AOD (R2 = 0.81) and VIIRS AOD (R2 = 0.68). The monthly variation of satellite AOD and AERONET AOD reflects two seasonal trends of air quality separately for mainland countries including Myanmar, Laos, Cambodia, Thailand, Vietnam, and Taiwan, Hong Kong, and for maritime countries consisting of Indonesia, Philippines, Malaysia, Brunei, Singapore, and Timor Leste. The mainland SEA has a pattern of monthly AOD variation in which AODs peak in March/April, decreasing during wet season from May-September, and increasing to the second peak in October. However, in maritime SEA, AOD concentration peaks in October. The three countries with the highest annual satellite AODs are Singapore, Hong Kong, and Vietnam. High urban population proportions in Singapore (40.7%) and Hong Kong (21.6%) were associated with high AOD concentrations as expected. AOD values in SEA urban areas were a factor of 1.4 higher than in rural areas, with respective averages of 0.477 and 0.336. The AOD values varied proportionately to the frequency of biomass burning in which both active fires and AOD peak in March/April and September/October. Peak AOD in September/October in some countries could be related to pollutant transport of Indonesia forest fires. This study analyzed satellite aerosol product quality in relation to AERONET in SEA countries and highlighted framework of air quality assessment over a large, complicated region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  18. Tang ELH, Tan NH, Fung SY, Tan CH
    Toxicon, 2019 Aug 22;169:91-102.
    PMID: 31445943 DOI: 10.1016/j.toxicon.2019.08.004
    The intraspecific geographical venom variations of Calloselasma rhodostoma from Malaysia (CR-M), Indonesia (CR-I), Thailand (CR-T) and Vietnam (CR-V) were investigated through 1D SDS-PAGE and nano-ESI-LCMS/MS. The venom antigenicity, procoagulant activities and neutralization using Thai C. rhodostoma Monovalent Antivenom (CRMAV) were also investigated. SDS-PAGE patterns of the venoms were relatively similar with minor variations. Proteomic analysis revealed that snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs, particularly P-I class), serine proteases (SVSPs) and snaclecs dominated the venom protein composition (68.96-81.80%), followed by L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO) and phospholipase A2 (PLA2) (7.37-11.08% and 5.18-13.81%, respectively), corroborating C. rhodostoma envenoming effects (hemorrhage, consumptive coagulopathy, thrombocytopenia and local tissue necrosis). Other proteins of lower abundances (2.82-9.13%) identified include cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISP), phospholipase B, phosphodiesterase, nerve growth factor, 5'-nucleotidase, aminopeptidase and hyaluronidase. All four venoms exhibited strong procoagulant effects which were neutralized by CRMAV to different extents. CRMAV immunoreactivity was high toward venoms of CR-M, CR-I and CR-T but relatively low for CR-V venom. Among the venom samples from different locales, CR-V venom proteome has the smallest SVMP composition while SVSP, PLA2 and phosphodiesterase were more abundant in the venom. These variations in C. rhodostoma venom protein composition could partly explain the differences seen in immunoreactivity. (198 words).
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  19. Thomes MW, Vaezzadeh V, Zakaria MP, Bong CW
    PMID: 31440968 DOI: 10.1007/s11356-019-05936-y
    Southeast Asia has undergone rapid developments in terms of urbanization, economic and population growth. The progress in sewerage treatment infrastructure has not kept pace with such developments. The inadequacy and inefficiency of sewerage systems has prompted the release of untreated sewage into the aquatic environment of Southeast Asia causing many waterborne illnesses since surface water is utilized for recreational, agricultural and aquaculture purposes and, above all, as a source of water intake in Southeast Asia. This paper will review the current data on molecular markers of sewage pollution including sterols and linear alkylbenzenes (LABs) in Southeast Asian aquatic environment to clarify the state of sewage pollution and the competence of sewage treatment plants (STPs) in this area. Despite the importance of sewage pollution research in the region, the number of studies using molecular markers to trace the sources of sewage pollution is limited. So far, indicators of sewage pollution have been investigated in aquatic environments of Indonesia, Vietnam, Malaysia, the Philippines, Thailand, Cambodia and Brunei among Southeast Asian countries. The concentrations and diagnostic ratios of faecal sterols and LABs show the release of untreated and primary treated urban waste into water bodies of these countries. Further studies are required to fill the data gaps in Southeast Asia and come to a better understanding of the trends of sewage pollution in this part of the world. Graphical abstract.
    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
  20. Harapan H, Rajamoorthy Y, Utomo PS, Anwar S, Setiawan AM, Alleta A, et al.
    BMC Infect. Dis., 2019 Aug 06;19(1):693.
    PMID: 31387537 DOI: 10.1186/s12879-019-4297-4
    BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitudes towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection among general practitioners (GPs), a frontline healthcare worker group, in Indonesia.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional, online survey assessing knowledge and attitudes towards ZIKV infection on multiple-item scales was sent to GPs in the Sumatra and Java islands of Indonesia. The associations between independent factors and either knowledge or attitude were assessed with logistic regressions. The correlation and association between knowledge and attitude were estimated.

    RESULTS: We included 457 (53.7%) out of 850 responses in the analysis. Among these, 304 (66.5%) and 111 (24.2%) respondents had a good knowledge and attitude, respectively. No demographic, workplace, professional development, or experiential characteristics related to ZIKV infection were associated with knowledge. In the multivariate analysis, only contact experience was associated with attitude. There was a significant, positive correlation between knowledge and attitude scores.

    CONCLUSIONS: Although knowledge of pregnancy-related complications of ZIKV infection is relatively high among GPs in Indonesia, more than 75% of them had a poor attitude towards pregnancy-related issues of Zika. Strategies for enhancing the capacity of GPs to develop positive attitudes and respond to ZIKV infection are needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Indonesia
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