Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1753 in total

  1. AL-Kubaisy W, AL-Talib H, Al-khateeb A, Shanshal MM
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):499-506.
    PMID: 25382477
    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Abai G, Henry J, Lian CB, Wee ASF, Bili H, Ratu I
    Int J Public Health Res, 2011;1(2):92-99.
    Introduction Neonatal jaundice occurs in about 60% of newborns. If not managed properly, it can progress to severe neonatal jaundice (SNNJ) leading to death or permanent disability. The incidence of SNNJ in Kuching District increased from 119.3 per 100,000 live births in 2005 to 123.3 per 100,000 live births in 2008, which was above the Standard National QAP Indicator of 100 per 10,000 live births. SNNJ can be prevented by early detection and proper management of neonatal jaundice. The objective is to increase the knowledge and practise of early detection of neonatal jaundice by nurses in Kuching District. Methods This was an interventional study covering a period of six months. The sample comprised 113 nurses of all categories working in urban and rural maternal and child health clinics in Kuching District. Tools used in the study were self-administered questionnaires in English and Bahasa Malaysia. The preintervention survey started in July 2009 while the post-intervention survey was done in January 2010. The interventions were done through Continuing Nursing Education sessions and included new nursing formats and new reporting procedures. New vehicles were also provided for home nursing. Data was collected and analyzed using MS Excel program. Results The pre-intervention survey on nurses showed that only 56.6% were able to identify the risk of factors causing jaundice; 94.6% able to define jaundice; 41.5% able to detect jaundice while 70.8% knew sign of Kernicterus. In term of recommended post natal nursing schedule only 40.7% able to practice the schedule while only 69.0% able to give advice on management of jaundice. Post intervention; 63.2% of nurses were able to identify the risk factors causing jaundice; 97.2% able to define jaundice while 97.2% were able to detect jaundice and 88.6% know sign of Kernicterus. On recommended post natal nursing schedule, 49.9 % practice the recommended schedule while 92.0% were able to give advice to mother on management of jaundice. The incident of jaundice of Severe Neonatal Jaundice dropped to 78 per 100,000 live births in 2010.
    Conclusions The study shows that the interventions taken helped to improve the knowledge and practice of recommended measures to detect neonatal jaundice early. Stronger emphasis must be placed on using the new reporting procedures and new nursing sheets. Continuous monitoring through regular nursing audits by clinic supervisors is also essential to reduce the incidence of SNNJ. Provision of vehicles for all busy maternal and child health clinics for home nursing care is highly recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Abbas G, Shah S, Hanif M, Shah A, Rehman AU, Tahir S, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2020 05 15;10(1):8064.
    PMID: 32415157 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-020-65065-2
    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is a clinical definition applied to neonates born with clinical features of malnutrition and in-utero growth retardation irrespective of their birth weight percentile. This study was aimed to determine the frequency of pulmonary hypertension (PH) in neonates with IUGR. In this descriptive cross-sectional study, we followed 96 neonates with IUGR (≤28 days) and 38 neonates without IUGR born in the department of the neonatal intensive care unit children hospital complex Multan, Pakistan. We analyzed certain factors such as gender, gestational age (GA) (weeks), birth weight (BW in kg), weight percentile (WP) for GA, meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS), birth asphyxia (BA) and respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) for pulmonary hypertension (PH) in IUGR and non-IUGR group. GA was measured by the Ballard scoring system. Echocardiography was performed for all patients by the pediatric cardiologist to measure pulmonary arterial (PA) pressure using Bernoulli's equation. Out of total 96 IUGR neonates, 33.3% (n = 32) suffered from PH, of which 65.3% (n = 18) were male and 43.7% (n = 14) were female. The percentages of IUGR neonates with BA, MAS and RDS were 34.4%, 18.8% and 22.9% respectively. The data were analyzed using the SPSS-16 software to test the statistical significance of the results. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered significant. When the chi-square test was applied, it depicted that MAS was significantly associated with PH in IUGR neonates (p = 0.0001) compared to non-IUGR neonates. Our findings suggested an increased chance of PH in IUGR neonates and MAS may be a strong factor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Abd Aziz NH, Yazid NA, Abd Rahman R, Abd Rashid N, Wong SK, Mohamad NV, et al.
    PMID: 32397276 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph17093291
    Information on the role of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in preventing adverse pregnancy/neonatal outcomes is limited in Malaysia. This study aims to determine the relationship between the level of maternal 25(OH)D in the first trimester of pregnant women and their pregnancy/neonatal outcomes. A total of 60 pregnant women in the first trimester were recruited and followed until the end of their pregnancy. The occurrence of any antenatal, delivery, and neonatal complications was recorded. Their blood was collected in the first trimester for total serum 25(OH)D determination using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Overall, 10% of the women had vitamin D deficiency, while 57% had vitamin D insufficiency in their first trimester. No statistically significant difference in 25(OH)D level/status was observed between women with or without antenatal and delivery complications (p > 0.05). No difference in maternal serum 25(OH)D level and vitamin D status was observed between neonates with or without complications (p > 0.05). In conclusion, there is a high prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency among Malaysian pregnant women, but it is not associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. More comprehensive studies should be planned to verify this relationship.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Abd Hamid IJ, M Iyen MI, Ibrahim NR, Abd Majid N, Ramli N, Van Rostenberghe H
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2013 May;49(5):375-9.
    PMID: 23573836 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.12192
    The use of reflecting curtains with single phototherapy has not yet been directly compared with double phototherapy (DP). The objective of this study is to compare the efficacy of single phototherapy with reflecting curtains (SPRC) and DP in treating neonatal jaundice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Abd Hamid IJ, Azman NA, Gennery AR, Mangantig E, Hashim IF, Zainudeen ZT
    Front Immunol, 2020;11:1923.
    PMID: 32983118 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.01923
    Introduction: Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDs) are under-reported in Malaysia. The actual disease frequency of PID in this country is unknown due to the absence of a national patient registry for PID. Objective: This systematic review aimed to determine the prevalence rates of PID cases diagnosed and published in Malaysia from 1st of January 1979 until 1st of March 2020. It also aimed to describe the various types of PIDs reported in Malaysia. Method: Following the development of a comprehensive search strategy, all published literature of PID cases from Malaysia was identified and collated. All cases that fulfilled the International Union of Immunological Societies (IUIS) classification diagnosis were included in the systematic review. Data were retrieved and collated into a proforma. Results: A total of 4,838 articles were identified and screened, with 34 publications and 119 patients fulfilling the criteria and being included in the systematic review. The prevalence rate was 0.37 per 100,000 population. In accordance with the IUIS, the distribution of diagnostic classifications was immunodeficiencies affecting cellular and humoral immunities (36 patients, 30.3%), combined immunodeficiencies with associated or syndromic features (21 patients, 17.6%), predominant antibody deficiencies (24 patients, 20.2%), diseases of immune dysregulation (13 patients, 10.9%), congenital defects in phagocyte number or function (20 patients, 16.8%), defects in intrinsic and innate immunity (4 patients, 3.4%), and autoinflammatory disorders (1 patient, 0.8%). Parental consanguinity was 2.5%. Thirteen different gene mutations were available in 21.8% of the cases. Conclusion: PIDs are underdiagnosed and under-reported in Malaysia. Developing PID healthcare and a national patient registry is much needed to enhance the outcome of PID patient care.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Abdollahi F, Zarghami M, Sazlina SG, Lye MS
    Early intervention in psychiatry, 2017 Feb;11(1):57-62.
    PMID: 25582677 DOI: 10.1111/eip.12215
    AIM: Prolonged depression during the post-partum period is associated with maternal and infant mortality and morbidity. Less attention has been given to factors that predict the persistence of depression beyond the first 3 months post-partum.
    METHODS: From a longitudinal cohort of 2279 women who attended Mazandaran's primary health centres in 2009, 478 women with an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) score of 12 or greater in the third trimester of pregnancy were recruited. Persistently depressed women (depressed at all three occasions: during pregnancy, and at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum) were compared with those without depression to determine demographic, cultural, obstetric and biopsychosocial predictors for persistence of depression. Data were analysed using chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression models.
    RESULTS: The stability of depression was found in 193 (46.2 %) of 418 depressed cases who were followed up over the study period. Of those mothers who scored more than the threshold of 12 during the third trimester of pregnancy, 277 (66.3%) and 221 (52.9%) had high EPDS at 2 and 12 weeks post-partum. Psychological distress (based upon the General Health Questionnaire), low maternal parental self-efficacy (based upon the Parental Expectation Survey) and perceived social isolation (based upon the Network Orientation Scale) were independent predictors of persistent depression.
    CONCLUSION: Fewer depressed mothers in this study were found to recover during the first 3 months after giving birth. Psychosocial factors predicted sustained depression from pregnancy to 3 months post-partum. The findings highlight the significance of support in enhancing maternal mental health.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Abdollahi F, Lye MS, Yazdani Cherati J, Zarghami M
    J Psychosom Res, 2021 12;151:110650.
    PMID: 34739946 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpsychores.2021.110650
    OBJECTIVE: Depression is the second leading cause of morbidity worldwide. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and associated risk factors of paternal postpartum depressive symptoms (PPD).

    METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, via a stratified random and convenience sampling method 591 couples who were referred to Mazandaran primary health centers between 2 and 8 weeks postpartum were recruited from March to October 2017. Couples were screened for depressive symptoms using Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Fathers provided information on socio-demographic characteristics, life events, neonatal stressor, perceived stress (Perceived Stress Scale), social support (Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support), and general health status using General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12) as well. Data was analyzed using multiple logistic regression.

    RESULTS: Overall, 93 fathers (15.7%) and 188 mothers (31.8%) reported depressive symptoms above the cut-off EPDS score of 12. In the multiple logistic regression model, older age, maternal depressive symptoms, higher GHQ-12 scores and increased recent life events were related to paternal PPD. A significant inverse association was found between number of children and paternal PPD.

    CONCLUSION: Depressive symptoms especially in first-time fathers following the birth of a child are not uncommon. Creating opportunities for men to access special health care services, parental education to help adapting to parenthood, screening programs, and psychiatric/psychosocial interventions to decrease suffering of depression for both depressed parents are recommended.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Abdul Hamid H, Szatkowski L, Budge H, Cheah FC, Ojha S
    BMJ Paediatr Open, 2021;5(1):e001153.
    PMID: 34514178 DOI: 10.1136/bmjpo-2021-001153
    Objective: To explore differences in nutritional practices and growth outcomes among preterm infants in neonatal units in Malaysia and the UK.

    Design: Prospective exploratory study of infants born at <34 weeks gestational age (GA).

    Setting: Two neonatal units, one in Malaysia and one in the UK (May 2019 to March 2020).

    Methods: Data collected from birth until discharge and compared between units.

    Results: From 100 infants included, median GA (IQR) was 31 (30-33) and mean±SD birth weight was 1549±444 g. There were more small-for-gestational age infants in Malaysian unit: 12/50 (24%) vs UK: 3/50 (6%), p=0.012 and more morbidities. More Malaysian infants received breast milk (Malaysia: 49 (98%) vs UK: 38 (76%), p=0.001), fortified breast milk (Malaysia: 43 (86%) vs UK: 13 (26%), p<0.001) and exclusive breast milk at discharge (Malaysia: 26 (52%) vs UK: 16 (32%), p=0.043). There was higher parenteral nutrition use among Malaysian infants (40/50 (80%)) vs UK (19/50 (38%)) (p<0.001) with higher protein intake (mean±SD Malaysia: 3.0±0.5 vs UK: 2.7±0.6 g/kg/d, p=0.004) in weeks 1-4 and smaller cumulative protein deficits (mean±SD Malaysia: 11.4±6.1 vs UK: 15.4±8.0 g/kg, p=0.006). There were no significant differences in short-term growth between units and more than half of the infants in both units had ≥1.28 changes in weight-for-age Z-score at discharge (p=0.841).

    Conclusions: An exploratory comparison of practices showed differences in patient characteristics and nutritional practices which impacted growth. Future studies with larger sample sizes and detailed analysis of maternal characteristics and infants' outcomes are needed for improving care of preterm infants in all settings.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Abdul Kadir AH, Myint Han
    Med J Malaysia, 1988 Sep;43(3):218-23.
    PMID: 3241579
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Abdul Majid AH, Zakaria MN, Abdullah NAC, Hamzah S, Mukari SZS
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2017 Oct;101:107-111.
    PMID: 28964278 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2017.07.036
    OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to investigate the effects of perceived attitude and anxiety on awareness of UNHS among caregivers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Using cross sectional research approach, data were collected and some 46 out of 87 questionnaires distributed to caregivers attending UNHS programs at selected public hospitals were usable for analysis (response rate of 52.8%). Partial Least Squares Method (PLS) algorithm and bootstrapping technique were employed to test the hypotheses of the study.

    RESULTS: R square value is 0.205, and it implies that exogenous latent variables explained 21% of the variance of the endogenous latent variable. This value indicates moderate and acceptable level of R-squared values. Findings from PLS structural model evaluation revealed that anxiety has no significant influence (β = -0.091, t = 0.753, p > 0.10) on caregivers' awareness; but perceived attitude has significant effect (β = -0.444, t = 3.434, p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Abdul Rahman Z, Hamzah SH, Hassan SA, Osman S, Md Noor SS
    J Infect Dev Ctries, 2013 Jun;7(6):448-52.
    PMID: 23771288 DOI: 10.3855/jidc.2535
    INTRODUCTION: Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS) are a group of micro-organisms that are increasingly implicated as a cause of significant infection and the leading cause of bloodstream infection (BSI). One important predictor of true BSI is the isolation of CoNS from multiple blood cultures, presuming that the isolates represent the same species. Thus the objective of this study was to determine the significance of repeated CoNS isolated from blood cultures.
    METHODOLOGY: This was a prospective laboratory study which was initiated in June 2007 and lasted until July 2008. CoNS isolates were obtained from patients who had two positive blood cultures within a 14-day interval. CoNS were identified to the species level using an API-Staph, and antibiotics susceptibility testing was performed according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute specifications. Strain relatedness was confirmed using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis.
    RESULTS: During the study period, 202 CoNS-positive samples were isolated from 101 patients. The most common species isolated was Staphylococcus epidermidis (59.0%), and 83.2% of the patients isolated the same species of CoNS from repeated blood cultures. Among the isolates of the same species, only 40.7% had the same antibiogram. CoNS with the same species and antibiogram had 93.3% probability of belonging to the same strain. Most (65.5%) of the patients were treated with antibiotics, primarily from the glycopeptides group.
    CONCLUSION: Speciation and antibiogram of CoNS from repeated blood cultures are adequate in determining the significance of repeated CoNS isolated from blood cultures.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Abdul Wahid SN, Md Daud MK, Sidek D, Abd Rahman N, Mansor S, Zakaria MN
    Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol, 2012 Sep;76(9):1366-9.
    PMID: 22770594 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2012.06.008
    OBJECTIVE: To identify the outcomes of hearing screening using different protocols of both Distortion Product Otoacoustic Emissions (DPOAE) and Automated Auditory Brainstem Response (AABR) tests in the same ear of the babies in a neonatal unit population.
    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out on babies who were admitted into a neonatal unit. By using a formula of single proportion and considering 20% drop out, the number of sample required was 114. The subjects were chosen by using a systematic random sampling. The infants selected were subjected to DPOAE followed by AABR tests screening at the same setting before discharge.
    RESULTS: There were 73 newborns (61.6% male and 38.4% female) participated in this study with a total of 146 ears screened. Ototoxic medication was the most common risk factor followed by hyperbilirubinaemia and low birth weight. AABR had higher passing rate (82.9%) as compared to DPOAE (77.4%). The highest passing rate was achieved if the protocol of either passed DPOAE or AABR was used (90.4%). The rate was lower when auditory neuropathy spectrum disorder (ANSD) has been considered (82.9%). Hyperbilirubinaemia, prematurity, craniofacial malformation and ototoxic drugs seem to be the high risk factors for auditory neuropathy.
    CONCLUSION: AABR has a higher passing rate as compared to DPOAE. However, the use of both instruments in the screening process especially in NICU will be useful to determine the infants with ANSD who may need different approach to management. Therefore, a protocol in which newborns are tested with AABR first and then followed by DPOAE on those who fail the AABR is recommended.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Abdul-Wahab, J., Naznin, M, Norlelawati, A.T., Amir Hamzah, A.R.
    Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) occurs in approximately 10% of neonates with Down syndrome. In most cases it resolves spontaneously. Life threatening complications such as cardiopulmonary and liver diseases have been described. We present here two cases which suggest that management of TAM in selected cases will have to be more aggressive.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Abdullah A, Long CW, Saim L, Mukari SZM
    Med J Malaysia, 2005 Mar;60(1):21-7.
    PMID: 16250276 MyJurnal
    Early identification and management of hearing impairment is very valuable. The goal standard measurement of hearing loss is by brainstem evoked response (BSER). This prospective study was conducted in Hospital University Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM) to determine the sensitivity and specificity of transient evoked otoacoustic emission (TEOAE) as a screening tool for hearing impairment from February 1999 to February 2000. One hundred and thirty-three newborns from postnatal ward and seventy-eight newborns from neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) were screened for possible hearing loss using portable TEOAE. This study showed that TEOAE is a very sensitive but moderately specific screening tool.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Abdullah A, Hazim MY, Almyzan A, Jamilah AG, Roslin S, Ann MT, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2006 Jan;47(1):60-4.
    PMID: 16397723
    This study aims to determine the prevalence of hearing loss among newborns delivered at Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia and to evaluate the usefulness of our hearing screening protocol.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Abdullah A, Wilfred R, Yusof ANM, Hashim WFW
    Int Tinnitus J, 2023 Dec 04;27(1):16-26.
    PMID: 38050880 DOI: 10.5935/0946-5448.20230004
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate hearing loss among very low birth weight babies in two hospitals in Malaysia.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 380 babies from Hospital Canselor Tuanku Muhriz (HCTM), Kuala Lumpur and Sarawak General Hospital (SGH) were recruited in this retrospective study. All babies with birthweight less than 1500grams nursed in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) between January 2014 till December 2019 was included in the study. Data was analysed on demography, interval taken for hearing intervention and defaulter rate. The data of patient parameters between both hospitals were analysed and association between various factors were evaluated.

    RESULTS: A total 187 Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) Kuala Lumpur babies and 193 VLBW Sarawak babies met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, among which 10.1% and 10.9% had SNHL in Kuala Lumpur and Sarawak respectively. CHL was reported among 8.6% Kuala Lumpur and 14% of Sarawak babies. When studied on the different types and degrees of hearing loss, 2.6% of Kuala Lumpur babies born less than 28 Weeks Gestation Age (WGA) had moderate SNHL and 2.0% of Sarawak babies had profound SNHL. In this study only gestational age (week) (p=0.003) and dysmorphism (p<0.001) were statistically significant to be associated with hearing loss.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of hearing loss among VLBW babies in Kuala Lumpur was 20.3% and 24.8% in Sarawak. Gestational age (p=0.044) and presence of dysmorphism (p<0.001) were found to have statistically significant association with prevalence of hearing loss. The defaulter rate at Kuala Lumpur was 52.6% and 42.3% in Sarawak.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Abdullah AA, Ramli N, Yaacob NM, Hussain S
    J ASEAN Fed Endocr Soc, 2022;37(2):15-22.
    PMID: 36578895 DOI: 10.15605/jafes.037.02.03
    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the proportion, clinical characteristics, hormonal status, median time for normalization of serum thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and factors affecting time to thyroid function test (TFT) normalization of neonates born to mothers with maternal hyperthyroidism admitted in our institution.

    METHODOLOGY: This was a retrospective cohort study that included 170 newborns admitted to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) with a history of maternal hyperthyroidism from January 2013 until December 2018. We analyzed their baseline demographic and clinical characteristics, maternal thyroid status and antibody levels. Finally, we analyzed newborn thyroid function and thyroid antibodies.

    RESULTS: The proportion of neonates born to mothers with maternal hyperthyroidism was 0.8% (170 of 20,198 neonates within the study period). Seven (4.1%) developed overt hyperthyroidism, while four (2.4%) had thyroid storm. The median time for thyroid function test normalization was 30 days (95% CI: 27.1 to 32.8). The median time for TFT normalization was longer among neonates of mothers with positive thyroid antibodies [46.6 days (95% CI, 20.6 to 39.4)] and of mothers who received anti-thyroid treatment [31.7 days (95% CI, 23.5 to 39.9)].

    CONCLUSION: Neonates born to mothers with hyperthyroidism is uncommon. These babies were observed to have a longer time for normalization of thyroid function tests if their mothers had thyroid antibodies or received anti-thyroid treatment.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Abdullah B, Hassan S, Salim R
    Malays J Med Sci, 2006 Jul;13(2):61-3.
    PMID: 22589606
    Choana atresia is a congenital abnormality of the posterior nasal apertures affecting the newborn. The aetiology is considered to be a persistence of the embroyological bucconasal membrane which separates the nasal cavity from the stomatodeum until it breaks down at seventh week, allowing communication through the primitive posterior nares. Bilateral choanal atresia almost always present as a respiratory emergency because newborn babies are obligate nasal breathers. The definitive surgical treatment is repair under general anaesthesia. We report our experience in doing a new technique of transnasal endoscopic repair.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Abdullah B, Muadz B, Norizal MN, Ismail N, Kornain NK, Kutty M
    PMID: 28494268 DOI: 10.1016/j.ejogrb.2017.05.002
    OBJECTIVE: To compare the pregnancy outcome and cord blood cotinine levels between secondhand smokers and non-secondhand smokers.

    STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional comparative study in a Malaysian tertiary obstetric hospital involving 200 non-smoking pregnant women at term, of whom 100 were secondhand smokers and 100 were non-secondhand smokers. Those with multiple pregnancies, with a body mass index (BMI) of more than 30kg/m2or who delivered by Caesarean section were excluded. The participants' basic demographic details, delivery details, neonatal outcome and placental weight were recorded. Umbilical cord blood samples were obtained, and cord blood cotinine levels were measured with a Cotinine ELISA kit. The primary outcomes were baby's birth weight, length, and head circumference, Apgar score at 5min and placental weight. The secondary outcome was difference in cord blood cotinine levels between the two groups and the correlation of these differences with the neonatal outcome.

    RESULTS: The secondhand smoker group had significantly lower baby weight (2.94±0.31kg vs 3.05±0.40kg), head circumference (30.87±2.35cm vs 37.13±2.36cm), length (46.58±1.95cm vs 51.53±2.05cm) and placental weight (520±73.5g vs 596±61.3g) and significantly higher cord blood cotinine levels (16.35±12.84ng/mL vs 0.56±0.22ng/mL). Cord blood cotinine levels had significant negative correlations with placental weight (r=-0.461), baby's weight (r=-0.297), baby's head circumference (r=-0.501) and baby's length (r=-0.374).

    CONCLUSION: Secondhand smoke increases the incidence of adverse pregnancy outcomes (newborns'anthropometric measurements and placental weight) and causes higher cord blood cotinine levels.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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