Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1753 in total

  1. Chen BC, McGown IN, Thong MK, Pitt J, Yunus ZM, Khoo TB, et al.
    J Inherit Metab Dis, 2010 Dec;33 Suppl 3:S159-62.
    PMID: 20177786 DOI: 10.1007/s10545-010-9056-z
    Most cases of adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL OMIM 103050) deficiency reported to date are confined to the various European ethnic groups. We report on the first Malaysian case of ADSL deficiency, which appears also to be the first reported Asian case. The case was diagnosed among a cohort of 450 patients with clinical features of psychomotor retardation, global developmental delay, seizures, microcephaly and/or autistic behaviour. The patient presented with frequent convulsions and severe myoclonic jerk within the first few days of life and severe psychomotor retardation. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the urine revealed the characteristic biochemical markers of succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinyl-aminoimidazole carboximide riboside (SAICAr). The urinary S-Ado/SAICAr ratio was found to be 1.02 (type I ADSL deficiency). The patient was compound heterozygous for two novel mutations, c.445C > G (p.R149G) and c.774_778insG (p.A260GfsX24).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Lin, Hai Peng, Mohd Sham Kasim
    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country with a very young population, about 36% of which are below the age of 15 years. The standard of child health has improved greatly. However, there are great changes in the morbidity and mortality patterns of childhood diseases relating mainly to an improved standard of living; availability of safe water supply and adequate sanitary latrines; a higher literacy rate; rapid industrialisation and urban migration. The infant mortality rate has droppedfrom 50.1 per 1,000 livebirths in 1986 to 10.4 in 1995, and similar trends apply also to neonatal, perinatal and toddler mortality rates. Nevertheless, current major child health problems are those relating to events in the perinatal period and to infections. Despite improvements in the standard of neonatal care with the use ofhigh technology, the commonest cause of certified deaths still occur in the neonatal period. A rapid and inexpensive screening test for G6PD deficiency, a disease present in 2-3% of the population, is now widely available and, together with the use of phototherapy is largely responsible for the declining incidence of kernicterus in the country. Infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality although their patterns have changed. The very high (>95%) WHO-EPI-vaccines coverage rate is linked to the great reduction in the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Childhood tuberculosis is less common now, with about 250 - 300 reported cases per year and TB meningitis is rare with about 30-40 reported cases/year. The hepatitis B carrier rate is high (5%) and the introduction of routine newborn hepatitis B vaccination in 1989 is expected to have a positive impact as is the immunisation of young girls against rubella introduced in 1985 in reducing the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. The incidence of malaria has declined but remains prevalent in the interiors of PeninsularMalaysia and in Sabah and Sarawak. Filariasis is largely under control. Unfortunately, despite great efforts at mosquito control, dengue virus infection remains a major problem with thousands of cases reported every year. Children are most susceptible to dengue haemorrhagic fever with many dying from the shock syndrome. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis has also dropped with most cases being due to a viral aetiology. Acute respiratory infections, mostly viral in origin, account for most attendances at paediatric outpatient services. Although staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo and pneumonia are common, the incidence of streptococcal related diseases like rheumatic fever and acute glomendonephritis is rapidly declining. The nutritional status of children has improved in tandem with the rise in the standard of living, but subclinical malnutrition is prevalent, particularly among urban squatters and the rural poor. There is a disturbing decline in breastfeeding among urban working mothers. Poor weaning practices and food habits are responsible for the common occurrence of nutritional anaemia (5%) among infants and young children. Greater prosperity, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in changes in the childhood disease pattern where non-communicable diseases assume greater importance as the problems of malnutrition and infection are gradually overcome. Road traffic accidents are a major killer and home accidents, largely preventable, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Childhood cancer, with about 550 new cases a year, is an important cause of death beyond infancy. Major congenital malformations, with a 1% prevalence rate, cause much ill-health. Thalassaemia is a particularly common genetic disease with fl thalassaemia gene frequency of about 5%. The prevalence of asthma is increasing, with a rate of 13.9% in the Kiang Valley but the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms is much higher. Physical, sexual child abuse and neglect, abandoned babies, substance abuse are but signs of stress of modern city living and peoples inability to cope with it. Although the general standard of child health has greatly improved, there are several states where it is still not satisfactory. In Sabah where there is a large illegal immigrant population, the infant mortality and infection rates are relatively high. In Kelantan and Trengganu, it is common for parents to refuse permission for a lumbar puncture required to treat meningitis. Other still deeply entrenched, culturally-related adverse health practices include : a fatalistic attitude to illness; a preference for traditional practitioners of medicine resulting in late treatment; and 'doctor-hopping' with unrealistic expectations of 'instant cure'. Childhood illnesses that are uncommon in Malaysia include: cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Encopresis, enuresis and epiglottitis due to Haemophilus Influen:ae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Stremenova Spegarova J, Lawless D, Mohamad SMB, Engelhardt KR, Doody G, Shrimpton J, et al.
    Blood, 2020 Aug 27;136(9):1055-1066.
    PMID: 32518946 DOI: 10.1182/blood.2020005844
    Molecular dissection of inborn errors of immunity can help to elucidate the nonredundant functions of individual genes. We studied 3 children with an immune dysregulation syndrome of susceptibility to infection, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, developmental delay, autoimmunity, and lymphoma of B-cell (n = 2) or T-cell (n = 1) origin. All 3 showed early autologous T-cell reconstitution following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. By whole-exome sequencing, we identified rare homozygous germline missense or nonsense variants in a known epigenetic regulator of gene expression: ten-eleven translocation methylcytosine dioxygenase 2 (TET2). Mutated TET2 protein was absent or enzymatically defective for 5-hydroxymethylating activity, resulting in whole-blood DNA hypermethylation. Circulating T cells showed an abnormal immunophenotype including expanded double-negative, but depleted follicular helper, T-cell compartments and impaired Fas-dependent apoptosis in 2 of 3 patients. Moreover, TET2-deficient B cells showed defective class-switch recombination. The hematopoietic potential of patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells was skewed toward the myeloid lineage. These are the first reported cases of autosomal-recessive germline TET2 deficiency in humans, causing clinically significant immunodeficiency and an autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome with marked predisposition to lymphoma. This disease phenotype demonstrates the broad role of TET2 within the human immune system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Jefferies JM, Mohd Yusof MY, Devi Sekaran S, Clarke SC
    PLoS One, 2014;9(6):e97912.
    PMID: 24941079 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097912
    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Al-Mekhlafi AM, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Azazy AA, Fong MY
    Parasit Vectors, 2011;4:94.
    PMID: 21619624 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-94
    Malaria remains a significant health problem in Yemen with Plasmodium falciparum being the predominant species which is responsible for 90% of the malaria cases. Despite serious concerns regarding increasing drug resistance, chloroquine is still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of choloroquine resistance (CQR) of P. falciparum isolated from Yemen based on the pfcrt T76 mutation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Ekman B, Pathmanathan I, Liljestrand J
    Lancet, 2008 Sep 13;372(9642):990-1000.
    PMID: 18790321 DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(08)61408-7
    For women and children, especially those who are poor and disadvantaged, to benefit from primary health care, they need to access and use cost-effective interventions for maternal, newborn, and child health. The challenge facing weak health systems is how to deliver such packages. Experiences from countries such as Iran, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, and China, and from projects in countries like Tanzania and India, show that outcomes in maternal, newborn, and child health can be improved through integrated packages of cost-effective health-care interventions that are implemented incrementally in accordance with the capacity of health systems. Such packages should include community-based interventions that act in combination with social protection and intersectoral action in education, infrastructure, and poverty reduction. Interventions need to be planned and implemented at the district level, which requires strengthening of district planning and management skills. Furthermore, districts need to be supported by national strategies and policies, and, in the case of the least developed countries, also by international donors and other partners. If packages for maternal, newborn and child health care can be integrated within a gradually strengthened primary health-care system, continuity of care will be improved, including access to basic referral care before and during pregnancy, birth, the postpartum period, and throughout childhood.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Wong SL, Soosai P, Teoh YL, Han HH, Lefevre I, Bock HL
    PMID: 18564687
    Malaysian infants would have to receive nine injections during the first few months of life in order to be protected against disease caused by hepatitis B (HBV), diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) if single HBV and Hib vaccines were used. We evaluated a combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine administered at 1.5, 3 and 5 months after a birth dose of hepatitis B vaccine (HBV). One month after completion of the primary vaccination, 99% of subjects had seroprotective anti-HBV antibody levels, and at least 98% had seroprotective antibodies against diphtheria, tetanus, and Hib, and were seropositive for pertussis antibodies. The immune response to the combined vaccine was comparable to that induced by separate injections with DTPw, HBV and Hib vaccines. Overall, the DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine was as well tolerated as separate administration of DTPw, HBV and Hib vaccines. The combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine induces protection against five diseases as recommended in the Malaysian routine vaccination schedule. Use of the combined DTPw-HBV/Hib vaccine can reduce the required number of injections from nine to four in the first few months of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Lee WS
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2008 Jan;44(1-2):57-61.
    PMID: 17640283
    To study factors leading to delayed referral in neonatal cholestasis at a tertiary centre in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. ESRD Incidence Study Group, Stewart JH, McCredie MR, Williams SM
    Nephrol Dial Transplant, 2006 Aug;21(8):2178-83.
    PMID: 16595584
    Only unbiased estimates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence and trends are useful for disease control-identification of risk factors and measuring the effect of intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Wong CS, Cheah FC
    J Pediatr Surg, 2012 Dec;47(12):2336-40.
    PMID: 23217901 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.029
    Cephalhematoma is normally a self-limiting condition affecting 1%-2% of live births, especially following instrumental forceps delivery. The sub-periosteal bleed is characteristically limited by the cranial sutures. Although benign in most instances, this condition may, in a small proportion of cases, be complicated by hyperbilirubinemia or scalp infection. We describe a case of cephalhematoma in a newborn infant infected with Escherichia coli resulting in an extensive deep seated scalp abscess. The infection was also systemic causing E. coli septicemia and initial assessment assumed local extension including bone and meningeal to cause skull osteomyelitis and meningitis respectively. Further investigations and multiple-modality imaging with ultrasound, CT scan and bone scintigraphy outlined the involvement as limited to the scalp, resulting in a shorter antibiotic treatment period and earlier discharge from hospital. The infant recovered well with parenteral antibiotics, saucerization of the abscess and a later skin grafting procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. David P, Subramaniam K
    PMID: 16228975
    Extensive research on prenatal alcohol exposure has proven the potent teratogenicity of this substance of abuse. Children born to alcoholic mothers are often diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Those afflicted with FAS often have muscle weakness, muscle wasting, and atrophy. This study assessed the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing rat neuromuscular system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Suhaimi MES, Desa MNM, Eskandarian N, Pillay SG, Ismail Z, Neela VK, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 Jan-Feb;10(1):14-21.
    PMID: 27095302 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.01.009
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize GBS isolates that were collected from three major hospitals in a densely populated area of Klang Valley for their demographics, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genetic background.

    METHODS: Sixty GBS isolates from sterile and non-sterile samples in three major hospitals in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia were collected by convenience sampling from 2012 until March 2014. These isolates were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, serotypes and genotypes. Patients' demographic data and clinical information were collected from lab request forms.

    RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was the only underlying condition (7 patients, 23.3%); the remaining samples were from patients who were immunocompromised due to medications. Fifty-nine (98%) isolates were sensitive to penicillin, while 78.3% and 88.3% of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Serotype Ia was the most common serotype (n=27, 45%), followed by serotype III (n=10, 16.7%), V (n=9, 15%), VI (n=8, 13.3%), VIII (n=2, 3.3%) and VII (n=1, 1.7%). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing showed a diverse genetic pedigree for all isolates, including four major groups that clustered according to geographical location.

    CONCLUSION: This preliminary study determines the prevalence of limited common serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in distinct GBS isolates. Nonetheless, the RAPD clustering pattern suggests a close genetic lineage of the GBS isolates based on their isolation sites and location of hospitals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Lai NM, Taylor JE, Tan K, Choo YM, Ahmad Kamar A, Muhamad NA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 Mar 23;3:CD011082.
    PMID: 27007217 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011082.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters (CVCs) provide secured venous access in neonates. Antimicrobial dressings applied over the CVC sites have been proposed to reduce catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) by decreasing colonisation. However, there may be concerns on the local and systemic adverse effects of these dressings in neonates.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effectiveness and safety of antimicrobial (antiseptic or antibiotic) dressings in reducing CVC-related infections in newborn infants. Had there been relevant data, we would have evaluated the effects of antimicrobial dressings in different subgroups, including infants who received different types of CVCs, infants who required CVC for different durations, infants with CVCs with and without other antimicrobial modifications, and infants who received an antimicrobial dressing with and without a clearly defined co-intervention.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (EBCHOST), CINAHL and references cited in our short-listed articles using keywords and MeSH headings, up to September 2015.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared an antimicrobial CVC dressing against no dressing or another dressing in newborn infants.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of the CNRG. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using risk difference (RD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    MAIN RESULTS: Out of 173 articles screened, three studies were included. There were two comparisons: chlorhexidine dressing following alcohol cleansing versus polyurethane dressing following povidone-iodine cleansing (one study); and silver-alginate patch versus control (two studies). A total of 855 infants from level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were evaluated, 705 of whom were from a single study. All studies were at high risk of bias for blinding of care personnel or unclear risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors. There was moderate-quality evidence for all major outcomes.The single study comparing chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing against polyurethane dressing/povidone-iodine cleansing showed no significant difference in the risk of CRBSI (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.65; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.03; 655 infants, moderate-quality evidence) and sepsis without a source (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.52; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.06; 705 infants, moderate-quality evidence). There was a significant reduction in the risk of catheter colonisation favouring chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.86; RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.03; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 11, 95% CI 7 to 33; 655 infants, moderate-quality evidence). However, infants in the chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing group were significantly more likely to develop contact dermatitis, with 19 infants in the chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing group having developed contact dermatitis compared to none in the polyurethane dressing/povidone-iodine cleansing group (RR 43.06, 95% CI 2.61 to 710.44; RD 0.06, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 17, 95% CI 13 to 33; 705 infants, moderate-quality evidence). The roles of chlorhexidine dressing in the outcomes reported were unclear, as the two assigned groups received different co-interventions in the form of different skin cleansing agents prior to catheter insertion and during each dressing change.In the other comparison, silver-alginate patch versus control, the data for CRBSI were analysed separately in two subgroups as the two included studies reported the outcome using different denominators: one using infants and another using catheters. There were no significant differences between infants who received silver-alginate patch against infants who received standard line dressing in CRBSI, whether expressed as the number of infants (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.78; RD -0.12, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09; 1 study, 50 participants, moderate-quality evidence) or as the number of catheters (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.89; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.10; 1 study, 118 participants, moderate-quality evidence). There was also no significant difference between the two groups in mortality (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.05; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.05; two studies, 150 infants, I² = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). No adverse skin reaction was recorded in either group.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on moderate-quality evidence, chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol skin cleansing reduced catheter colonisation, but made no significant difference in major outcomes like sepsis and CRBSI compared to polyurethane dressing/povidone-iodine cleansing. Chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing posed a substantial risk of contact dermatitis in preterm infants, although it was unclear whether this was contributed mainly by the dressing material or the cleansing agent. While silver-alginate patch appeared safe, evidence is still insufficient for a recommendation in practice. Future research that evaluates antimicrobial dressing should ensure blinding of caregivers and outcome assessors and ensure that all participants receive the same co-interventions, such as the skin cleansing agent. Major outcomes like sepsis, CRBSI and mortality should be assessed in infants of different gestation and birth weight.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Chan PW, Lok FY, Khatijah SB
    PMID: 12757230
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a common infection in young children and may result in hospitalization. We examined the incidence of, and risk factors associated with, hypoxemia and respiratory failure in 216 children aged < 24 months admitted consecutively for proven RSV bronchiolitis. Hypoxemia was defined as SpO2 < 90% in room air and severe RSV bronchiolitis requiring intubation and ventilation was categorized as respiratory failure. Corrected age at admission was used for premature children (gestation < 37 weeks). Hypoxemia was suffered by 31 (14.3%) children. It was more likely to occur in children who were Malay (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.05-6.23, p=0.03) or premature (OR 6.72, 95%CI 2.69-16.78, p<0.01). Hypoxemia was also more likely to develop in children with failure to thrive (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.28-6.82, p<0.01). The seven (3.2%) children who were both premature (OR 11.94, 95%CI 2.50-56.99, p<0.01) and failure to thrive (OR 6.41, 95%CI 1.37-29.87, p=0.02) were more likely to develop respiratory failure. Prematurity was the only significant risk factor for hypoxemia and respiratory failure by logistic regression analysis (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.55, p<0.01 and OR 1.14 95%CI 1.02-2.07, p=0.02 respectively). Prematurity was the single most important risk factor for both hypoxemia and respiratory failure in RSV bronchiolitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Chye JK, Lim CT, Leong HL, Wong PK
    Ann Acad Med Singap, 1999 Mar;28(2):193-8.
    PMID: 10497665
    This study aims to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. All premature VLBW infants, admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit of the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur, were screened from 4 weeks of life. Perinatal and neonatal data were retrieved from the infants' medical notes. Between August 1994 and July 1996, 100 infants had their eyes examined serially. Of the 15 (15%) infants with ROP, all were less than 31 weeks gestation, and only 1 infant had birth weight above 1250 g. Five (5%) infants had severe ROP; 4 infants underwent cryotherapy for stage 3 threshold disease. Infants with ROP, as compared to infants without ROP, had lower birth weight [mean (SEM) 993 (50) g versus 1205 (22) g, P < 0.001], lower gestational age [mean (SEM) 28.0 (0.4) weeks versus 30.1 (0.2) weeks, P < 0.001], higher rates of patent ductus arteriosus and chronic lung disease, greater number of radiographic examinations and episodes of late-onset suspected/confirmed sepsis, and required longer duration of supplemental oxygen, ventilation, xanthine, antibiotics and intralipid use, but were slower to establish full enteral feeds. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, birth weight < or = 1000 g [OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.25, 4.55, P = 0.009] and gestational age < or = 28 weeks [OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.47, 5.56, P = 0.002] were significant predictors of increased risk of this disease. In conclusion, ROP is strongly associated with smaller, more immature and sicker neonates. Prevention of prematurity would help reduce the incidence of this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Lee WS, Chong LA, Begum S, Abdullah WA, Koh MT, Lim EJ
    J Pediatr Hematol Oncol, 2001 May;23(4):244-6.
    PMID: 11846304
    We report a newborn infant girl, born to consanguineous parents, with recurrent intracranial hemorrhage secondary to congenital factor V deficiency with factor V inhibitor. Repeated transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates, administrations of immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone and cyclophosphamide), and intravenous immunoglobulin failed to normalize the coagulation profiles. Exchange transfusion followed-up by administrations of activated prothrombin complex and transfusions of FFP and platelet concentrates caused a temporary normalization of coagulation profile, enabling an insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for progressive hydrocephalus. The treatment was complicated by thrombosis of left brachial artery and ischemia of left middle finger. The child finally died from another episode of intracranial hemorrhage 10 days after insertion of the VP shunt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Ho JJ, Amar HS, Mohan AJ, Hon TH
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):175-80.
    PMID: 10365356
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental handicap at 2 years of age in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) admitted in 1993 to a level 3 Malaysian nursery.

    METHODS: All VLBW babies born in the hospital or referred for neonatal care during 1993 were enrolled prospectively in the study. At 2 years of age development was assessed using the Griffiths mental scales. Neurological, hearing and visual assessments were graded into five groups according to functional handicap. Control infants were randomly selected during attendance at a primary health care clinic.

    RESULTS: One hundred and fifty VLBW infants were admitted and 82 (54.6%) survived to 2 years, of whom 77 (93.9%) were assessed. The mean General Quotient (GQ) on the Griffiths Scales was 94 (15.7) for the study group and 104 (8.3) for the 60 controls. For GQ, 21 (27.3%) of the study population were 1 or more SD below the mean (18 between 1 and 2 SD and 3 > 2 SD) compared with 1 (1.6%) of the controls who was 1-2 SD below the mean. Visual impairment occurred in 2 study infants and none of the controls. There was no hearing impairment in either group. Cerebral palsy occurred in 3 (1 mild and 2 moderate-severe) of the study group and none of the controls. Functionally 18 (23.3%) of the study group had mild handicap, 1 (1.3%) moderate, 2 (2.5%) severe, 2 (2.5%) multiply severe and 54 (70.2%) were normal.

    CONCLUSION: Although survival was low, overall rates of functional handicap were similar to those reported in developed countries but the proportion with moderate or severe handicap was low.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Choo KE, Davis TM, Ismail A, Ong KH
    Am J Trop Med Hyg, 1997 Dec;57(6):656-9.
    PMID: 9430522
    The objective of this study was to investigate the longevity of positive dot enzyme immunosorbent assay (dot EIA) results for IgM and IgG to a Salmonella typhi outer membrane protein in Malaysian children with enteric fever. The patients were children one month to 12 years of age with clinical evidence of typhoid fever, positive blood or stool cultures for S. typhi, and/or a positive Widal test result who were admitted over a two-year period to General Hospital (Kota Bharu, Malaysia). These patients received standard inpatient treatment for enteric fever including chloramphenicol therapy for 14 days. Dot EIA tests were performed as part of clinical and laboratory assessments on admission, at two weeks, and then at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months postdischarge. Assessment of the longevity of positive dot EIA IgM and IgG titers was done by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In 94 evaluable patients, 28% were dot EIA IgM positive but IgG negative on admission, 50% were both IgM and IgG positive, and 22% were IgM negative and IgG positive. Mean persistence of IgM dot EIA positivity was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval = 2.0-3.1 months) and that of IgG was 5.4 months (4.5-6.3 months). There were no significant differences between the three subgroups. Thus, positive IgM and IgG results determined by dot EIA within four and seven months, respectively, following documented or suspected enteric fever in a child from an endemic area should be interpreted with caution. In other clinical situations, the dot EIA remains a rapid and reliable aid to diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Kasim MS, Cheah I, Shafie HM
    Child Abuse Negl, 1995 Jul;19(7):847-54.
    PMID: 7583742
    This paper gives a detailed account of 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse, detected by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) team, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. They consisted of 12 Malays, 6 Chinese, 9 Indian, and 1 Indonesian child. Three cases could not be ascertained as to their ethnic origin. There were 13 male and 17 female children. The average age of the abused children was 2 years 5 months. The most frequent causes of death were intracranial hemorrhage and intraabdominal trauma. Of the 17 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, only four had X-ray evidence of skull fracture. This suggests the possibility of whiplash injuries with/without the abuser suspecting that he/she had injured the child. Of the 22 abusers who could be identified, there was no sex differentiation. Fathers formed the largest group of perpetrators, followed by mothers and childminders. Fifteen of the natural parents of the abused children were married, four were divorced and four were never married. Five of the abusers had aggressive personalities and three were drug addicts. Only one abuser was found to be an alcoholic even though a few were also under suspicion. For most cases, trigger factors could not be identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Lim NL, Nordin MM, Cheah IG
    Med J Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):4-11.
    PMID: 8057989
    An open prospective descriptive pilot study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness and experience in the use of ExosurfNeonatal, a synthetic surfactant, on preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome in the neonatal intensive care unit of the Paediatric Institute. Of 10 infants treated, seven (70%) survived with no major handicap on discharge. The mean duration of ventilation for these survivors was 6.4 days, mean duration of oxygen therapy 9.1 days and mean length of hospital stay 38.3 days. A comparison was made with a retrospective analysis of 15 neonates who were admitted during an eight month period prior to the pilot study. These infants were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome but not given surfactant therapy. Of these, nine (60%) survived (P > 0.1 compared to Exosurf treated infants), but two developed post haemorrhagic hydrocephalus requiring shunting. For these nine survivors, the mean duration of ventilator therapy was 12.6 days, the mean duration of oxygen therapy 20.7 days and the mean length of hospital stay 70.8 days. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Of the three ExosurfNeonatal treated infants who died, two were extremely premature. Both developed grade IV periventricular haemorrhage while the third infant was admitted in shock and hypothermia and died from intraventricular haemorrhage and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Except for the very sick and extremely premature infants, surfactant therapy is useful in reducing the mortality and morbidity of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome in our neonatal intensive unit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links