Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1425 in total

  1. van Vliet E, Dijkema GH, Schuit E, Heida KY, Roos C, van der Post J, et al.
    BJOG, 2016 Oct;123(11):1753-60.
    PMID: 27550838 DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.14249
    BACKGROUND: Preterm birth is the leading cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Whether continued tocolysis after 48 hours of rescue tocolysis improves neonatal outcome is unproven.

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of maintenance tocolytic therapy with oral nifedipine on the reduction of adverse neonatal outcomes and the prolongation of pregnancy by performing an individual patient data meta-analysis (IPDMA).

    SEARCH STRATEGY: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases for randomised controlled trials of maintenance tocolysis therapy with nifedipine in preterm labour.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We selected trials including pregnant women between 24 and 36(6/7)  weeks of gestation (gestational age, GA) with imminent preterm labour who had not delivered after 48 hours of initial tocolysis, and compared maintenance nifedipine tocolysis with placebo/no treatment.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: The primary outcome was perinatal mortality. Secondary outcome measures were intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC), infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS), prolongation of pregnancy, GA at delivery, birthweight, neonatal intensive care unit admission, and number of days on ventilation support. Pre-specified subgroup analyses were performed.

    MAIN RESULTS: Six randomised controlled trials were included in this IPDMA, encompassing data from 787 patients (n = 390 for nifedipine; n = 397 for placebo/no treatment). There was no difference between the groups for the incidence of perinatal death (risk ratio, RR 1.36; 95% confidence interval, 95% CI 0.35-5.33), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) ≥ grade II (RR 0.65; 95% CI 0.16-2.67), necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) (RR 1.15; 95% CI 0.50-2.65), infant respiratory distress syndrome (IRDS) (RR 0.98; 95% CI 0.51-1.85), and prolongation of pregnancy (hazard ratio, HR 0.74; 95% CI 0.55-1.01).

    CONCLUSION: Maintenance tocolysis is not associated with improved perinatal outcome and is therefore not recommended for routine practice.

    TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Nifedipine maintenance tocolysis is not associated with improved perinatal outcome or pregnancy prolongation.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/mortality; Infant, Newborn, Diseases/prevention & control
  2. de Azevedo JP, Nascimento LR, Cortinovis MC, Oliveira SS, da Costa EV, da Silva EE
    J. Clin. Virol., 2004 Dec;31(4):248-52.
    PMID: 15494264 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2004.04.007
    BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses are classified into six species, A-F, and 51 serotypes are recognized. Adenoviruses can cause a broad range of diseases. Serotypes 3, 7 and 21 are most commonly associated with CNS disease. Serotype 21 (specie B) was isolated from brain tissue and CSF of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Malaysia.
    OBJECTIVES: Characterize, by molecular methods, species B adenoviruses isolated from poliomyelitis-suspected cases and investigate the possible etiological role of adenoviruses in acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).
    STUDY DESIGN: 622 virus isolates, including Sabin-related polioviruses, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) and adenoviruses, were recovered from fecal specimens in our laboratory during the period of 1997-2002 from AFP cases occurring in Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Negative controls consisted of 528 fecal specimens collected from healthy children <==5 of age. Of these, 478 were contacts of AFP negative cases and 50 were from a day-care center.
    RESULTS: Sixty-four adenovirus strains isolated in HEp2 (human laryngeal tumor cells) cells were confirmed as such by an adenovirus-group specific PCR. Nucleotide sequencing identified the following adenovirus species: A (3 isolates), B (20 isolates), C (38 isolates), D (2 isolates) and E (1 isolate). The following serotypes belonging to the species B were identified: Ad3 (1 strain), Ad7 (17 strains) and, Ad16 (2 strains).
    CONCLUSION: Other viral agents became more recognized in association with CNS diseases in areas where wild polioviruses have been eradicated. The possible role of species B adenoviruses in the etiology of AFP cases similar to that caused by wild poliovirus is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. al-Mohdzar SA, Haque E, Abdullah WA
    Asia Oceania J Obstet Gynaecol, 1993 Dec;19(4):401-5.
    PMID: 8135673
    Hospital University Sains Malaysia (HUSM) functions as the state referral centre and the only hospital for the state of Kelantan that can offer neonatal intensive care service. The deliveries in HUSM with grand multiparity, late booking and problems of late referrals resembles a hospital serving a semiurban rather than an urban community. A comparison between the year 1989 and 1991 showed marked improvement of perinatal mortality rate from 41.32 to 24.88, which is significantly better than the improvement achieved from 1987 to 1989 (46.0 to 41.32). This was possible due to a marked fall in the early neonatal mortality rate from 10.02 in 1989 to 5.45 in 1991 and fall in the stillbirth rate from 31.61 to 19.53.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Zurina Z, Rohani A, Neela V, Norlijah O
    PMID: 23413711
    Group B beta-hemolytic streptococcus (GBS) sepsis is a serious bacterial infection in neonates, with significant morbidity and mortality. We report here a neonate with late onset GBS infection manifesting as a urinary tract infection (UTI) in an infant presenting with prolonged neonatal jaundice. The pathogenesis of this late onset is postulated.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Zulkipli MS, Dahlui M, Jamil N, Peramalah D, Wai HVC, Bulgiba A, et al.
    PLoS Negl Trop Dis, 2018 02;12(2):e0006263.
    PMID: 29415036 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0006263
    BACKGROUND: Severe dengue infection often has unpredictable clinical progressions and outcomes. Obesity may play a role in the deterioration of dengue infection due to stronger body immune responses. Several studies found that obese dengue patients have a more severe presentation with a poorer prognosis. However, the association was inconclusive due to the variation in the results of earlier studies. Therefore, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to explore the relationship between obesity and dengue severity.

    METHODS: We performed a systematic search of relevant studies on Ovid (MEDLINE), EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Scopus and grey literature databases. At least two authors independently conducted the literature search, selecting eligible studies, and extracting data. Meta-analysis using random-effects model was conducted to compute the pooled odds ratio with 95% confidence intervals (CI).

    FINDINGS: We obtained a total of 13,333 articles from the searches. For the final analysis, we included a total of fifteen studies among pediatric patients. Three cohort studies, two case-control studies, and one cross-sectional study found an association between obesity and dengue severity. In contrast, six cohort studies and three case-control studies found no significant relationship between obesity and dengue severity. Our meta-analysis revealed that there was 38 percent higher odds (Odds Ratio = 1.38; 95% CI:1.10, 1.73) of developing severe dengue infection among obese children compared to non-obese children. We found no heterogeneity found between studies. The differences in obesity classification, study quality, and study design do not modify the association between obesity and dengue severity.

    CONCLUSION: This review found that obesity is a risk factor for dengue severity among children. The result highlights and improves our understanding that obesity might influence the severity of dengue infection.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Zulkifli SN, U KM, Yusof K, Lin WY
    Asia Pac J Public Health, 1994;7(3):151-8.
    PMID: 7794653 DOI: 10.1177/101053959400700302
    This paper describes selected maternal and child health indicators based on a cross-sectional study of citizens and migrants in Sabah, Malaysia. A total of 1,515 women were interviewed from a multi-stage random sample of households in eight urban centers. Among the 1,411 women in the sample who had experienced a pregnancy before, 76% were local citizens and 24% were migrants. There were statistically significant differences between citizens and migrants in ethnicity, religion, education, household income, and access to treated water supply and sanitary toilet facilities. Significantly fewer migrants practiced any form of contraception and obtained any antenatal care during any pregnancy. Furthermore, citizens tended to initiate care as early as three months but migrants as late as seven months. Despite these differences, only the infant mortality rate, and not pregnancy wastage, was statistically significantly higher among migrants. Pregnancy interval was also similar between the two groups. The influence of several socioeconomic factors on pregnancy wastage and infant mortality was explored.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Zulkifli SN, Yusof K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1985 Jun;40(2):62-79.
    PMID: 3834289
    A 70 million population for Malaysia by the year 2010 has been officially targetted for in the Mid-Term Review of the Fourth Malaysia Plan, 1981-1985. In response to this, a preliminary investigation was undertaken into the health aspects of population growth. For this exercise, infant mortality rate was used as the health indicator. From trends seen vis-a-vis population growth, it appears that thus far, population growth has not been associated negatively with health (as measured by IMR). In recognition of the relevance of the medical, economic and education factors to health, trends in Malaysia's population ratio, per capita GNP and rates of school enrolment were also drawn; the selection of these as proxies being based on completeness of time-serial records. Although statistical regressions established the high correlation between medical doctors.population ratio and school enrolment rate with IMR, the limitations in this analysis did not permit any reliable inferences. In view of the difficulties in projections of trends, a comparison of health and related variables was carried out for several countries with high populations as near to 70 million as were available. The characteristics associated with low mortality and high life expectancy (health indices) were identified as low population growth, high literacy and high per capita GNP; this being stated with explicit qualifications. Other determinants of health were also discussed in brief, and the need for careful planning in the distribution of human and material resources was noted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Zulkifli SN, Yusof K
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1986 Dec;41(4):292-9.
    PMID: 3670150
    This paper describes the findings of a survey on perinatal cases in Kuala Lumpur. Information on the deceased infants and their deliveries were documented as well as selected social, demographic and anthropometric data on the mothers. This includes quality of the home environment in terms of presence of basic amenities. It was evident that the lower classes were better represented in the sample.
    This paper also highlights a major problem in retrospective studies, that of successfully tracing eligible respondents. There were also cases of non-cooperation. Another problem which emerged, and one common to many developing countries, was the incompleteness of birth weight records.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Zulkifli A, Ng WH, Chelvam P, Pillay RP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1979 Sep;34(1):55-6.
    PMID: 317347
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Zhang L, Tao Y, Woodring J, Rattana K, Sovannarith S, Rathavy T, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2019 08 01;48(4):1327-1339.
    PMID: 30879066 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz037
    BACKGROUND: The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission (EMTCT) of HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018-30 was endorsed by the Regional Committee of WHO Western Pacific in October 2017, proposing an integrated and coordinated approach to achieve elimination in an efficient, coordinated and sustainable manner. This study aims to assess the population impacts and cost-effectiveness of this integrated approach in the Cambodian context.

    METHODS: Based on existing frameworks for the EMTCT for each individual infection, an integrated framework that combines infection prevention procedures with routine antenatal care was constructed. Using decision tree analyses, population impacts, cost-effectiveness and the potential reduction in required resources of the integrated approach as a result of resource pooling and improvements in service coverage and coordination, were evaluated. The tool was assessed using simulated epidemiological data from Cambodia.

    RESULTS: The current prevention programme for 370,000 Cambodian pregnant women was estimated at USD$2.3 ($2.0-$2.5) million per year, including the duration of pregnancy and up to 18 months after delivery. A model estimate of current MTCT rates in Cambodia was 6.6% (6.2-7.1%) for HIV, 14.1% (13.1-15.2%) for HBV and 9.4% (9.0-9.8%) for syphilis. Integrating HIV and syphilis prevention into the existing antenatal care framework will reduce the total time required to provide this integrated care by 19% for health care workers and by 32% for pregnant women, resulting in a net saving of $380,000 per year for the EMTCT programme. This integrated approach reduces HIV and HBV MTCT to 6.1% (5.7-6.5%) and 13.0% (12.1-14.0%), respectively, and substantially reduces syphilis MCTC to 4.6% (4.3-5.0%). Further introduction of either antiviral treatment for pregnant women with high viral load of HBV, or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) to exposed newborns, will increase the total cost of EMTCT to $4.4 ($3.6-$5.2) million and $3.3 ($2.7-$4.0) million per year, respectively, but substantially reduce HBV MTCT to 3.5% (3.2-3.8%) and 5.0% (4.6-5.5%), respectively. Combining both antiviral and HBIG treatments will further reduce HBV MTCT to 3.4% (3.1-3.7%) at an increased total cost of EMTCT of $4.5 ($3.7-$5.4) million per year. All these HBV intervention scenarios are highly cost-effective ($64-$114 per disability-adjusted life years averted) when the life benefits of these prevention measures are considered.

    CONCLUSIONS: The integrated approach, using antenatal, perinatal and postnatal care as a platform in Cambodia for triple EMTCT of HIV, HBV and syphilis, is highly cost-effective and efficient.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Zarina L, Hamidah A, Rohana J, Faraizah AK, Noryati AA, Jamal R, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2004 Jun;26(1):65-7.
    PMID: 16190109
    Factor VII deficiency is a rare congenital blood disorder. Its clinical features are rather variable and ranges from epistaxis to massive intracranial haemorrhage. Treatment involves replacement therapy, which constitutes use of fresh frozen plasma, prothrombin complex concentrates or recombinant activated factor VII. Although it is a rare entity, one still needs to consider it as a probable diagnosis in a newborn with coagulopathy. We report here a case of Factor VII deficiency in a newborn who presented with subdural haemorrhage at day 4 of life.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Zarina AL, Rahmah R, Bador KM, Ng SF, Wu LL
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Oct;63(4):325-8.
    PMID: 19385494 MyJurnal
    Newborn screening for congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was implemented in Hospital UKM in December 2004 using cord blood sample. From the audit over a period of 25 months, a total of 13,875 newborn babies were screened with a coverage of 98.8%. From this cohort, the mean recall rate was 0.32%; unfortunately the mean percentage of recalled babies that came for retesting was only 79.5%. In addition, the mean sample rejection rate was high, i.e. 2.2%. Two babies were diagnosed to have CH. These findings implied that whilst the coverage of screening was good, there is a need for regular surveillance of performance of both clinical and laboratory personnel. In addition, a more concerted effort should be carried out to promote community awareness of such a programme.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Zarina AL, Hamidah A, Yong SC, Rohana J, Hamidah NH, Azma RZ, et al.
    Malays J Pathol, 2007 Dec;29(2):107-11.
    PMID: 19108403 MyJurnal
    Transient abnormal myelopoeisis (TAM) is a haematological phenomenon commonly seen in newborns with Down syndrome. Although the majority show spontaneous resolution, this condition should not be dismissed too readily as there have been associated fatalities. Furthermore, even for those who do show spontaneous resolution, a significant percentage will develop acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia within the next few years of life. We report a series of four patients with TAM who presented with hepatosplenomegaly and leucocytosis detected on preliminary investigations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Zarina AL, Jamil MA, Ng SP, Rohana J, Yong SC, Salwati S, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Jun;61(2):260-2.
    PMID: 16898328 MyJurnal
    Recurrent spontaneous abortion, defined as three consecutive abortions, occurs in approximately 1% to 2% of couples. Although the cause is unknown in up to 50% of cases, about 5% of these couples are found to be a balanced translocation carrier. We report a case in which the mother was identified to be a translocation carrier following the birth of a baby with multiple congenital abnormalities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Zakria NM, Tengku Ismail TA, Wan Mansor WNA, Sulaiman Z
    PMID: 31213022 DOI: 10.3390/ijerph16122147
    The validation of a new questionnaire is essential to improving its credibility in the assessment and collection of evidence. This study aimed to validate a newly developed infant and young child feeding questionnaire for child care providers (IYCF-CCPQ) to measure the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding infant and young child feeding among them. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 200 child care providers who were involved in handling children less than two years old in child care centers in the northeastern part of Peninsular Malaysia. The IYCF-CCPQ was self-administered and consists of three domains: Knowledge (104 items), attitude (90 items), and practice (42 items). The dichotomous-scale items in the knowledge domain were analyzed using a two-parameter logistic model of item response theory (2-PL IRT). The Likert-type-scale items in the attitude section were assessed using exploratory factor analysis (EFA). The items in the practice section were assessed descriptively. Internal consistency by marginal reliability was assessed in the knowledge domain, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used for the attitude domain. The marginal reliability values were 0.91 and 0.74 for the knowledge domains related to breastfeeding/formula feeding and complementary feeding, respectively, and the Cronbach's alpha values were 0.89 and 0.90 for the attitude domains related to breastfeeding/formula feeding and complementary feeding, respectively. The analysis showed good psychometric properties (discrimination, difficulty index, factor loading, and communalities) and good reliability. The IYCF-CCPQ is valid for use assessing the knowledge, attitudes, and practices among Malaysian child care providers regarding infant and young child feeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Zakiah I, Ashikin YN, Aisiah SM, Ismail HI
    PMID: 8629092
    The Malaysian level of health care has greatly improved so that many of the infectious diseases are now under control. However, perinatal death or death due to unknown childhood diseases remains high (10.3%) being second on the list of causes of death amongst Malaysians. Could inborn metabolic diseases be the main cause of death among these children? Recently, with our success in the development of confirmatory techniques for amino acid disorders using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), we have examined 404 samples received from all over the country in 1993. Each specimen with abnormal findings from screening tests by one-dimensional thin layer chromatography was confirmed using HPLC. 41% had generalized aminoacidurias and 4.2% had maple syrup urine disease (MSUD). Patients were aged between 11 days to 6 years. Most of them were Malay males and presented with a history suggestive of MSUD. With this preliminary finding, further studies will be carried out in order to have an investigation and management protocol for the diseases and more importantly to formulate a strategy of screening for the country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Zakiah I, Zaini AR, Jamilah B, Zawiah A
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Dec;14(2):91-4.
    PMID: 1304630
    Over a three-year-period, 310 babies with prolonged jaundice admitted to GHKL were studied, to determine the incidence of alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency as a cause of the problem. Ninety-two babies (29.7%) were found to be alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient. The percentage incidence was found to be highest in Indians (33.3%), followed by Malays (31.9%) and Chinese (26.7%). There was a male preponderance with a M:F ratio of 1.6:1. Most of these babies presented at the hospital at the age of more than two weeks but less than one month. Apart from the problem of prolonged jaundice and alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency, 2 had associated bleeding problems, 11 associated infections and 3 respiratory problems. Two babies had clinical features of Down's syndrome, 2 had G6PD deficiency and 1 had congenital hypothyroidism. AST, ALT and ALPO4 were high in 20, 26 and 3 babies respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Zainur Rashid, Z., Sharifah Sulaiha, S.A., Darnina, A.J.
    Varicella or chickenpox is an infectious disease caused by Varicella Zoster Virus (VZV), which commonly affects the children. It is a mild, self-limiting disease and rarely complicate to serious conditions except in adults. Decreasing incidence of chickenpox among children, probably owing to improved living conditions ,prevention and health care, is worrisome as growing number of adults are being infected. This creates disturbing concerns in many parties as women at childbearing age might get infected and not only are them at a great risk of serious complications, but also their unborn fetus or their newborn babies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Zainun K, Hope K, Nicholson AG, Cohen MC
    Pediatr. Dev. Pathol., 2017 Jan-Feb;20(1):49-53.
    PMID: 28276303 DOI: 10.1177/1093526616689311
    Abnormal muscularization of acinar arteries is the hallmark of persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn (PPHN), an uncommon disease with high rate of morbidity and mortality. PPHN presents with signs of respiratory distress immediately following birth. We herein report 2 cases presenting as a witnessed sudden unexpected death in the late neonatal period, preceded by respiratory deterioration and in whom the presence of abnormal muscularization of the acinar pulmonary arteries was reminiscent of PPHN. The significance of this report is twofold: to increase the awareness among pediatricians and pathologists of this feature that can present in some cases of Sudden Unexpected Death in Infancy/Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, and to highlight the importance of performing a thorough autopsy in order to identify the abnormality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Zainuddin Z, Tan CK
    Family Physician, 2003;12:9-11.
    Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder in pregnancy. The effects of epilepsy include congenital abnormalities which are increased 2-3 fold. The babies born suffer from haemorrhagic disease of newborn. Preconception management and folic acid supplementation is important in optimizing outcome. With close monitoring and proper management, more than 90% of mothers have no complications throughout their pregnancy. Hormonal contraception dosage need to be increased due to the enzyme inducing nature of the anti epileptics drugs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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