Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1409 in total

  1. Pijnappel EN, Bhoo-Pathy N, Suniza J, See MH, Tan GH, Yip CH, et al.
    World J Surg, 2014 Dec;38(12):3133-7.
    PMID: 25167896 DOI: 10.1007/s00268-014-2752-3
    In settings with limited resources, sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is only offered to breast cancer patients with small tumors and a low a priori risk of axillary metastases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Low CS, Ho JJ, Nallusamy R
    World J Pediatr, 2016 Nov;12(4):450-454.
    PMID: 27286688
    BACKGROUND: Most of the evidence on early feeding of preterm infants was derived from high income settings, it is equally important to evaluate whether it can be successfully implemented into less resourced settings. This study aimed to compare growth and feeding of preterm infants before and after the introduction of a new aggressive feeding policy in Penang Hospital, a tertiary referral hospital in a middle income country.

    METHODS: The new aggressive feeding policy was developed mainly from Cochrane review evidence, using early parenteral and enteral nutrition with standardized breastfeeding counselling aimed at empowering mothers to provide early expressed milk. A total of 80 preterm babies (34 weeks and below) discharged from NICU were included (40 pre- and 40 post-intervention). Pre and post-intervention data were compared. The primary outcome was growth at day 7, 14, 21 and at discharge and secondary outcomes were time to full oral feeding, breastfeeding rates, and adverse events.

    RESULTS: Complete data were available for all babies to discharge. One baby was discharged prior to day 14 and 10 babies before day 21, so growth data for these babies were unavailable. Baseline data were similar in the two groups. There was no significant weight difference at 7, 14, 21 days and at discharge. More post-intervention babies were breastfed at discharge than pre-intervention babies (21 vs. 8, P=0.005). Nosocomial infection (11 vs. 4, P=0.045), and blood transfusion were significantly lower in the postintervention babies than in the pre-intervention babies (31 vs. 13, P=0.01). The post-intervention babies were more likely to achieve shorter median days (interquartile range) to full oral feeding [11 (6) days vs. 13 (11) days, P=0.058] and with lower number affecting necrotising enterocolitis (0 vs. 5, P=0.055).

    CONCLUSION: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition and early provision of mother's milk did not result in improved growth as evidenced by weight gain at discharge. However we found more breastfeeding babies, lower nosocomial infection and transfusion rates. Our findings suggest that implementing a more aggressive feeding policy supported by high level scientific evidence is able to improve important outcomes.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Leung AKC, Barankin B, Leong KF
    World J Pediatr, 2018 04;14(2):116-120.
    PMID: 29508362 DOI: 10.1007/s12519-018-0150-x
    BACKGROUND: Staphylococcal-scalded skin syndrome (SSSS), also known as Ritter disease, is a potentially life-threatening disorder and a pediatric emergency. Early diagnosis and treatment is imperative to reduce the morbidity and mortality of this condition. The purpose of this article is to familiarize physicians with the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of SSSS.

    DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome" and "Ritter disease".

    RESULTS: SSSS is caused by toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrolysis of the amino-terminal extracellular domain of desmoglein 1 by staphylococcal exfoliative toxins results in disruption of keratinocytes adhesion and cleavage within the stratum granulosum which leads to bulla formation. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the findings of tender erythroderma, bullae, and desquamation with a scalded appearance especially in friction zones, periorificial scabs/crusting, positive Nikolsky sign, and absence of mucosal involvement. Prompt empiric treatment with intravenous anti-staphylococcal antibiotic such as nafcillin, oxacillin, or flucloxacillin is essential until cultures are available to guide therapy. Clarithromycin or cefuroxime may be used should the patient have penicillin allergy. If the patient is not improving, critically ill, or in communities where the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is high, vancomycin should be used.

    CONCLUSION: A high index of suspicion is essential for an accurate diagnosis to be made and treatment promptly initiated.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Lee WS, Looi LM
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2009 Nov 14;15(42):5326-33.
    PMID: 19908342
    AIM: To ascertain the usefulness of a histological scoring system devised to assist in the interpretation of liver histology in neonatal cholestasis (NC).

    METHODS: Liver biopsy specimens obtained from infants with NC referred to a tertiary pediatric unit in Malaysia were prospectively studied. The first author, blinded to the final diagnosis, devised the histological diagnosis based on a 7-feature (portal ductal proliferation, bile plugs in portal ductules, porto-portal bridging, lymphocytic infiltration in portal region, multinucleated hepatocytes, neutrophilic infiltration, hepatocellular swelling), 15-point (0 to 15) scoring system. The author classified the histological diagnosis as either biliary atresia (BA) or neonatal hepatitis (NH, all other diagnoses), and subsequently compared the author's diagnosis with the final diagnosis.

    RESULTS: Eighty-four biopsy specimens obtained from 78 patients were reviewed. Without the scoring system, BA was correctly diagnosed by the author histologically in 30 cases, labelled as NH in 3. For other diagnoses, BA was excluded correctly in 33 cases and mislabeled as BA in 2 cases. The overall sensitivity for BA was 91%, specificity 86% and accuracy 88%. With the scoring system, a score of >or=7 had the best diagnostic utility to differentiate BA from other intrahepatic cholestasis histologically (sensitivity 88%, specificity 94%, accuracy 92%). Four patients with a score<7 had BA, and 3 patients with a score>or=7 had NH.

    CONCLUSION: A 7-feature, 15-point histological scoring system had good diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of liver histology in neonatal cholestasis.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Lee WS, Ng RT, Chan KW, Lau YL
    World J. Gastroenterol., 2016 Dec 28;22(48):10653-10662.
    PMID: 28082818 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i48.10653
    AIM: Infantile-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IO-IBD) with the onset of disease before 12 mo of age, is a different disease entity from childhood IBD. We aimed to describe the clinical features, outcome and role of mutation in interleukin-10 (IL-10) and interleukin-10 receptors (IL-10R) in Asian children with IO-IBD.

    METHODS: All cases of IO-IBD, defined as onset of disease before 12 mo of age, seen at University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia were reviewed. We performed mutational analysis for IL10 and IL10R genes in patients with presenting clinical features of Crohn's disease (CD).

    RESULTS: Six [13%; CD = 3, ulcerative colitis (UC) = 2, IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) = 1] of the 48 children (CD = 25; UC = 23) with IBD have IO-IBD. At final review [median (range) duration of follow-up: 6.5 (3.0-20) years], three patients were in remission without immunosuppression [one each for post-colostomy (IBD-U), after standard immunosuppression (CD), and after total colectomy (UC)]. Three patients were on immunosuppression: one (UC) was in remission while two (both CD) had persistent disease. As compared with later-onset disease, IO-IBD were more likely to present with bloody diarrhea (100% vs 55%, P = 0.039) but were similar in terms of an associated autoimmune liver disease (0% vs 19%, P = 0.31), requiring biologics therapy (50% vs 36%, P = 0.40), surgery (50% vs 29%, P = 0.27), or achieving remission (50% vs 64%, P = 0.40). No mutations in either IL10 or IL10R in the three patients with CD and the only patient with IBD-U were identified.

    CONCLUSION: The clinical features of IO-IBD in this Asian cohort of children who were negative for IL-10 or IL-10R mutations were variable. As compared to childhood IBD with onset of disease after 12 mo of age, IO-IBD achieved remission at a similar rate.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Shamsuddin AM, Wong AR, Anderson RH, Corno AF
    PMID: 26795906 DOI: 10.1177/2150135115603330
    A neonate with cyanosis at birth was found to have a rare type of totally anomalous pulmonary venous connection. The pulmonary veins entered a confluence posterior to the left atrial wall, which drained into the right superior cavoatrial junction. There were no other major structural defects and no evidence of isomerism. Because of the severe cyanosis, and the restrictive nature of the interatrial communication, we performed balloon atrioseptostomy to improve oxygenation. We then achieved successful surgical repair when the baby was aged 7 months.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Ota N, Sivalingam S, Pau KK, Hew CC, Dillon J, Latiff HA, et al.
    PMID: 29310554 DOI: 10.1177/2150135117743225
    OBJECTIVE: We introduced primary arterial switch operation for the patient with transposition of great arteries and intact ventricular septum (TGA-IVS) who had more than 3.5 mm of posterior left ventricle (LV) wall thickness.

    METHODS: Between January 2013 and June 2015, a total of 116 patients underwent arterial switch operation. Of the 116 patients, 26 with TGA-IVS underwent primary arterial switch operation at more than 30 days of age.

    RESULTS: The age and body weight (mean ± SD) at the operation were 120.4 ± 93.8 days and 4.1 ±1.0 kg, respectively. There was no hospital mortality. The thickness of posterior LV wall (preoperation vs postoperation; mm) was 4.04 ± 0.71 versus 5.90 ± 1.3; P < .0001; interval: 11.8 ± 6.5 days. The left atrial pressure (mm Hg; postoperative day 0 vs 3) was 20.0 ± 3.2 versus 10.0 ± 2.0; P < .0001; and the maximum blood lactate level (mmol/dL) was 4.7 ± 1.4 versus 1.4 ± 0.3; P < .0001, which showed significant improvement in the postoperative course. All cases had delayed sternal closure. The patients who belonged to the thin LV posterior wall group (<4 mm [preoperative echo]: n = 13) had significantly longer ventilation time (days; 10.6 ± 4.8 vs 4.8 ± 1.7, P = .0039), and the intensive care unit stay (days) was 14 ± 9.2 versus 7.5 ± 3.5; P = .025, compared with thick LV wall group (≥4.0 mm: n = 13).

    CONCLUSIONS: The children older than 30 days with TGA-IVS can benefit from primary arterial switch operation with acceptable results under our indication. However, we need further investigation for LV function.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Mohamad Yusuff AS, Tang L, Binns CW, Lee AH
    Women Birth, 2015 Mar;28(1):25-9.
    PMID: 25466643 DOI: 10.1016/j.wombi.2014.11.002
    BACKGROUND: Postnatal depression can have serious consequences for both the mother and infant. However, epidemiological data required to implement appropriate early prevention are still lacking in Malaysia.
    AIM: To investigate the prevalence of postnatal depression within six months postpartum and associated risk factors among women in Sabah, Malaysia.
    METHODS: A prospective cohort study of 2072 women was conducted in Sabah during 2009-2010. Participants were recruited at 36-38 weeks of gestation and followed up at 1, 3 and 6 months postpartum. The presence of depressive symptoms was assessed using the validated Malay version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale. Logistic regression analyses were performed to ascertain risk factors associated with postnatal depression.
    FINDINGS: Overall, 14.3% of mothers (95% confidence interval (CI) 12.5-16.2%) had experienced depression within the first six months postpartum. Women depressed during pregnancy (odds ratio (OR) 3.71, 95% CI 2.46-5.60) and those with consistent worries about the newborn (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.16-2.42) were more likely to suffer from depression after childbirth. Women whose husband assisted with infant care (OR 0.43, 95% CI 0.20-0.97) and mothers who were satisfied with their marital relationship (OR 0.27, 95% CI 0.09-0.81) appeared to incur a reduced risk of postnatal depression.
    CONCLUSION: A substantial proportion of mothers suffered from postnatal depression in Sabah, Malaysia. Screening and intervention programmes targeting vulnerable subgroups of women during antenatal and early postpartum periods are recommended to deal with the problem.
    KEYWORDS: EPDS; Malaysia; Postnatal depression; Prevalence; Risk factors
    Study site: five maternal and child health clinics in Kota Kinabalu and Penampang Districts of Sabah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Al-Shahethi AH, Zaki RA, Al-Serouri AWA, Bulgiba A
    Women Birth, 2018 Jul 17.
    PMID: 30030021 DOI: 10.1016/j.wombi.2018.06.016
    BACKGROUND: Perinatal mortality remains a major international problem responsible for nearly six million stillbirths and neonatal deaths.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate the perinatal mortality rate in Sana'a, Yemen and to identify risk factors for perinatal deaths.

    METHODS: A community-based prospective cohort study was carried out between 2015 and 2016. Nine-hundred and eighty pregnant women were identified and followed up to 7 days following birth. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select participants from community households', residing in the five districts of the Sana'a City, Yemen.

    RESULTS: Total of 952 pregnant women were tracked up to 7 days after giving birth. The perinatal mortality rate, the stillbirth rate and the early neonatal mortality rate, were 89.3 per 1000, 46.2 per 1000 and 45.2 per 1000, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (35+ years) of mothers at birth (Relative Risk=2.83), teenage mothers' age at first pregnancy (<18 years) (Relative Risk=1.57), primipara mothers (Relative Risk=1.90), multi-nuclear family (Relative Risk=1.74), mud house (Relative Risk=2.02), mothers who underwent female genital mutilation (Relative Risk=2.92) and mothers who chewed khat (Relative Risk=1.60) were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death, whereas a positive mother's tetanus vaccination status (Relative Risk=0.49) were significant protective factors against perinatal deaths.

    CONCLUSION: Rates of perinatal mortality were higher in Sana'a City compared to perinatal mortality at the national level estimated by World Health Organization. It is imperative there be sustainable interventions in order to improve the country's maternal and newborn health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Koroleva GA, Lukashev AN, Khudiakova LV, Mustafina AN, Lashkevich VA
    Vopr. Virusol., 2010 Nov-Dec;55(6):4-10.
    PMID: 21381332
    Enterovirus type 71 (EV71) is a causative agent of large outbreaks of hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) in Europe (Bulgaria, 1975; Hungary, 1978) and South-East Asia (Malaysia, 1977; Taiwan, 1998; Singapore, 2000-2007; People's Republic of China, 2007-2009). HFMD afflicted children less than 10 years of age and resulted in recovery within 3-7 days. In a small percentage of infants (aged 6 months to 3 years), HFMD was accompanied by acute neurological complications, such as serous meningitis, poliomyelitis-like syndrome (extremity pareses and muscle paralyses); brain stem encephalitis (myoclonic jerks, tremor, lethargy, swallowing and speech disorders, cardiopulmonary failure, pulmonary edema, shock, coma, death). X-ray study revealed pulmonary hemorrhages and edema. Mortality rates were as high as 82-94% in severe cases. Incapacitating motor, respiratory, and psychoemotional disorders persisted in some surviving children. Pathomorphologically, patients with central nervous system disease and cardiopulmonary failure were found to have acute inflammation of the grey matter of the brain stem (medulla oblongata, pons) and spinal cord. Inflammatory changes in the lung and myocardial tissues were negligible or absent. Fatal pulmonary edema was neurogenic in origin and resulted from damage to the respiratory and vasomotor centers of the brain stem.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Al-lela OQ, Bahari MB, Al-abbassi MG, Salih MR, Basher AY
    Vaccine, 2012 Jun 6;30(26):3862-6.
    PMID: 22521848 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2012.04.014
    The immunization status of children is improved by interventions that increase community demand for compulsory and non-compulsory vaccines, one of the most important interventions related to immunization providers. The aim of this study is to evaluate the activities of immunization providers in terms of activities time and cost, to calculate the immunization doses cost, and to determine the immunization dose errors cost. Time-motion and cost analysis study design was used. Five public health clinics in Mosul-Iraq participated in the study. Fifty (50) vaccine doses were required to estimate activities time and cost. Micro-costing method was used; time and cost data were collected for each immunization-related activity performed by the clinic staff. A stopwatch was used to measure the duration of activity interactions between the parents and clinic staff. The immunization service cost was calculated by multiplying the average salary/min by activity time per minute. 528 immunization cards of Iraqi children were scanned to determine the number and the cost of immunization doses errors (extraimmunization doses and invalid doses). The average time for child registration was 6.7 min per each immunization dose, and the physician spent more than 10 min per dose. Nurses needed more than 5 min to complete child vaccination. The total cost of immunization activities was 1.67 US$ per each immunization dose. Measles vaccine (fifth dose) has a lower price (0.42 US$) than all other immunization doses. The cost of a total of 288 invalid doses was 744.55 US$ and the cost of a total of 195 extra immunization doses was 503.85 US$. The time spent on physicians' activities was longer than that spent on registrars' and nurses' activities. Physician total cost was higher than registrar cost and nurse cost. The total immunization cost will increase by about 13.3% owing to dose errors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Coudeville L, Baurin N, L'Azou M, Guy B
    Vaccine, 2016 12 07;34(50):6426-6435.
    PMID: 27601343 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2016.08.050
    BACKGROUND: A tetravalent dengue vaccine demonstrated its protective efficacy in two phase III efficacy studies. Results from these studies were used to derive vaccination impact in the five Asian (Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand, Vietnam) and the five Latin American countries (Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico and Puerto Rico) participating in these trials.

    METHODS: Vaccination impact was investigated with an age-structured, host-vector, serotype-specific compartmental model. Parameters related to vaccine efficacy and levels of dengue transmission were estimated using data collected during the phase III efficacy studies. Several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination at different ages with and without large catch-up campaigns, were investigated.

    RESULTS: All vaccination programs explored translated into significant reductions in dengue cases at the population level over the first 10years following vaccine introduction and beyond. The most efficient age for vaccination varied according to transmission intensity and 9years was close to the most efficient age across all settings. The combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns was found to enable a rapid reduction of dengue burden after vaccine introduction.

    CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that dengue vaccination can significantly reduce the public health impact of dengue in countries where the disease is endemic.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Ozawa S, Wonodi C, Babalola O, Ismail T, Bridges J
    Vaccine, 2017 11 07;35(47):6429-6437.
    PMID: 29037575 DOI: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2017.09.079
    BACKGROUND: Understanding and ranking the reasons for low vaccination uptake among parents in northern Nigeria is critical to implement effective policies to save lives and prevent illnesses. This study applies best-worst scaling (BWS) to rank various factors affecting parents' demand for routine childhood immunization.

    METHODS: We conducted a household survey in Nahuche, Zamfara State in northern Nigeria. Nearly two hundred parents with children under age five were asked about their views on 16 factors using a BWS technique. These factors focused on known attributes that influence the demand for childhood immunization, which were identified from a literature review and reviewed by a local advisory board. The survey systematically presented parents with subsets of six factors and asked them to choose which they think are the most and least important in decisions to vaccinate children. We used a sequential best-worst analysis with conditional logistic regression to rank factors.

    RESULTS: The perception that vaccinating a child makes one a good parent was the most important motivation for parents in northern Nigeria to vaccinate children. Statements related to trust and social norms were ranked higher in importance compared to those that highlighted perceived benefits and risks, healthcare service, vaccine information, or opportunity costs. Fathers ranked trust in the media and views of their leaders to be of greatest importance, whereas mothers placed greater importance on social perceptions and norms. Parents of children without routine immunization ranked their trust in local leaders about vaccines higher in considerations, and the media's views lower, compared to parents with children who received routine immunization.

    CONCLUSIONS: Framing immunization messages in the context of good parenting and hearing these messages from trusted information sources may motivate parental uptake of childhood vaccines. These results are useful to policymakers to prioritize resources in order to increase awareness and demand for childhood immunization.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Dony JF, Ahmad J, Yap KT
    Tuberculosis (Edinb), 2004;84(1-2):8-18.
    PMID: 14670341 DOI: 10.1016/j.tube.2003.08.002
    The objectives in this epidemiology review are to measure and report the extent of morbidity and mortality due to tuberculosis (TB), the proportion of new sputum smear positive cases in districts and the status of cohort analysis as of 1999. As for leprosy, the main objective is to determine morbidity and the treatment outcomes of Multiple Drug Therapy (MDT). Based on the results obtained, a comprehensive action plan for prevention, control and monitoring of tuberculosis and leprosy cases and patients is being produced and implemented throughout the state. The analysis concentrated on patients diagnosed at all out-patient units and admitted in all of the state's hospitals. The patient particulars were recorded using a standardized format based on TB and Leprosy Health Management Information System (TB HMIS). TB was the second highest by notification of communicable diseases in Malaysia in 2001. 29% or about one-third of the national TB cases are from Sabah. However, it has been noted that there was an average decline of 2.6% in annual notification since 10 years ago to date. There was also a reduction of 11.4% in 2001 as compared to annual notification in 2000. Immigrants contribute more than 24% in detection of new cases since 1990. Treatment success rate in term of completion of treatment to date is 82%. Mortality rate has steadily declined from 14 deaths to 7 deaths per 100,000 population. Leprosy in Sabah also contributes to 30% of the yearly total caseload of Malaysia and has the highest notification rate of 2 per every 100,000 population as compared to other states. The average registered leprosy cases over the past 5 years are 239 cases and the prevalence rate is 0.7/10,000 population. The state has successfully achieved its goal to decrease leprosy as per the World Health Organization (WHO) goal of yearly overall prevalence rate of less than 1 case for every 10,000 population. However, the districts of Kudat, Tawau, Lahad Datu, Kota Kinabalu and Semporna are still within the prevalence rate of more than one per 10,000 population. This review highlights some interesting findings which can be incorporated into the State and Districts action plans and strategies. It is also noted that in order to translate National Plans and Strategies into effective action at the community level, health workers need relevant up-to-date knowledge of the pattern of health and disease, and of their determinants, in each district. The Sabah Health Department continues to organize and support programs related to management and control of tuberculosis and leprosy to progressively reduce the incidence of these diseases in the community by breaking the chain of transmission of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and M. leprae, respectively.
    Study site: outpatient clinics, inpatients, hospitals, Sabah, Malaysia
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Lennox CE, Kwast BE
    Trop Doct, 1995 Apr;25(2):56-63.
    PMID: 7778195
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Ram SP, Kyaw K, Noor AR
    Trop Doct, 1994 Apr;24(2):81-2.
    PMID: 8009626
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Taba AH
    Trop Doct, 1980 Jan;10(1):21-3.
    PMID: 7368301
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Ling BP, Jalilian FA, Harmal NS, Yubbu P, Sekawi Z
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Dec;31(4):654-62.
    PMID: 25776590 MyJurnal
    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is a common viral infection among infants and children. The major causative agents of HFMD are enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CVA16). Recently, coxsackievirus A6 (CVA6) infections were reported in neighboring countries. Infected infants and children may present with fever, mouth/throat ulcers, rashes and vesicles on hands and feet. Moreover, EV71 infections might cause fatal neurological complications. Since 1997, EV71 caused fatalities in Sarawak and Peninsula Malaysia. The purpose of this study was to identify and classify the viruses which detected from the patients who presenting clinical signs and symptoms of HFMD in Seri Kembangan, Malaysia. From December 2012 until July 2013, a total of 28 specimens were collected from patients with clinical case definitions of HFMD. The HFMD viruses were detected by using semi-nested reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (snRT-PCR). The positive snRT-PCR products were sequenced and phylogenetic analyses of the viruses were performed. 12 of 28 specimens (42.9%) were positive in snRT-PCR, seven are CVA6 (58.3%), two CVA16 (16.7%) and three EV71 (25%). Based on phylogenetic analysis studies, EV71 strains were identified as sub-genotype B5; CVA16 strains classified into sub-genotype B2b and B2c; CVA6 strains closely related to strains in Taiwan and Japan. In this study, HFMD in Seri Kembangan were caused by different types of Enterovirus, which were EV71, CVA6 and CVA16.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. AL-Kubaisy W, AL-Talib H, Al-khateeb A, Shanshal MM
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Sep;31(3):499-506.
    PMID: 25382477
    Parasitic diarrhea among children is a significant health problem worldwide. This cross sectional study described the burden of parasitic diarrhea among children. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the impact of risk factors on the parasitic diarrhea, and to determine the parasitic profile among children in Baghdad-Iraq, during the period extending from September 2003 to June 2004. A total number of 2033 cases were included in the study. The estimated prevalence rate of parasitic diarrhea was 22%. We identified the following major diarrhea determinants were large households size, residential location, water source, low socioeconomic status, and low parent education. Giardia lamblia was found to be the most prevalent parasite with an infection rate of 45.54% followed by Entamoeba histolytica 23.44%, Enterobius vermicularis 12.7%, Hymenolepis nana 9.82%, Trichuris trichiura 5.4%, and Ascaris lumbricoides 2.2%. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that poor sanitation, inadequate environmental conditions, and low socioeconomic status are the main determining factors that predispose children to parasitic diarrhea. Mass deworming programs are recommended for school children, as this population is easily accessible.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Abdulsalam M Q AM, Mohammed A K M, Ahmed A A, Fong MY
    Trop Biomed, 2010 Dec;27(3):551-8.
    PMID: 21399597 MyJurnal
    Malaria remains a major public health problem causing mortality and morbidity in tropical and subtropical countries. A cross-sectional study was carried out to determine malaria prevalence and its clinical pattern during malaria season in Yemen. Blood samples were collected from 511 patients with fever who voluntary participated in this study, of them 268 were males and 242 females. Malaria was screened using Giemsa-stained thick and thin blood films. Clinical profile was recorded through physical and laboratory examinations and biodata were collected by pre-tested standard questionnaire. The overall prevalence was 15.3%. Three malaria species (Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium malarae) were detected with the predominance of P. falciparum (83.33%). People living in the rural areas had higher infection rate compared to urban areas (p < 0.005). Children were at higher risk of developing severe malaria compared to adults (p < 0.05). Severe anaemia, respiratory distress, jaundice, convulsion and bleeding were more apparent among younger age groups of malaria cases compared to older children. The study indicates that malaria is still a public health problem with children being at high risk of developing severe malaria which may lead to death.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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