METHODS: The new aggressive feeding policy was developed mainly from Cochrane review evidence, using early parenteral and enteral nutrition with standardized breastfeeding counselling aimed at empowering mothers to provide early expressed milk. A total of 80 preterm babies (34 weeks and below) discharged from NICU were included (40 pre- and 40 post-intervention). Pre and post-intervention data were compared. The primary outcome was growth at day 7, 14, 21 and at discharge and secondary outcomes were time to full oral feeding, breastfeeding rates, and adverse events.
RESULTS: Complete data were available for all babies to discharge. One baby was discharged prior to day 14 and 10 babies before day 21, so growth data for these babies were unavailable. Baseline data were similar in the two groups. There was no significant weight difference at 7, 14, 21 days and at discharge. More post-intervention babies were breastfed at discharge than pre-intervention babies (21 vs. 8, P=0.005). Nosocomial infection (11 vs. 4, P=0.045), and blood transfusion were significantly lower in the postintervention babies than in the pre-intervention babies (31 vs. 13, P=0.01). The post-intervention babies were more likely to achieve shorter median days (interquartile range) to full oral feeding [11 (6) days vs. 13 (11) days, P=0.058] and with lower number affecting necrotising enterocolitis (0 vs. 5, P=0.055).
CONCLUSION: Early aggressive parenteral nutrition and early provision of mother's milk did not result in improved growth as evidenced by weight gain at discharge. However we found more breastfeeding babies, lower nosocomial infection and transfusion rates. Our findings suggest that implementing a more aggressive feeding policy supported by high level scientific evidence is able to improve important outcomes.
DATA SOURCES: A PubMed search was completed in Clinical Queries using the key terms "Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome" and "Ritter disease".
RESULTS: SSSS is caused by toxigenic strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Hydrolysis of the amino-terminal extracellular domain of desmoglein 1 by staphylococcal exfoliative toxins results in disruption of keratinocytes adhesion and cleavage within the stratum granulosum which leads to bulla formation. The diagnosis is mainly clinical, based on the findings of tender erythroderma, bullae, and desquamation with a scalded appearance especially in friction zones, periorificial scabs/crusting, positive Nikolsky sign, and absence of mucosal involvement. Prompt empiric treatment with intravenous anti-staphylococcal antibiotic such as nafcillin, oxacillin, or flucloxacillin is essential until cultures are available to guide therapy. Clarithromycin or cefuroxime may be used should the patient have penicillin allergy. If the patient is not improving, critically ill, or in communities where the prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus is high, vancomycin should be used.
CONCLUSION: A high index of suspicion is essential for an accurate diagnosis to be made and treatment promptly initiated.
METHODS: Liver biopsy specimens obtained from infants with NC referred to a tertiary pediatric unit in Malaysia were prospectively studied. The first author, blinded to the final diagnosis, devised the histological diagnosis based on a 7-feature (portal ductal proliferation, bile plugs in portal ductules, porto-portal bridging, lymphocytic infiltration in portal region, multinucleated hepatocytes, neutrophilic infiltration, hepatocellular swelling), 15-point (0 to 15) scoring system. The author classified the histological diagnosis as either biliary atresia (BA) or neonatal hepatitis (NH, all other diagnoses), and subsequently compared the author's diagnosis with the final diagnosis.
RESULTS: Eighty-four biopsy specimens obtained from 78 patients were reviewed. Without the scoring system, BA was correctly diagnosed by the author histologically in 30 cases, labelled as NH in 3. For other diagnoses, BA was excluded correctly in 33 cases and mislabeled as BA in 2 cases. The overall sensitivity for BA was 91%, specificity 86% and accuracy 88%. With the scoring system, a score of >or=7 had the best diagnostic utility to differentiate BA from other intrahepatic cholestasis histologically (sensitivity 88%, specificity 94%, accuracy 92%). Four patients with a score<7 had BA, and 3 patients with a score>or=7 had NH.
CONCLUSION: A 7-feature, 15-point histological scoring system had good diagnostic accuracy in the interpretation of liver histology in neonatal cholestasis.
METHODS: All cases of IO-IBD, defined as onset of disease before 12 mo of age, seen at University Malaya Medical Center, Malaysia were reviewed. We performed mutational analysis for IL10 and IL10R genes in patients with presenting clinical features of Crohn's disease (CD).
RESULTS: Six [13%; CD = 3, ulcerative colitis (UC) = 2, IBD-unclassified (IBD-U) = 1] of the 48 children (CD = 25; UC = 23) with IBD have IO-IBD. At final review [median (range) duration of follow-up: 6.5 (3.0-20) years], three patients were in remission without immunosuppression [one each for post-colostomy (IBD-U), after standard immunosuppression (CD), and after total colectomy (UC)]. Three patients were on immunosuppression: one (UC) was in remission while two (both CD) had persistent disease. As compared with later-onset disease, IO-IBD were more likely to present with bloody diarrhea (100% vs 55%, P = 0.039) but were similar in terms of an associated autoimmune liver disease (0% vs 19%, P = 0.31), requiring biologics therapy (50% vs 36%, P = 0.40), surgery (50% vs 29%, P = 0.27), or achieving remission (50% vs 64%, P = 0.40). No mutations in either IL10 or IL10R in the three patients with CD and the only patient with IBD-U were identified.
CONCLUSION: The clinical features of IO-IBD in this Asian cohort of children who were negative for IL-10 or IL-10R mutations were variable. As compared to childhood IBD with onset of disease after 12 mo of age, IO-IBD achieved remission at a similar rate.
METHODS: Between January 2013 and June 2015, a total of 116 patients underwent arterial switch operation. Of the 116 patients, 26 with TGA-IVS underwent primary arterial switch operation at more than 30 days of age.
RESULTS: The age and body weight (mean ± SD) at the operation were 120.4 ± 93.8 days and 4.1 ±1.0 kg, respectively. There was no hospital mortality. The thickness of posterior LV wall (preoperation vs postoperation; mm) was 4.04 ± 0.71 versus 5.90 ± 1.3; P < .0001; interval: 11.8 ± 6.5 days. The left atrial pressure (mm Hg; postoperative day 0 vs 3) was 20.0 ± 3.2 versus 10.0 ± 2.0; P < .0001; and the maximum blood lactate level (mmol/dL) was 4.7 ± 1.4 versus 1.4 ± 0.3; P < .0001, which showed significant improvement in the postoperative course. All cases had delayed sternal closure. The patients who belonged to the thin LV posterior wall group (<4 mm [preoperative echo]: n = 13) had significantly longer ventilation time (days; 10.6 ± 4.8 vs 4.8 ± 1.7, P = .0039), and the intensive care unit stay (days) was 14 ± 9.2 versus 7.5 ± 3.5; P = .025, compared with thick LV wall group (≥4.0 mm: n = 13).
CONCLUSIONS: The children older than 30 days with TGA-IVS can benefit from primary arterial switch operation with acceptable results under our indication. However, we need further investigation for LV function.
OBJECTIVES: To estimate the perinatal mortality rate in Sana'a, Yemen and to identify risk factors for perinatal deaths.
METHODS: A community-based prospective cohort study was carried out between 2015 and 2016. Nine-hundred and eighty pregnant women were identified and followed up to 7 days following birth. A multi-stage cluster sampling was used to select participants from community households', residing in the five districts of the Sana'a City, Yemen.
RESULTS: Total of 952 pregnant women were tracked up to 7 days after giving birth. The perinatal mortality rate, the stillbirth rate and the early neonatal mortality rate, were 89.3 per 1000, 46.2 per 1000 and 45.2 per 1000, respectively. In multivariable analysis older age (35+ years) of mothers at birth (Relative Risk=2.83), teenage mothers' age at first pregnancy (<18 years) (Relative Risk=1.57), primipara mothers (Relative Risk=1.90), multi-nuclear family (Relative Risk=1.74), mud house (Relative Risk=2.02), mothers who underwent female genital mutilation (Relative Risk=2.92) and mothers who chewed khat (Relative Risk=1.60) were factors associated with increased risk of perinatal death, whereas a positive mother's tetanus vaccination status (Relative Risk=0.49) were significant protective factors against perinatal deaths.
CONCLUSION: Rates of perinatal mortality were higher in Sana'a City compared to perinatal mortality at the national level estimated by World Health Organization. It is imperative there be sustainable interventions in order to improve the country's maternal and newborn health.
METHODS: Vaccination impact was investigated with an age-structured, host-vector, serotype-specific compartmental model. Parameters related to vaccine efficacy and levels of dengue transmission were estimated using data collected during the phase III efficacy studies. Several vaccination programs, including routine vaccination at different ages with and without large catch-up campaigns, were investigated.
RESULTS: All vaccination programs explored translated into significant reductions in dengue cases at the population level over the first 10years following vaccine introduction and beyond. The most efficient age for vaccination varied according to transmission intensity and 9years was close to the most efficient age across all settings. The combination of routine vaccination and large catch-up campaigns was found to enable a rapid reduction of dengue burden after vaccine introduction.
CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that dengue vaccination can significantly reduce the public health impact of dengue in countries where the disease is endemic.
METHODS: We conducted a household survey in Nahuche, Zamfara State in northern Nigeria. Nearly two hundred parents with children under age five were asked about their views on 16 factors using a BWS technique. These factors focused on known attributes that influence the demand for childhood immunization, which were identified from a literature review and reviewed by a local advisory board. The survey systematically presented parents with subsets of six factors and asked them to choose which they think are the most and least important in decisions to vaccinate children. We used a sequential best-worst analysis with conditional logistic regression to rank factors.
RESULTS: The perception that vaccinating a child makes one a good parent was the most important motivation for parents in northern Nigeria to vaccinate children. Statements related to trust and social norms were ranked higher in importance compared to those that highlighted perceived benefits and risks, healthcare service, vaccine information, or opportunity costs. Fathers ranked trust in the media and views of their leaders to be of greatest importance, whereas mothers placed greater importance on social perceptions and norms. Parents of children without routine immunization ranked their trust in local leaders about vaccines higher in considerations, and the media's views lower, compared to parents with children who received routine immunization.
CONCLUSIONS: Framing immunization messages in the context of good parenting and hearing these messages from trusted information sources may motivate parental uptake of childhood vaccines. These results are useful to policymakers to prioritize resources in order to increase awareness and demand for childhood immunization.