Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 1424 in total

  1. Saththasivam P, Umadevan D, Ramli N, Voralu K, Naing NN, Ilias MI, et al.
    Singapore Med J, 2009 Oct;50(10):1004-7.
    PMID: 19907892
    The aim of this study was to determine whether there was a difference in the pain indicators and effectiveness between venipuncture (VP) and heel prick (HP) for blood glucose monitoring in term neonates (recently, venipuncture was shown superior for the Guthrie test).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Lee LY, Muhardi L, Cheah FC, Supapannachart S, Teller IC, Bindels J, et al.
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2018 Apr;54(4):370-376.
    PMID: 29205630 DOI: 10.1111/jpc.13775
    AIM: To understand feeding practices, nutrition management and postnatal growth monitoring of term small-for-gestational age (tSGA) infants in Southeast Asia.

    METHODS: Anonymous questionnaires to assess practices on feeding, nutrition management and post-natal growth monitoring of tSGA infants were distributed among health-care professionals (HCPs) participating in regional/local perinatology symposia in Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore.

    RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven respondents from Malaysia (37%), Thailand (27%), Singapore (18%) and other Asian countries (19%) participated in the survey. Respondents were neonatologists (35%), paediatricians (25%) and other HCPs (40%) including nurses and midwives. Exclusive human milk feeding was reported the most preferred feeding option for tSGA infants, followed by fortified human milk feeding (60% and 20%, respectively). This was consistent among the different countries. The perceived nutrient requirements of tSGA infants varied between countries. Most respondents from Malaysia and Singapore reported requirements to be similar to preterm infants, while the majority from Thailand reported that it was less than those of preterm infants. The World Health Organization Growth Chart of 2006 and Fenton Growth Charts of 2013 were the most frequently used charts for growth monitoring in the hospital and after discharge.

    CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition management and perceived nutrient requirements for tSGA infants among practising HCPs in Southeast Asia showed considerable variation. The impetus to form standardised and evidence based feeding regimens is important as adequate nutritional management and growth monitoring particularly in this population of infants will have long term impact on population health.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn/growth & development
  3. Nathan AM, Teh CSJ, Jabar KA, Teoh BT, Tangaperumal A, Westerhout C, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2020;15(2):e0228056.
    PMID: 32059033 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228056
    INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia in children is a common disease yet determining its aetiology remains elusive.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the a) aetiology, b) factors associated with bacterial pneumonia and c) association between co-infections (bacteria + virus) and severity of disease, in children admitted with severe pneumonia.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving children aged 1-month to 5-years admitted with very severe pneumonia, as per the WHO definition, over 2 years. Induced sputum and blood obtained within 24 hrs of admission were examined via PCR, immunofluorescence and culture to detect 17 bacteria/viruses. A designated radiologist read the chest radiographs.

    RESULTS: Three hundred patients with a mean (SD) age of 14 (±15) months old were recruited. Significant pathogens were detected in 62% of patients (n = 186). Viruses alone were detected in 23.7% (n = 71) with rhinovirus (31%), human metapneumovirus (HMP) [22.5%] and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [16.9%] being the commonest. Bacteria alone was detected in 25% (n = 75) with Haemophilus influenzae (29.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (24%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.7%) being the commonest. Co-infections were seen in 13.3% (n = 40) of patients. Male gender (AdjOR 1.84 [95% CI 1.10, 3.05]) and presence of crepitations (AdjOR 2.27 [95% CI 1.12, 4.60]) were associated with bacterial infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) [p = 0.007]) was significantly higher in patients with co-infections but duration of hospitalization (p = 0.77) and requirement for supplemental respiratory support (p = 0.26) were not associated with co-infection.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria remain an important cause of very severe pneumonia in developing countries with one in four children admitted isolating bacteria alone. Male gender and presence of crepitations were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology. Co-infection was associated with a higher CRP but no other parameters of severe clinical illness.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Nathan AM, Rani F, Lee RJ, Zaki R, Westerhout C, Sam IC, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(10):e111162.
    PMID: 25360811 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0111162
    Lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low income countries. The aim of this study was to determine risk factors of life-threatening LRTIs in hospitalised children in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. de Azevedo JP, Nascimento LR, Cortinovis MC, Oliveira SS, da Costa EV, da Silva EE
    J. Clin. Virol., 2004 Dec;31(4):248-52.
    PMID: 15494264 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcv.2004.04.007
    BACKGROUND: Human adenoviruses are classified into six species, A-F, and 51 serotypes are recognized. Adenoviruses can cause a broad range of diseases. Serotypes 3, 7 and 21 are most commonly associated with CNS disease. Serotype 21 (specie B) was isolated from brain tissue and CSF of patients with acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) in Malaysia.
    OBJECTIVES: Characterize, by molecular methods, species B adenoviruses isolated from poliomyelitis-suspected cases and investigate the possible etiological role of adenoviruses in acute flaccid paralysis (AFP).
    STUDY DESIGN: 622 virus isolates, including Sabin-related polioviruses, non-polio enteroviruses (NPEV) and adenoviruses, were recovered from fecal specimens in our laboratory during the period of 1997-2002 from AFP cases occurring in Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Negative controls consisted of 528 fecal specimens collected from healthy children <==5 of age. Of these, 478 were contacts of AFP negative cases and 50 were from a day-care center.
    RESULTS: Sixty-four adenovirus strains isolated in HEp2 (human laryngeal tumor cells) cells were confirmed as such by an adenovirus-group specific PCR. Nucleotide sequencing identified the following adenovirus species: A (3 isolates), B (20 isolates), C (38 isolates), D (2 isolates) and E (1 isolate). The following serotypes belonging to the species B were identified: Ad3 (1 strain), Ad7 (17 strains) and, Ad16 (2 strains).
    CONCLUSION: Other viral agents became more recognized in association with CNS diseases in areas where wild polioviruses have been eradicated. The possible role of species B adenoviruses in the etiology of AFP cases similar to that caused by wild poliovirus is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Chisholm JS, Woodson RH, da Costa Woodson EM
    Early Hum. Dev., 1978 Jul;2(2):171-8.
    PMID: 720272
    The neonatal period is being recognized as an important period for the development of patterns of interaction between mother and infant, and infant state has been shown to have a significant impact on mother--infant interactions. A major dimension of infant state, with implications for this interaction and for the development of later behaviour disorders, is the infant's irritability. Research with Navajo, Malay, Chinese and Tamil mothers and infants showed that normal variation in maternal blood pressure during pregnancy was related to newborn irritability as assessed with the Brazelton Scale. This relationship is discussed in terms of possible underlying mechanisms.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn*
  7. Karimah Hanim Abd Aziz, Nurjasmine Aida Jamani, Zurainie Abllah
    Oral health care during pregnancy is greatly important as it is crucial to the health
    and well-being to both pregnant mother and baby. Studies showed that mothers with oral health
    problem have greater risk of prematurity and low birth weight babies. This study aimed to measure
    the associated factors of oral health problem among pregnant mothers. (Copied from article).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases
  8. Jamaiah I, Anuar AK, Najib NA, Zurainee MN
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Mar;53(1):6-9.
    PMID: 10968130
    Over a period of ten years (1983-1992), 134 malaria cases admitted to University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur (UHKL) were analysed. Malays constituted 27.6%, Chinese 29.8%, Indians 9.7%, Indonesians 16.4% and other foreigners 16.4%. Therefore, of the total number of cases, foreigners constituted 32.8% (44) of all the malaria cases admitted to UHKL. Fifteen of these foreigners had chloroquine-resistant strains of malarial parasites. Three species of malaria were reported of which Plasmodium falciparum constituted the most (46.3%) (80% of these developed resistance to chloroquine). Plasmodium vivax was confirmed in 44.8% (10% of these developed resistance to chloroquine) and there was only one case of Plasmodium malarie infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Rohana J, Hasmawati J, Zulkifli SZ
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Mar;48(3):191-4.
    PMID: 17342285
    We report part of the findings of a study conducted to determine the correlation between bone mineral content (BMC) and biochemical bone markers in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Lim VKE, Zulkifli HI
    Singapore Med J, 1987 Apr;28(2):176-9.
    PMID: 3629274
    Methicillin resistant Siaphylococcus aureus Is a common isolate from clinical specimens obtained from babies at the special care nursery of the Kuala Lumpur Maternity Hospital. Major Infections due to this organism were, however uncommon and the organism had in the majority of cases been present as a coloniser or as a cause of superficial infection. Netilmicin is a valuable antibiotic in the treatment of the severe infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Boo NY, Zuraidah AL, Lim NL, Zulfiqar MA
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 2000 Jun;46(3):172-5.
    PMID: 10893920
    A case-control study was carried out on 97 consecutive preterm (< 37 weeks) infants to determine predictors associated with failure of nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in the treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). Logistic regression analysis showed that only three risk factors were significantly associated with failed CPAP. These were: moderate or severe RDS (odds ratio: 5.9; 95 per cent confidence interval (CI): 2.2-16.0); septicemia during CPAP therapy (OR: 8.8; 95 per cent: CI 1.5-50.7); and pneumothorax during CPAP therapy (odds ratio: 6.9; 95 per cent: CI 1.1-41.7).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Boo NY, Cheong KB, Cheong SK, Lye MS, Zulfiqar MA
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1997 Aug;33(4):329-34.
    PMID: 9323622
    OBJECTIVES: To compare the overall accuracy of the stable microbubble test (SM test) with measurement of level of surfactant protein A (SP-A) of tracheal aspirate for the diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS).

    METHODOLOGY: Tracheal aspirates were obtained from neonates on ventilatory support. The SM test was carried out on specimens of tracheal aspirate immediately after collection. Levels of SP-A in tracheal aspirates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results of the SM test and SP-A level of the tracheal aspirates were compared against the clinical diagnosis of RDS based on clinical, radiological and bacteriological findings.

    RESULTS: Both the median microbubble counts (6 microbubbles/mm2, range = 0-90) and median SP-A levels (100 micrograms/L, range = 0-67447) of infants with RDS were significantly lower than those of infants with no obvious lung pathology (P < 0.0001), and pneumonia (P < 0.0001). The SM test of tracheal aspirates had higher overall accuracy for the diagnosis of RDS than measurement of SP-A levels (94.6% vs 82.4%). When the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of both tests for RDS were compared, the area under the ROC curve of the SM test was larger (0.9689) than that of the SP-A method (0.8965).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the SM test of tracheal aspirate was a useful bedside diagnostic test for RDS. It could be carried out at any time after birth on infants requiring ventilatory support.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Kanaheswari Y, Hamzaini AH, Wong SW, Zulfiqar A
    Acta Paediatr., 2008 Nov;97(11):1589-91.
    PMID: 18671691 DOI: 10.1111/j.1651-2227.2008.00971.x
    Phakomatosis pigmentovascularis (PPV) is a rare congenital syndrome characterized predominantly by cutaneous vascular malformations and pigmentary naevi. The most frequently reported form, Type II b, is associated with systemic involvement. Sturge-Weber Syndrome (SWS) with concomitant glaucoma, Klippel-Trenaunay Syndrome (KTS) and naevus of Ota have been frequently described, but there have only been two case reports with asymptomatic renal anomalies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Thambidorai CR, Muin I, Razman J, Zulfiqar A
    Dis. Colon Rectum, 2003 Jul;46(7):974-7.
    PMID: 12847376
    PURPOSE: Currarino triad, which comprises anorectal stenosis, anterior sacral defect, and a presacral mass, is an uncommon cause of constipation in children and adults. The presacral mass in this triad is most often caused by an anterior sacral meningocele, a teratoma, or an enterogenous cyst, but rarely may be caused by dual pathology. A neonate with Currarino triad and dual pathology in the presacral mass is described in this report.

    METHOD: A male Chinese neonate, who presented with abdominal distention and constipation on the second day of life, was found to have features of Currarino triad. Colostomy was done in the neonatal period, and the presacral mass was excised by posterior sagittal perineal approach at the age of six months.

    RESULTS: The excised presacral mass consisted of an anterior meningocele and a teratoma. The patient continued to have constipation during follow-up and required anorectoplasty to correct residual anorectal stenosis. At the time of this report the patient was three years old and growing normally with normal anorectal function.

    DISCUSSION: Of a total of about 200 cases of complete Currarino triad found in the literature, in only 22 patients did the presacral mass contain both meningocele and teratoma. The features of these 22 patients and the current views on the surgical management of Currarino triad are discussed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Norzila MZ, Azizi BH, Deng CT, Zulfiqar A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1997 Dec;52(4):429-32.
    PMID: 10968122
    Interstitial lung disease (ILD) is very rare in children. In the majority of cases the aetiology is unknown. Very little is known about the clinical course of this condition in children. Prognosis may be influenced by sex, age of onset of symptoms, radiographic features, presence of right ventricular hypertrophy and histopathology. We report our experience in managing four children with interstitial lung disease. All these children presented in early infancy with cough, respiratory distress, cyanosis and failure to thrive. Three of these children had finger clubbing and right ventricular hypertrophy. All patients received oral steroids. Chloroquine was added in two patients who showed no response. A trial of oral cyclophosphamide was started in one patient who failed with both drugs. One child is oxygen independent while another is on home oxygen therapy. The other two patients eventually died.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Salahshourifar I, Halim AS, Sulaiman WA, Zilfalil BA
    Am. J. Med. Genet. A, 2010 Jul;152A(7):1818-21.
    PMID: 20583164 DOI: 10.1002/ajmg.a.33526
    We describe a chromosome 6 uniparental disomy (UPD6) in a boy, discovered during a screening for the genetic cause of cleft lip and palate. In the medical literature, almost all documented cases of UPD6 are paternal in origin, and only four were maternal. We present here a report of complete maternal chromosome 6 uniparental heterodisomy. Haplotype analysis was performed using highly polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers that span both arms of chromosome 6. Analysis of these markers revealed the presence of two maternal alleles but no paternal allele, indicating an instance of maternal uniparental heterodisomy. Chromosome analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes confirmed a normal male karyotype. Advanced maternal age at the time of the infant's birth and heterodisomy of markers around the centromere favors a meiosis-I error. No specific phenotype has been reported for maternal UPD6. Therefore, the cleft lip and palate in the present case probably occurred due to other risk factors. This report provides further evidence that maternal UPD6 has no specific clinical consequences and adds to the collective knowledge of this rare chromosomal finding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Kannan TP, Hemlatha S, Ankathil R, Zilfalil BA
    Indian J Pediatr, 2009 Jul;76(7):745-6.
    PMID: 19475342 DOI: 10.1007/s12098-009-0158-2
    Complete trisomy 9 is a lethal diagnosis and most fetuses diagnosed thus die prenatally or during the early postnatal period and majority of such cases have been known to end in spontaneous abortion in the first trimester itself. One such rare survival of fetus ending in normal delivery and surviving until 20 days is reported here detailing the clinical manifestations of the child during the period of survival. The salient clinical features observed were small face, wide fontanel, prominent occiput, micrognathia, low set ears, upslanting palpebral fissures, high arched palate, short sternum, overlapping fingers, limited hip abduction, rocker bottom feet, heart murmurs and also webbed neck, characteristic of this trisomy 9 syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Watihayati MS, Zabidi-Hussin AM, Tang TH, Matsuo M, Nishio H, Zilfalil BA
    Pediatr Int, 2007 Feb;49(1):11-4.
    PMID: 17250498
    The survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene has been recognized to be responsible for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) because it is homozygously deleted in more than 90% of SMA patients, irrespective of their clinical severity, whereas the neuronal apoptosis inhibitory protein (NAIP) gene is now considered to be a modifying factor of the severity of SMA. In Malaysia, it remains to be elucidated whether deletion of the SMN1 gene is also a main cause of SMA or whether deletion of the NAIP gene is found in the SMA patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Asha'ari ZA, Suhaimi Y, Fadzil A, Zihni M
    Malays J Med Sci, 2012 Oct;19(4):84-7.
    PMID: 23613654 MyJurnal
    Acquired subglottic cyst in infancy is almost always associated with episodes of early life intubation. Most cases typically presented late, usually days to months after extubation. We report a case of a subglottic cyst with different presentation than the norm. This case highlights that subglottic cyst can present acutely, and rapidly enlarging soon after the airway extubation. As the management of a large subglottic cyst can be challenging, a close observation for early diagnosis and intervention are recommended post extubation in the high-risk cases, such as in the premature infant.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn; Infant, Newborn, Diseases
  20. Furuoka F, Hoque MZ, Jacob RI, Ziegenhain P
    PMID: 30968812 DOI: 10.1017/S1744133119000197
    The Sustainable Development Goals set by the United Nations recognize the importance of making progress in the eradication and treatment of sexually transmitted deceases (STD). STD are among the most widespread diseases in the world and have the highest prevalence in Sub-Saharan Africa. The current study explored the associations between the allocation of the development assistance for health (DAH) in 54 African countries and key development indicators - STD incidence, Gross Domestic Product per capita, health expenditure, and life expectancy at birth. It employed descriptive statistical methods, the matrix scatter plot analysis and the Pearson correlation test for this purpose. The findings indicated that there was a considerable increase in the volume of the DAH given to control and prevent STD in Africa over the period of 2002-2011. A statistically significant positive association was detected between the STD incidence and the health aid allocations. At the same time, the imbalance in the distribution of the health aid between the major and minor aid recipients in the continent increased. The study concludes by discussing policy implications that can be drawn from these findings.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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