METHODS: Anonymous questionnaires to assess practices on feeding, nutrition management and post-natal growth monitoring of tSGA infants were distributed among health-care professionals (HCPs) participating in regional/local perinatology symposia in Malaysia, Thailand and Singapore.
RESULTS: Three hundred seventy-seven respondents from Malaysia (37%), Thailand (27%), Singapore (18%) and other Asian countries (19%) participated in the survey. Respondents were neonatologists (35%), paediatricians (25%) and other HCPs (40%) including nurses and midwives. Exclusive human milk feeding was reported the most preferred feeding option for tSGA infants, followed by fortified human milk feeding (60% and 20%, respectively). This was consistent among the different countries. The perceived nutrient requirements of tSGA infants varied between countries. Most respondents from Malaysia and Singapore reported requirements to be similar to preterm infants, while the majority from Thailand reported that it was less than those of preterm infants. The World Health Organization Growth Chart of 2006 and Fenton Growth Charts of 2013 were the most frequently used charts for growth monitoring in the hospital and after discharge.
CONCLUSIONS: Nutrition management and perceived nutrient requirements for tSGA infants among practising HCPs in Southeast Asia showed considerable variation. The impetus to form standardised and evidence based feeding regimens is important as adequate nutritional management and growth monitoring particularly in this population of infants will have long term impact on population health.
OBJECTIVES: To determine the a) aetiology, b) factors associated with bacterial pneumonia and c) association between co-infections (bacteria + virus) and severity of disease, in children admitted with severe pneumonia.
METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving children aged 1-month to 5-years admitted with very severe pneumonia, as per the WHO definition, over 2 years. Induced sputum and blood obtained within 24 hrs of admission were examined via PCR, immunofluorescence and culture to detect 17 bacteria/viruses. A designated radiologist read the chest radiographs.
RESULTS: Three hundred patients with a mean (SD) age of 14 (±15) months old were recruited. Significant pathogens were detected in 62% of patients (n = 186). Viruses alone were detected in 23.7% (n = 71) with rhinovirus (31%), human metapneumovirus (HMP) [22.5%] and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [16.9%] being the commonest. Bacteria alone was detected in 25% (n = 75) with Haemophilus influenzae (29.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (24%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.7%) being the commonest. Co-infections were seen in 13.3% (n = 40) of patients. Male gender (AdjOR 1.84 [95% CI 1.10, 3.05]) and presence of crepitations (AdjOR 2.27 [95% CI 1.12, 4.60]) were associated with bacterial infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) [p = 0.007]) was significantly higher in patients with co-infections but duration of hospitalization (p = 0.77) and requirement for supplemental respiratory support (p = 0.26) were not associated with co-infection.
CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria remain an important cause of very severe pneumonia in developing countries with one in four children admitted isolating bacteria alone. Male gender and presence of crepitations were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology. Co-infection was associated with a higher CRP but no other parameters of severe clinical illness.
METHODOLOGY: Tracheal aspirates were obtained from neonates on ventilatory support. The SM test was carried out on specimens of tracheal aspirate immediately after collection. Levels of SP-A in tracheal aspirates were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. The results of the SM test and SP-A level of the tracheal aspirates were compared against the clinical diagnosis of RDS based on clinical, radiological and bacteriological findings.
RESULTS: Both the median microbubble counts (6 microbubbles/mm2, range = 0-90) and median SP-A levels (100 micrograms/L, range = 0-67447) of infants with RDS were significantly lower than those of infants with no obvious lung pathology (P < 0.0001), and pneumonia (P < 0.0001). The SM test of tracheal aspirates had higher overall accuracy for the diagnosis of RDS than measurement of SP-A levels (94.6% vs 82.4%). When the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves of both tests for RDS were compared, the area under the ROC curve of the SM test was larger (0.9689) than that of the SP-A method (0.8965).
CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that the SM test of tracheal aspirate was a useful bedside diagnostic test for RDS. It could be carried out at any time after birth on infants requiring ventilatory support.
METHOD: A male Chinese neonate, who presented with abdominal distention and constipation on the second day of life, was found to have features of Currarino triad. Colostomy was done in the neonatal period, and the presacral mass was excised by posterior sagittal perineal approach at the age of six months.
RESULTS: The excised presacral mass consisted of an anterior meningocele and a teratoma. The patient continued to have constipation during follow-up and required anorectoplasty to correct residual anorectal stenosis. At the time of this report the patient was three years old and growing normally with normal anorectal function.
DISCUSSION: Of a total of about 200 cases of complete Currarino triad found in the literature, in only 22 patients did the presacral mass contain both meningocele and teratoma. The features of these 22 patients and the current views on the surgical management of Currarino triad are discussed.