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  1. Samsuddin S, Arumugam PA, Md Amin MS, Yahya A, Musa N, Lim LL, et al.
    BJOG, 2020 03;127(4):490-499.
    PMID: 31778255 DOI: 10.1111/1471-0528.16031
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the association between maternal lipaemia and neonatal anthropometrics in Malaysian mother-offspring pairs.

    DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study.

    SETTING: Single tertiary multidisciplinary antenatal clinic in Malaysia.

    POPULATION: A total of 507 mothers: 145 with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM); 94 who were obese with normal glucose tolerance (NGT) (pre-gravid body mass index, BMI ≥ 27.5 kg/m2 ), and 268 who were not obese with NGT.

    METHODS: Maternal demographic, anthropometric, and clinical data were collected during an interview/examination using a structured questionnaire. Blood was drawn for insulin, C-peptide, triglyceride (Tg), and non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) during the 75-g 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) screening, and again at 36 weeks of gestation. At birth, neonatal anthropometrics were assessed and data such as gestational weight gain (GWG) were extracted from the records.

    MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Macrosomia, large-for-gestational-age (LGA) status, cohort-specific birthweight (BW), neonatal fat mass (NFM), and sum of skinfold thickness (SSFT) > 90th centile.

    RESULTS: Fasting Tg > 95th centile (3.6 mmol/L) at screening for OGTT was independently associated with LGA (adjusted odds ratio, aOR 10.82, 95% CI 1.26-93.37) after adjustment for maternal glucose, pre-gravid BMI, and insulin sensitivity. Fasting glucose was independently associated with a birthweight ratio (BWR) of >90th centile (aOR 2.06, 95% CI 1.17-3.64), but not with LGA status, in this well-treated GDM cohort with pre-delivery HbA1c of 5.27%. In all, 45% of mothers had a pre-gravid BMI of <23 kg/m2 and 61% had a pre-gravid BMI of ≤ 25 kg/m2 , yet a GWG of >10 kg was associated with a 4.25-fold risk (95% CI 1.71-10.53) of BWR > 90th centile.

    CONCLUSION: Maternal lipaemia and GWG at a low threshold (>10 kg) adversely impact neonatal adiposity in Asian offspring, independent of glucose, insulin resistance and pre-gravid BMI. These may therefore be important modifiable metabolic targets in pregnancy.

    TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Maternal lipids are associated with adiposity in Asian babies independently of pre-gravid BMI, GDM status, and insulin resistance.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Lai NM, Ong JM, Chen KH, Chaiyakunapruk N, Ovelman C, Soll R
    Neonatology, 2020;117(1):125-126.
    PMID: 31487740 DOI: 10.1159/000502492
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Nathan AM, Teh CSJ, Jabar KA, Teoh BT, Tangaperumal A, Westerhout C, et al.
    PLoS ONE, 2020;15(2):e0228056.
    PMID: 32059033 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0228056
    INTRODUCTION: Pneumonia in children is a common disease yet determining its aetiology remains elusive.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the a) aetiology, b) factors associated with bacterial pneumonia and c) association between co-infections (bacteria + virus) and severity of disease, in children admitted with severe pneumonia.

    METHODS: A prospective cohort study involving children aged 1-month to 5-years admitted with very severe pneumonia, as per the WHO definition, over 2 years. Induced sputum and blood obtained within 24 hrs of admission were examined via PCR, immunofluorescence and culture to detect 17 bacteria/viruses. A designated radiologist read the chest radiographs.

    RESULTS: Three hundred patients with a mean (SD) age of 14 (±15) months old were recruited. Significant pathogens were detected in 62% of patients (n = 186). Viruses alone were detected in 23.7% (n = 71) with rhinovirus (31%), human metapneumovirus (HMP) [22.5%] and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) [16.9%] being the commonest. Bacteria alone was detected in 25% (n = 75) with Haemophilus influenzae (29.3%), Staphylococcus aureus (24%) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (22.7%) being the commonest. Co-infections were seen in 13.3% (n = 40) of patients. Male gender (AdjOR 1.84 [95% CI 1.10, 3.05]) and presence of crepitations (AdjOR 2.27 [95% CI 1.12, 4.60]) were associated with bacterial infection. C-reactive protein (CRP) [p = 0.007]) was significantly higher in patients with co-infections but duration of hospitalization (p = 0.77) and requirement for supplemental respiratory support (p = 0.26) were not associated with co-infection.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bacteria remain an important cause of very severe pneumonia in developing countries with one in four children admitted isolating bacteria alone. Male gender and presence of crepitations were significantly associated with bacterial aetiology. Co-infection was associated with a higher CRP but no other parameters of severe clinical illness.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Amri NA, Quar TK, Chong FY
    Am J Audiol, 2019 Dec 16;28(4):877-894.
    PMID: 31600460 DOI: 10.1044/2019_AJA-18-0156
    Purpose This study examined the current pediatric amplification practice with an emphasis on hearing aid verification using probe microphone measurement (PMM), among audiologists in Klang Valley, Malaysia. Frequency of practice, access to PMM system, practiced protocols, barriers, and perception toward the benefits of PMM were identified through a survey. Method A questionnaire was distributed to and filled in by the audiologists who provided pediatric amplification service in Klang Valley, Malaysia. One hundred eight (N = 108) audiologists, composed of 90.3% women and 9.7% men (age range: 23-48 years), participated in the survey. Results PMM was not a clinical routine practiced by a majority of the audiologists, despite its recognition as the best clinical practice that should be incorporated into protocols for fitting hearing aids in children. Variations in practice existed warranting further steps to improve the current practice for children with hearing impairment. The lack of access to PMM equipment was 1 major barrier for the audiologists to practice real-ear verification. Practitioners' characteristics such as time constraints, low confidence, and knowledge levels were also identified as barriers that impede the uptake of the evidence-based practice. Conclusions The implementation of PMM in clinical practice remains a challenge to the audiology profession. A knowledge-transfer approach that takes into consideration the barriers and involves effective collaboration or engagement between the knowledge providers and potential stakeholders is required to promote the clinical application of evidence-based best practice.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Premakumar CM, Turner MA, Morgan C
    Nutr. Rev., 2019 12 01;77(12):878-889.
    PMID: 31504841 DOI: 10.1093/nutrit/nuz049
    CONTEXT: Very preterm neonates (VPNs) are unable to digest breast milk and therefore rely on parenteral nutrition (PN) formulations. This systematic review was prepared following PRISMA-P 2015 guidelines. For the purpose of this review, desirable mean plasma arginine concentration is defined as ≥80 micromoles/L.

    OBJECTIVE: The review was performed to answer the following research question: "In VPNs, are high amounts of arginine in PN, compared with low amounts of arginine, associated with appropriate circulating concentrations of arginine?" Therefore, the aims were to 1) quantify the relationship between parenteral arginine intakes and plasma arginine concentrations in PN-dependent VPNs; 2) identify any features of study design that affect this relationship; and 3) estimate the target parenteral arginine dose to achieve desirable preterm plasma arginine concentrations.

    DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched regardless of study design; review articles were not included.

    DATA EXTRACTION: Only articles that discussed amino acid (AA) intake and measured plasma AA profile post PN in VPNs were included. Data were obtained using a data extraction checklist that was devised for the purpose of this review.

    DATA ANALYSIS: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. The dose-concentration relationship of arginine content (%) and absolute arginine intake (mg/(kg × d)) with plasma arginine concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001).

    CONCLUSION: Future studies using AA solutions with arginine content of 17%-20% and protein intakes of 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day may be needed to achieve higher plasma arginine concentrations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Oyong DA, Wilson DW, Barber BE, William T, Jiang J, Galinski MR, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2019 11 06;220(12):1950-1961.
    PMID: 31419296 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiz407
    BACKGROUND: Complement-fixing antibodies are important mediators of protection against Plasmodium falciparum malaria. However, complement-fixing antibodies remain uncharacterized for Plasmodium vivax malaria. P. vivax merozoite surface protein 3α (PvMSP3α) is a target of acquired immunity and a potential vaccine candidate.

    METHODS: Plasma from children and adults with P. vivax malaria in Sabah, Malaysia, were collected during acute infection, 7 and 28 days after drug treatment. Complement-fixing antibodies and immunoglobulin M and G (IgM and IgG), targeting 3 distinctive regions of PvMSP3α, were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.

    RESULTS: The seroprevalence of complement-fixing antibodies was highest against the PvMSP3α central region (77.6%). IgG1, IgG3, and IgM were significantly correlated with C1q fixation, and both purified IgG and IgM were capable of mediating C1q fixation to PvMSP3α. Complement-fixing antibody levels were similar between age groups, but IgM was predominant in children and IgG3 more prevalent in adults. Levels of functional antibodies increased after acute infection through 7 days after treatment but rapidly waned by day 28.

    CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that PvMSP3α antibodies acquired during P. vivax infection can mediate complement fixation and shows the important influence of age in shaping these specific antibody responses. Further studies are warranted to understand the role of these functional antibodies in protective immunity against P. vivax malaria.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Azit NA, Ismail A, Ahmad N, Ismail R, Ishak S
    BMC Public Health, 2019 Nov 01;19(1):1432.
    PMID: 31675946 DOI: 10.1186/s12889-019-7814-x
    BACKGROUND: With the rise in prevalence of childhood tuberculosis (TB) globally, contact tracing should be a powerful strategy for early diagnosis and management, especially in children who are household contacts of active TB cases. Here, we aimed to determine the prevalence and factors associated with TB disease in children who are household contacts of TB cases.

    METHODS: We used a cross-sectional study with data from the Malaysian TB Information System (TBIS) recorded from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2017. All children aged 0-14 years who were registered in the TBIS with at least one household contact of TB cases were included in the study. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adj. OR) and for adjusting the confounding factors.

    RESULTS: A total of 2793 children were included in the study. The prevalence of active TB was 1.5% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.31, 1.77%). Children aged  6 weeks [adj. OR 7.48 (95% CI: 2.88, 19.43), p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Yeo KT, Kong JY, Sasi A, Tan K, Lai NM, Schindler T
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2019 10 28;2019(10).
    PMID: 31684689 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD012888.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Feeding practices around the time of packed red blood cell transfusion have been implicated in the subsequent development of necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants. Specifically, it has been suggested that withholding feeds around the time of transfusion may reduce the risk of subsequent NEC. It is important to determine if withholding feeds around transfusion reduces the risk of subsequent NEC and associated mortality.

    OBJECTIVES: • To assess the benefits and risks of stopping compared to continuing feed management before, during, and after blood transfusion in preterm infants • To assess the effects of stopping versus continuing feeds in the following subgroups of infants: infants of different gestations; infants with symptomatic and asymptomatic anaemia; infants who received different feeding schedules, types of feed, and methods of feed delivery; infants who were transfused with different blood products, at different blood volumes, via different routes of delivery; and those who received blood transfusion with and without co-interventions such as use of diuretics • To determine the effectiveness and safety of stopping feeds around the time of a blood transfusion in reducing the risk of subsequent necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) in preterm infants SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of Cochrane Neonatal to search the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2018, Issue 11), in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1966 to 14 November 2018); Embase (1980 to 14 November 2018); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to 14 November 2018). We also searched clinical trials databases, conference proceedings, and reference lists of retrieved articles for randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cluster-RCTs, and quasi-RCTs.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised controlled trials that compared stopping feeds versus continuing feeds around the time of blood transfusion in preterm infants.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently selected trials, assessed trial quality, and extracted data from the included studies.

    MAIN RESULTS: The search revealed seven studies that assessed effects of stopping feeds during blood transfusion. However, only one RCT involving 22 preterm infants was eligible for inclusion in the review. This RCT had low risk of selection bias but high risk of performance bias, as care personnel were not blinded to the study allocation. The primary objective of this trial was to investigate changes in mesenteric blood flow, and no cases of NEC were reported in any of the infants included in the trial. We were unable to draw any conclusions from this single study. The overall GRADE rating for quality of evidence was very low.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Randomised controlled trial evidence is insufficient to show whether stopping feeds has an effect on the incidence of subsequent NEC or death. Large, adequately powered RCTs are needed to address this issue.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Auburn S, Getachew S, Pearson RD, Amato R, Miotto O, Trimarsanto H, et al.
    J. Infect. Dis., 2019 10 22;220(11):1738-1749.
    PMID: 30668735 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jiz016
    The Horn of Africa harbors the largest reservoir of Plasmodium vivax in the continent. Most of sub-Saharan Africa has remained relatively vivax-free due to a high prevalence of the human Duffy-negative trait, but the emergence of strains able to invade Duffy-negative reticulocytes poses a major public health threat. We undertook the first population genomic investigation of P. vivax from the region, comparing the genomes of 24 Ethiopian isolates against data from Southeast Asia to identify important local adaptions. The prevalence of the Duffy binding protein amplification in Ethiopia was 79%, potentially reflecting adaptation to Duffy negativity. There was also evidence of selection in a region upstream of the chloroquine resistance transporter, a putative chloroquine-resistance determinant. Strong signals of selection were observed in genes involved in immune evasion and regulation of gene expression, highlighting the need for a multifaceted intervention approach to combat P. vivax in the region.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. McJarrow P, Radwan H, Ma L, MacGibbon AKH, Hashim M, Hasan H, et al.
    Nutrients, 2019 Oct 08;11(10).
    PMID: 31597293 DOI: 10.3390/nu11102400
    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), phospholipids (PLs), and gangliosides (GAs) are components of human breast milk that play important roles in the development of the rapidly growing infant. The differences in these components in human milk from the United Arab Emirates (UAE) were studied in a cross-sectional trial. High-performance liquid chromatography‒mass spectrometry was used to determine HMO, PL, and GA concentrations in transitional (5-15 days) and mature (at 6 months post-partum) breast milk of mothers of the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The results showed that the average HMO (12 species), PL (7 species), and GA (2 species) concentrations quantified in the UAE mothers' transitional milk samples were (in mg/L) 8204 ± 2389, 269 ± 89, and 21.18 ± 11.46, respectively, while in mature milk, the respective concentrations were (in mg/L) 3905 ± 1466, 220 ± 85, and 20.18 ± 9.75. The individual HMO concentrations measured in this study were all significantly higher in transitional milk than in mature milk, except for 3 fucosyllactose, which was higher in mature milk. In this study, secretor and non-secretor phenotype mothers showed no significant difference in the total HMO concentration. For the PL and GA components, changes in the individual PL and GA species distribution was observed between transitional milk and mature milk. However, the changes were within the ranges found in human milk from other regions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Malchione MD, Torres LM, Hartley DM, Koch M, Goodman JL
    Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents, 2019 Oct;54(4):381-399.
    PMID: 31369812 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2019.07.019
    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae infections have spread globally, leaving polymyxins, including colistin, as 'last-resort treatments'. Emerging colistin resistance raises the spectre of untreatable infections. Despite this threat, data remain limited for much of the world, including Southeast Asia where only 3 of 11 nations submitted data on carbapenem and colistin resistance for recent World Health Organization (WHO) reports. To improve our understanding of the challenge, we utilised broad strategies to search for and analyse data on carbapenem and colistin resistance among Escherichia coli and Klebsiella in Southeast Asia. We found 258 studies containing 526 unique reports and document carbapenem-resistant E. coli and Klebsiella in 8 and 9 of 11 nations, respectively. We estimated carbapenem resistance proportions through meta-analysis of extracted data for nations with ≥100 representative isolates. Estimated resistance among Klebsiella was high (>5%) in four nations (Indonesia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam), moderate (1-5%) in two nations (Malaysia and Singapore) and low (<1%) in two nations (Cambodia and Brunei). For E. coli, resistance was generally lower but was high in two of seven nations with ≥100 isolates (Indonesia and Myanmar). The most common carbapenemases were NDM metallo-β-lactamases and OXA β-lactamases. Despite sparse data, polymyxin resistance was documented in 8 of 11 nations, with mcr-1 being the predominant genotype. Widespread presence of carbapenem and polymyxin resistance, including their overlap in eight nations, represents a continuing risk and increases the threat of infections resistant to both classes. These findings, and remaining data gaps, highlight the urgent need for sufficiently-resourced robust antimicrobial resistance surveillance.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Burstein R, Henry NJ, Collison ML, Marczak LB, Sligar A, Watson S, et al.
    Nature, 2019 10;574(7778):353-358.
    PMID: 31619795 DOI: 10.1038/s41586-019-1545-0
    Since 2000, many countries have achieved considerable success in improving child survival, but localized progress remains unclear. To inform efforts towards United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 3.2-to end preventable child deaths by 2030-we need consistently estimated data at the subnational level regarding child mortality rates and trends. Here we quantified, for the period 2000-2017, the subnational variation in mortality rates and number of deaths of neonates, infants and children under 5 years of age within 99 low- and middle-income countries using a geostatistical survival model. We estimated that 32% of children under 5 in these countries lived in districts that had attained rates of 25 or fewer child deaths per 1,000 live births by 2017, and that 58% of child deaths between 2000 and 2017 in these countries could have been averted in the absence of geographical inequality. This study enables the identification of high-mortality clusters, patterns of progress and geographical inequalities to inform appropriate investments and implementations that will help to improve the health of all populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. See GB, Mesran I
    Indian J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg, 2019 Oct;71(Suppl 1):45-48.
    PMID: 31741928 DOI: 10.1007/s12070-016-0992-2
    Subglottic cysts (SGCs) are a rare cause of airway obstruction in children. Medical advances, higher survival rates for preterm infants, and improved diagnostic equipment have increased the number of reported cases of SGCs over the last three decades, the majority occurring in infants who had been extremely premature neonates and had suffered from respiratory distress, therefore having been intubated and managed in neonatal ICUs. Symptoms of laryngeal cysts depend on the size and the location of the cyst and include a change in the tone of voice, dysphonia, hoarseness, dysphagia, stridor, and dyspnea. This condition is often misdiagnosed as laryngomalacia, asthma, croup, or other diseases, due to the fact that it manifests as recurring respiratory infections, stridor, and wheezing. Death can occur in severe cases that are not treated. When present, it may account for severe inspiratory stridor that compromise the airway. The accepted gold standard treatment is direct laryngoscopy with marsupialization of the cyst to prevent recurrence. Two cases of subglottic cyst in our centre are described here. Although all cases presented differently, but in both of our cases, which have previous history of intubation with prematurity were initially diagnosed as laryngomalacia and croup.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Sathyabama R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):372-376.
    PMID: 31649211
    OBJECTIVE: To explore socio-demographics and clinical characteristics of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) at Child Development Clinic (CDC), Penang Hospital.

    STUDY DESIGN: A record review study of 331 children with ASD attending CDC, Penang Hospital from September 2013 to April 2017.

    RESULTS: Out of 331 children with ASD, 82.5% were males, 17.5% females, with male to female ratio of 4.7:1. Mean age at consultation was 5 years and 6 months (SD 31.68 months) with age range from 19 months to 18 years and 4 months. 85.8% were term infants with normal birth weight. History of speech regression was noted in 14.8%, epilepsy and genetic disorders in 9.4% and 5.7% respectively. Sleep problems was reported in 29.3%, dietary issues 22.1%, challenging behaviour 24.2% and ADHD 14.2%. Mean age of the father and mother at birth was 33.6 and 31.6 years respectively.

    CONCLUSION: In this study, we report a higher male to female ratio and mean age at referral with some similar rates of neurodevelopmental and medical comorbidities and relatively younger parental age with higher parental education levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Arivalagan P, Husain MS, Subramaniam K, Kaslan MRM
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Oct;74(5):454-455.
    PMID: 31649231
    Neonatal death due to inborn error of metabolism (IEM) is rare in Malaysia. We report a sudden neonate death just a few hours after being discharged from the hospital. The deceased was a two-day-old baby boy and was asymptomatic until his demise. He was fed with expressed breast milk and formula milk. Autopsy revealed fatty changes of the liver and an enlarged heart. Laboratory investigation confirmed very long chain Acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency which resulted in his death. Autopsy of sudden unexpected death in neonate should include investigation for inborn error of metabolism. Fatty liver and enlarged heart could give a clue for the diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Leong MC, Ahmed Alhassan AA, Sivalingam S, Alwi M
    Ann. Thorac. Surg., 2019 09;108(3):813-819.
    PMID: 30998905 DOI: 10.1016/j.athoracsur.2019.03.045
    BACKGROUND: Ductal stenting is performed to retrain involuted left ventricles (LVs) in patients with d-transposition of the great arteries and intact ventricular septum (TGA-IVS). However, its efficacy is largely unknown. This study aimed to determine the safety and efficacy of ductal stenting in retraining of the involuted LV in patients with TGA-IVS.

    METHODS: This was a single-center, retrospective study. Echocardiographic assessment of the LV geometry, mass, and free wall thickness was performed before stenting and before the arterial switch operation. Patients then underwent the arterial switch operation, and the postoperative outcomes were reviewed.

    RESULTS: There were 11 consecutive patients (male, 81.8%; mean age at stenting, 43.11 ± 18.19 days) with TGA-IVS with involuted LV who underwent LV retraining by ductal stenting from July 2013 to December 2017. Retraining by ductus stenting failed in 4 patients (36.3%). Two patients required pulmonary artery banding, and another 2 had an LV mass index of less than 35 g/m2. Patients in the successful group had improved LV mass index from 45.14 ± 17.91 to 81.86 ± 33.11g/m2 (p = 0.023) compared with 34.50 ± 10.47 to 20.50 ± 9.88 g/m2 (p = 0.169) and improved LV geometry after ductal stenting. The failed group was associated with an increased need for extracorporeal support (14.5% vs 50%, p = 0.012). An atrial septal defect-to-interatrial septum length ratio of more than 0.38 was associated with failed LV retraining.

    CONCLUSIONS: Ductal stenting is an effective method to retrain the involuted LV in TGA-IVS. A large atrial septal defect (atrial septal defect-to-interatrial septum length ratio >0.38) was associated with poor response to LV retraining.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Zhang L, Tao Y, Woodring J, Rattana K, Sovannarith S, Rathavy T, et al.
    Int J Epidemiol, 2019 08 01;48(4):1327-1339.
    PMID: 30879066 DOI: 10.1093/ije/dyz037
    BACKGROUND: The Regional Framework for Triple Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission (EMTCT) of HIV, Hepatitis B (HBV) and Syphilis in Asia and the Pacific 2018-30 was endorsed by the Regional Committee of WHO Western Pacific in October 2017, proposing an integrated and coordinated approach to achieve elimination in an efficient, coordinated and sustainable manner. This study aims to assess the population impacts and cost-effectiveness of this integrated approach in the Cambodian context.

    METHODS: Based on existing frameworks for the EMTCT for each individual infection, an integrated framework that combines infection prevention procedures with routine antenatal care was constructed. Using decision tree analyses, population impacts, cost-effectiveness and the potential reduction in required resources of the integrated approach as a result of resource pooling and improvements in service coverage and coordination, were evaluated. The tool was assessed using simulated epidemiological data from Cambodia.

    RESULTS: The current prevention programme for 370,000 Cambodian pregnant women was estimated at USD$2.3 ($2.0-$2.5) million per year, including the duration of pregnancy and up to 18 months after delivery. A model estimate of current MTCT rates in Cambodia was 6.6% (6.2-7.1%) for HIV, 14.1% (13.1-15.2%) for HBV and 9.4% (9.0-9.8%) for syphilis. Integrating HIV and syphilis prevention into the existing antenatal care framework will reduce the total time required to provide this integrated care by 19% for health care workers and by 32% for pregnant women, resulting in a net saving of $380,000 per year for the EMTCT programme. This integrated approach reduces HIV and HBV MTCT to 6.1% (5.7-6.5%) and 13.0% (12.1-14.0%), respectively, and substantially reduces syphilis MCTC to 4.6% (4.3-5.0%). Further introduction of either antiviral treatment for pregnant women with high viral load of HBV, or hepatitis B immunoglobulin (HBIG) to exposed newborns, will increase the total cost of EMTCT to $4.4 ($3.6-$5.2) million and $3.3 ($2.7-$4.0) million per year, respectively, but substantially reduce HBV MTCT to 3.5% (3.2-3.8%) and 5.0% (4.6-5.5%), respectively. Combining both antiviral and HBIG treatments will further reduce HBV MTCT to 3.4% (3.1-3.7%) at an increased total cost of EMTCT of $4.5 ($3.7-$5.4) million per year. All these HBV intervention scenarios are highly cost-effective ($64-$114 per disability-adjusted life years averted) when the life benefits of these prevention measures are considered.

    CONCLUSIONS: The integrated approach, using antenatal, perinatal and postnatal care as a platform in Cambodia for triple EMTCT of HIV, HBV and syphilis, is highly cost-effective and efficient.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Zahari N, Mat Bah MN, A Razak H, Thong MK
    Eur. J. Pediatr., 2019 Aug;178(8):1267-1274.
    PMID: 31222391 DOI: 10.1007/s00431-019-03403-x
    Limited data are available on the survival of patients with Down syndrome and congenital heart disease (CHD) from middle-income countries. This retrospective cohort study was performed to determine the trends in the prevalence and survival of such patients born from January 2006 to December 2015 in Malaysia. Among 754 patients with Down syndrome, 414 (55%) had CHD, and no significant trend was observed during the 10 years. Of these 414 patients, 30% had lesions that closed spontaneously, 35% underwent surgery/intervention, 9% died before surgery/intervention, and 10% were treated with comfort care. The overall mortality rate was 23%, the median age at death was 7.6 months, and no significant changes occurred over time. The early and late post-surgery/intervention mortality rates were 0.7% and 9.0%, respectively. Most deaths were of non-cardiac causes. The overall 1-, 5-, and 10-year survival rates were 85.5%, 74.6%, and 72.9%, respectively. Patients with severe lesions, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, atrioventricular septal defect, and pulmonary hypertension had low survival at 1 year of age.Conclusion: The prevalence of CHD in patients with Down syndrome is similar between Malaysia and high-income countries. The lower survival rate is attributed to limited expertise and resources which limit timely surgery. What is Known: • The survival of patients with Down syndrome with congenital heart disease (CHD) has improved in high-income countries. However, little is known about the survival of patients with Down syndrome with CHD from middle-income countries. • In the Caucasian population, atrioventricular septal defect is the most common type of CHD associated with Down syndrome. What is New: • In middle-income countries, the prevalence of CHD is the same as in high-income countries, but with a lower survival rate. • In the Asian population, ventricular septal defect is the most common type of CHD in patients with Down syndrome.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Wang J, Sung V, Carew P, Burt RA, Liu M, Wang Y, et al.
    Acad Pediatr, 2019 07;19(5):504-514.
    PMID: 30872125 DOI: 10.1016/j.acap.2019.01.010
    BACKGROUND: Better epidemiologic information on childhood hearing loss would inform research priorities and efforts to prevent its progression.

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate prevalence and secular trends in children's hearing loss.

    DATA SOURCES: We searched MEDLINE and Embase from January 1996 to August 2017.

    STUDY ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included epidemiologic studies in English reporting hearing loss prevalence.

    STUDY APPRAISAL AND SYNTHESIS METHODS: The modified Leboeuf-Yde and Lauritsen tool was used to assess methodological quality. Meta-analyses combined study-specific estimates using random-effects models.

    PARTICIPANTS: Children 0 to 18 years of age.

    RESULTS: Among 88 eligible studies, 43.2% included audiometric measurement of speech frequencies. In meta-analyses, pooled prevalence estimates of slight or worse bilateral speech frequency losses >15 decibels hearing level (dB HL) were 13.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 10.0-17.0). Using progressively more stringent cutpoints, pooled prevalence estimates were 8.1% (95% CI, 1.3-19.8) with >20 dB HL, 2.2% (95% CI, 1.4-3.0) with >25 dB HL, 1.8% (95% CI, 0.4-4.1) with >30 dB HL, and 0.9% (95% CI, 0.1-2.6) with >40 dB HL. Also, 8.9% (95% CI, 6.4-12.3) had likely sensorineural losses >15 dB HL in 1 or both ears, and 1.2% (95% CI, 0.5-2.1) had self-reported hearing loss. From 1990 to 2010, the prevalence of losses >15 dB HL in 1 or both ears rose substantially (all P for trend

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Muglu J, Rather H, Arroyo-Manzano D, Bhattacharya S, Balchin I, Khalil A, et al.
    PLoS Med., 2019 07;16(7):e1002838.
    PMID: 31265456 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1002838
    BACKGROUND: Despite advances in healthcare, stillbirth rates remain relatively unchanged. We conducted a systematic review to quantify the risks of stillbirth and neonatal death at term (from 37 weeks gestation) according to gestational age.

    METHODS AND FINDINGS: We searched the major electronic databases Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar (January 1990-October 2018) without language restrictions. We included cohort studies on term pregnancies that provided estimates of stillbirths or neonatal deaths by gestation week. We estimated the additional weekly risk of stillbirth in term pregnancies that continued versus delivered at various gestational ages. We compared week-specific neonatal mortality rates by gestational age at delivery. We used mixed-effects logistic regression models with random intercepts, and computed risk ratios (RRs), odds ratios (ORs), and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Thirteen studies (15 million pregnancies, 17,830 stillbirths) were included. All studies were from high-income countries. Four studies provided the risks of stillbirth in mothers of White and Black race, 2 in mothers of White and Asian race, 5 in mothers of White race only, and 2 in mothers of Black race only. The prospective risk of stillbirth increased with gestational age from 0.11 per 1,000 pregnancies at 37 weeks (95% CI 0.07 to 0.15) to 3.18 per 1,000 at 42 weeks (95% CI 1.84 to 4.35). Neonatal mortality increased when pregnancies continued beyond 41 weeks; the risk increased significantly for deliveries at 42 versus 41 weeks gestation (RR 1.87, 95% CI 1.07 to 2.86, p = 0.012). One additional stillbirth occurred for every 1,449 (95% CI 1,237 to 1,747) pregnancies that advanced from 40 to 41 weeks. Limitations include variations in the definition of low-risk pregnancy, the wide time span of the studies, the use of registry-based data, and potential confounders affecting the outcome.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest there is a significant additional risk of stillbirth, with no corresponding reduction in neonatal mortality, when term pregnancies continue to 41 weeks compared to delivery at 40 weeks.

    SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42015013785.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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