METHODS: Data of all infants admitted during the 2011-2012 period to the two hospitals at Singapore (SG) and Malaysia (MY) were pooled and analysed.
RESULTS: Of the 236 infants, SG infants received lower total protein and energy intake than MY infants (2.69 vs. 3.54 g/kg/day and 92.4 vs. 128.9 kcal/kg/day respectively; P infants predominantly fed fortified breast milk than Malaysian infants (45/48 vs. 10/41; P infants had severe PNGF >-2 SDS (55 vs. 16%; P = 0.001). The greater use of a diuretic in SG to treat haemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (hsPDA) may have contributed to the higher PNGF rate. Mean growth velocity of at least 15 g/kg/day was attained by VLBW infants only from Day 14 and by ELBW infants only from Day 28 post-natally. Overall, severe PNGF rates (z-score change >-2 SDS at 36 weeks' corrected age) were 28.8 and 36.5% for VLBW and ELBW infants, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS: Being very preterm, ELBW with hsPDA and receiving insufficient protein and energy were risk factors for severe PNGF. Increasing protein and energy content, augmenting fortification of breast milk and concentrating feed volumes, especially if there is an hsPDA, may curb severe PNGF among these infants.
OBJECTIVE: The review was performed to answer the following research question: "In VPNs, are high amounts of arginine in PN, compared with low amounts of arginine, associated with appropriate circulating concentrations of arginine?" Therefore, the aims were to 1) quantify the relationship between parenteral arginine intakes and plasma arginine concentrations in PN-dependent VPNs; 2) identify any features of study design that affect this relationship; and 3) estimate the target parenteral arginine dose to achieve desirable preterm plasma arginine concentrations.
DATA SOURCES: The PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane databases were searched regardless of study design; review articles were not included.
DATA EXTRACTION: Only articles that discussed amino acid (AA) intake and measured plasma AA profile post PN in VPNs were included. Data were obtained using a data extraction checklist that was devised for the purpose of this review.
DATA ANALYSIS: Twelve articles met the inclusion criteria. The dose-concentration relationship of arginine content (%) and absolute arginine intake (mg/(kg × d)) with plasma arginine concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSION: Future studies using AA solutions with arginine content of 17%-20% and protein intakes of 3.5-4.0 g/kg per day may be needed to achieve higher plasma arginine concentrations.
METHOD: Guided by the PRISMA Statement review checklist, a systematic review of the Scopus and Web of Science database has identified 10 related studies. The articles were assessed and analyzed after evaluated using The Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal tools (JBI). Thematic analysis was obtained after using Nvivo software as a tool for data analysis by author.
RESULT: Further review of these articles resulted in three main themes-maternal changes during expressing breast milk, pumping challenges and impact of motivation factors to initiating lactation.
CONCLUSION: Expressing breast milk should be recognized as an important way to restructure motherhood with a preterm infant in NICU. However, maintaining expressed breast milk during preterm infants' treatment period in NICU may increase stress and difficulties for some mothers. Some recommendations are emphasized in relation to the need for more qualitative studies in this issue, which is to have a specific and standard systematic review method for guide research synthesis in context of climate change adaptation.
METHODS: Regional Asian data (2001-2016) were analyzed to describe PHIVA who experienced ≥2 weeks of lamivudine or emtricitabine monotherapy or treatment interruption and trends in CD4 count and HIV viral load during and after episodes. Survival analyses were used for World Health Organization (WHO) stage III/IV clinical and immunologic event-free survival during monotherapy or treatment interruption, and a Poisson regression to determine factors associated with monotherapy or treatment interruption.
RESULTS: Of 3,448 PHIVA, 84 (2.4%) experienced 94 monotherapy episodes, and 147 (4.3%) experienced 174 treatment interruptions. Monotherapy was associated with older age, HIV RNA >400 copies/mL, younger age at ART initiation, and exposure to ≥2 combination ART regimens. Treatment interruption was associated with CD4 count <350 cells/μL, HIV RNA ≥1,000 copies/mL, ART adverse event, and commencing ART age ≥10 years compared with age <3 years. WHO clinical stage III/IV 1-year event-free survival was 96% and 85% for monotherapy and treatment interruption cohorts, respectively. WHO immunologic stage III/IV 1-year event-free survival was 52% for both cohorts. Those who experienced monotherapy or treatment interruption for more than 6 months had worse immunologic and virologic outcomes.
CONCLUSIONS: Until challenges of treatment adherence, engagement in care, and combination ART durability/tolerability are met, monotherapy and treatment interruption will lead to poor long-term outcomes.
Methods: This cross-sectional study, which was carried out at the Paediatric Intensive Care Unit of Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) in Kelantan, Malaysia, had involved 60 neonates admitted for suspected sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values (PPV), negative predictive values (NPV) and the area under receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC) for PCT were determined at initial presentation (0 h) as well as 12 h and 24 h after presentation in comparison to blood culture as the gold standard.
Results: The study consisted of 27 (45.0%) male and 33 (55.0%) female neonates with a mean (SD) age of 76.8 (48.25) h. At cut-off PCT value of > 2 ng/mL, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV were 66.7%, 66.7%, 33.3% and 88.9% at 0 h. The respective parameters were 83.3%. 56.3%, 32.3% and 93.1% at 12 h and 83.3%, 52.1%, 30.3% and 92.6% at 24 h. AUC was 71.6%, 76.6% and 71.7% at 0 h, 12 h and 24 h.
Conclusions: Diagnostic performance and discrimination values of PCT for diagnosis of neonatal sepsis varied with time of obtaining the blood samples. The PCT result at 12 h demonstrates the most optimal diagnostic performance and discrimination values.
METHODS: This prospective cross-sectional study aimed to identify rural-urban differences in risk factors for low birth weight among women in Malaysia. Pregnant women at ≥20 weeks of gestation in urban and rural Malaysia (n = 437) completed questionnaires on sociodemographic characteristics and physical activity. Weight and middle-upper arm circumference were measured. Infant birth outcomes were extracted from medical records.
RESULTS: The overall prevalence of low birth weight infants was 6.38%. Rural women had more low birth weight infants than urban women (9.8% vs 2.0%, p = 0.03). Findings showed rural women were less sedentary (p = 0.003) and participated in more household/caregiving activities (p = 0.036), sports activities (p = 0.01) and less occupational activity (p infants in rural, but not in urban women.
CONCLUSIONS: We observed differences in risk factors for low birth weight between urban and rural pregnant women. Age, malnutrition and low parity were risk factors for low birth weight among rural pregnant women. Our findings suggest that rural pregnant women with low nutritional status should be encouraged to monitor their middle-upper arm circumference consistently throughout pregnancy. Improving nutritional status in rural pregnant women may reduce the risk of low birth weight infants in this population.
Methods: A comparative cross-sectional study involving 86 Malay premature babies (ROP = 41 and non-ROP = 45) was performed from September 2012 to December 2014. Mutation analyses in (FEVR)-causing genes (NDP, FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12) were performed using DNA from premature babies using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct sequencing. Sequencing results were confirmed with PCR-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP).
Results: We found variants of FZD4, LRP5, and TSPAN12 in this study. One patient from each group showed a non-synonymous alteration in FZD4, c.502C>T (p.P168S). A synonymous variant of LRP5 [c.3357G>A (p.V1119V)] was found in 30 ROP and 28 non-ROP patients. Two variants of TSPAN12, c.765G>T (p.P255P) and c.*39C>T (3'UTR), were also recorded (29 and 21 in ROP, 33 and 26 in non-ROP, respectively). Gestational age and birth weight were found to be significantly associated with ROP (P value < 0.001 and 0.001, respectively).
Conclusion: Analysis of data obtained from the ROP Malay population will enhance our understanding of these FEVR-causing gene variants. The c.3357G>A (p.V1119V) variant of LRP5, and c.765G>T (p.P255P) and c.*39C>T variants of TSPAN12 could be common polymorphisms in the Malay ethnic group; however, this requires further elucidation. Future studies using larger groups and higher numbers of advanced cases are necessary to evaluate the relationship between FEVR-causing gene variants and the risk of ROP susceptibility in Malaysian infants.
METHODS: In 2013, a total of 1744 dried blood spots (DBS) were obtained from residents of 8 longhouses who appeared healthy. Subsequently, 251 venous blood samples were collected from residents of 2 localities in 2014 based on the highest number of submicroscopic cases from prior findings. Thin and thick blood films were prepared from blood obtained from all participants in this study. Microscopic examination were carried out on all samples and a nested and nested multiplex PCR were performed on samples collected in 2013 and 2014 respectively.
RESULTS: No malaria parasites were detected in all the Giemsa-stained blood films. However, of the 1744 samples, 29 (1.7%) were positive for Plasmodium vivax by PCR. Additionally, of the 251 samples, the most prevalent mono-infection detected by PCR was Plasmodium falciparum 50 (20%), followed by P. vivax 39 (16%), P. knowlesi 9 (4%), and mixed infections 20 (8%).
CONCLUSIONS: This research findings conclude evidence of Plasmodium by PCR, among samples previously undetectable by routine blood film microscopic examination, in local ethnic minority who are clinically healthy. SMM in Belaga district is attributed not only to P. vivax, but also to P. falciparum and P. knowlesi. In complementing efforts of programme managers, there is a need to increase surveillance for SMM nationwide to estimate the degree of SMM that warrant measures to block new transmission of malaria.
OBJECTIVE: To study the effectiveness of distortion product otoacoustic emission (DPOAE) and automated auditory brainstem response (AABR) as first screening tool among non-risk newborns in a hospital with high delivery rate.
METHOD: A total of 722 non-risk newborns (1444 ears) were screened with both DPOAE and AABR prior to discharge within one month. Babies who failed AABR were rescreened with AABR ± diagnostic auditory brainstem response tests within one month of age.
RESULTS: The pass rate for AABR (67.9%) was higher than DPOAE (50.1%). Both DPOAE and AABR pass rates improved significantly with increasing age (p-value<0.001). The highest pass rate for both DPOAE and AABR were between the age of 36-48 h, 73.1% and 84.2% respectively. The mean testing time for AABR (13.54 min ± 7.47) was significantly longer than DPOAE (3.52 min ± 1.87), with a p-value of <0.001.
CONCLUSIONS: OAE test is faster and easier than AABR, but with higher false positive rate. The most ideal hearing screening protocol should be tailored according to different centre.
METHODS: In a cross-sectional study, the Malay version of the Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) was administered to 227 caregivers of children with ASD. The caregivers were recruited from ASD databases in four tertiary hospitals in Kelantan and a meeting was set up during the child's follow-up in the clinic. Multiple linear regression analyses were applied to determine the predictors of perceived stress.
RESULTS: The mean total perceived stress score was 20.84 (4.72). This was considered higher than average. Higher perceived stress was significantly predicted among caregivers who live far from the health institution, caregivers who do not own transportation to bring the child to the treatment center, and caregivers who have an ASD child with a learning disability.
CONCLUSION: Caregivers of an ASD child perceived significant stress while taking care of their children. Institutions should alleviate the factors that were predicted to increase the caregivers' perceived stress to improve the quality of the lives of children and ASD families as a whole.