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  1. Lin, Hai Peng, Mohd Sham Kasim
    MyJurnal
    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country with a very young population, about 36% of which are below the age of 15 years. The standard of child health has improved greatly. However, there are great changes in the morbidity and mortality patterns of childhood diseases relating mainly to an improved standard of living; availability of safe water supply and adequate sanitary latrines; a higher literacy rate; rapid industrialisation and urban migration. The infant mortality rate has droppedfrom 50.1 per 1,000 livebirths in 1986 to 10.4 in 1995, and similar trends apply also to neonatal, perinatal and toddler mortality rates. Nevertheless, current major child health problems are those relating to events in the perinatal period and to infections. Despite improvements in the standard of neonatal care with the use ofhigh technology, the commonest cause of certified deaths still occur in the neonatal period. A rapid and inexpensive screening test for G6PD deficiency, a disease present in 2-3% of the population, is now widely available and, together with the use of phototherapy is largely responsible for the declining incidence of kernicterus in the country. Infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality although their patterns have changed. The very high (>95%) WHO-EPI-vaccines coverage rate is linked to the great reduction in the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Childhood tuberculosis is less common now, with about 250 - 300 reported cases per year and TB meningitis is rare with about 30-40 reported cases/year. The hepatitis B carrier rate is high (5%) and the introduction of routine newborn hepatitis B vaccination in 1989 is expected to have a positive impact as is the immunisation of young girls against rubella introduced in 1985 in reducing the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. The incidence of malaria has declined but remains prevalent in the interiors of PeninsularMalaysia and in Sabah and Sarawak. Filariasis is largely under control. Unfortunately, despite great efforts at mosquito control, dengue virus infection remains a major problem with thousands of cases reported every year. Children are most susceptible to dengue haemorrhagic fever with many dying from the shock syndrome. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis has also dropped with most cases being due to a viral aetiology. Acute respiratory infections, mostly viral in origin, account for most attendances at paediatric outpatient services. Although staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo and pneumonia are common, the incidence of streptococcal related diseases like rheumatic fever and acute glomendonephritis is rapidly declining. The nutritional status of children has improved in tandem with the rise in the standard of living, but subclinical malnutrition is prevalent, particularly among urban squatters and the rural poor. There is a disturbing decline in breastfeeding among urban working mothers. Poor weaning practices and food habits are responsible for the common occurrence of nutritional anaemia (5%) among infants and young children. Greater prosperity, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in changes in the childhood disease pattern where non-communicable diseases assume greater importance as the problems of malnutrition and infection are gradually overcome. Road traffic accidents are a major killer and home accidents, largely preventable, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Childhood cancer, with about 550 new cases a year, is an important cause of death beyond infancy. Major congenital malformations, with a 1% prevalence rate, cause much ill-health. Thalassaemia is a particularly common genetic disease with fl thalassaemia gene frequency of about 5%. The prevalence of asthma is increasing, with a rate of 13.9% in the Kiang Valley but the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms is much higher. Physical, sexual child abuse and neglect, abandoned babies, substance abuse are but signs of stress of modern city living and peoples inability to cope with it. Although the general standard of child health has greatly improved, there are several states where it is still not satisfactory. In Sabah where there is a large illegal immigrant population, the infant mortality and infection rates are relatively high. In Kelantan and Trengganu, it is common for parents to refuse permission for a lumbar puncture required to treat meningitis. Other still deeply entrenched, culturally-related adverse health practices include : a fatalistic attitude to illness; a preference for traditional practitioners of medicine resulting in late treatment; and 'doctor-hopping' with unrealistic expectations of 'instant cure'. Childhood illnesses that are uncommon in Malaysia include: cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Encopresis, enuresis and epiglottitis due to Haemophilus Influen:ae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Chen BC, McGown IN, Thong MK, Pitt J, Yunus ZM, Khoo TB, et al.
    J. Inherit. Metab. Dis., 2010 Dec;33 Suppl 3:S159-62.
    PMID: 20177786 DOI: 10.1007/s10545-010-9056-z
    Most cases of adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL OMIM 103050) deficiency reported to date are confined to the various European ethnic groups. We report on the first Malaysian case of ADSL deficiency, which appears also to be the first reported Asian case. The case was diagnosed among a cohort of 450 patients with clinical features of psychomotor retardation, global developmental delay, seizures, microcephaly and/or autistic behaviour. The patient presented with frequent convulsions and severe myoclonic jerk within the first few days of life and severe psychomotor retardation. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the urine revealed the characteristic biochemical markers of succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinyl-aminoimidazole carboximide riboside (SAICAr). The urinary S-Ado/SAICAr ratio was found to be 1.02 (type I ADSL deficiency). The patient was compound heterozygous for two novel mutations, c.445C > G (p.R149G) and c.774_778insG (p.A260GfsX24).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Biglari S, Alfizah H, Ramliza R, Rahman MM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):53-8.
    PMID: 25381148 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.082263-0
    Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Al-Talib H, Latif B, Mohd-Zain Z
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2014 Sep;52(9):3244-9.
    PMID: 24958797 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00891-14
    Diarrheal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 10 years in developing countries. Conventional testing for the detection of hemorrhagic bacteria takes 2 to 5 days to yield complete information on the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Hence, in the present study, we developed a molecular-based diagnostic assay that identifies common hemorrhagic bacteria in stool samples. A set of specific primers were designed for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and Campylobacter spp., suitable for use in a one-tube PCR assay. The assay in the present study simultaneously detected five genes, namely, ompC for the Salmonella genus, virA for the Shigella genus, eaeA for EHEC, 16S rRNA for the Campylobacter genus, and hemA for an internal control. Specific primer pairs were successfully designed and simultaneously amplified the targeted genes. Validation with 20 Gram-negative and 17 Gram-positive strains yielded 100% specificity. The limit of detection of the multiplex PCR assay was 1 × 10(3) CFU at the bacterial cell level and 100 pg at the genomic DNA level. Further evaluation of the multiplex PCR with 223 bacterium-spiked stool specimens revealed 100% sensitivity and specificity. We conclude that the developed multiplex PCR assay was rapid, giving results within 4 h, which is essential for the identification of hemorrhagic bacteria, and it might be useful as an additional diagnostic tool whenever time is important in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic bacteria that cause diarrhea. In addition, the presence of an internal control in the multiplex PCR assay is important for excluding false-negative cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Jefferies JM, Mohd Yusof MY, Devi Sekaran S, Clarke SC
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e97912.
    PMID: 24941079 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097912
    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Moy FM, Ray A, Buckley BS, West HM
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 06 11;6:CD009613.
    PMID: 28602020 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009613.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2016), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted trial authors.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing techniques of blood glucose monitoring including SMBG, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or clinic monitoring among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2). Trials investigating timing and frequency of monitoring were also included. RCTs using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.

    MAIN RESULTS: This review update includes at total of 10 trials (538) women (468 women with type 1 diabetes and 70 women with type 2 diabetes). The trials took place in Europe and the USA. Five of the 10 included studies were at moderate risk of bias, four studies were at low to moderate risk of bias, and one study was at high risk of bias. The trials are too small to show differences in important outcomes such as macrosomia, preterm birth, miscarriage or death of baby. Almost all the reported GRADE outcomes were assessed as being very low-quality evidence. This was due to design limitations in the studies, wide confidence intervals, small sample sizes, and few events. In addition, there was high heterogeneity for some outcomes.Various methods of glucose monitoring were compared in the trials. Neither pooled analyses nor individual trial analyses showed any clear advantages of one monitoring technique over another for primary and secondary outcomes. Many important outcomes were not reported.1. Self-monitoring versus standard care (two studies, 43 women): there was no clear difference for caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 1.49; one study, 28 women) or glycaemic control (both very low-quality), and not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality and morbidity composite. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, large-for-gestational age, neurosensory disability, and preterm birth were not reported in either study.2. Self-monitoring versus hospitalisation (one study, 100 women): there was no clear difference for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and hypertension) (RR 4.26, 95% CI 0.52 to 35.16; very low-quality: RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.22; very low-quality). There was no clear difference in caesarean section or preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation (both very low quality), and the sample size was too small to assess perinatal mortality (very low-quality). Large-for-gestational age, mortality or morbidity composite, neurosensory disability and preterm birth less than 34 weeks were not reported.3. Pre-prandial versus post-prandial glucose monitoring (one study, 61 women): there was no clear difference between groups for caesarean section (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.28; very low-quality), large-for-gestational age (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.85; very low-quality) or glycaemic control (very low-quality). The results for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: pre-eclampsia and perinatal mortality are not meaningful because these outcomes were too rare to show differences in a small sample (all very low-quality). The study did not report the outcomes mortality or morbidity composite, neurosensory disability or preterm birth.4. Automated telemedicine monitoring versus conventional system (three studies, 84 women): there was no clear difference for caesarean section (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.48; one study, 32 women; very low-quality), and mortality or morbidity composite in the one study that reported these outcomes. There were no clear differences for glycaemic control (very low-quality). No studies reported hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, large-for-gestational age, perinatal mortality (stillbirth and neonatal mortality), neurosensory disability or preterm birth.5.CGM versus intermittent monitoring (two studies, 225 women): there was no clear difference for pre-eclampsia (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.52 to 3.59; low-quality), caesarean section (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.54; I² = 62%; very low-quality) and large-for-gestational age (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.92; I² = 82%; very low-quality). Glycaemic control indicated by mean maternal HbA1c was lower for women in the continuous monitoring group (mean difference (MD) -0.60 %, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.29; one study, 71 women; moderate-quality). There was not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality and there were no clear differences for preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation (low-quality). Mortality or morbidity composite, neurosensory disability and preterm birth less than 34 weeks were not reported.6. Constant CGM versus intermittent CGM (one study, 25 women): there was no clear difference between groups for caesarean section (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.79; very low-quality), glycaemic control (mean blood glucose in the 3rd trimester) (MD -0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI -2.00 to 1.72; very low-quality) or preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.08 to 15.46; very low-quality). Other primary (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, large-for-gestational age, perinatal mortality (stillbirth and neonatal mortality), mortality or morbidity composite, and neurosensory disability) or GRADE outcomes (preterm birth less than 34 weeks' gestation) were not reported.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found no evidence that any glucose monitoring technique is superior to any other technique among pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The evidence base for the effectiveness of monitoring techniques is weak and additional evidence from large well-designed randomised trials is required to inform choices of glucose monitoring techniques.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Suhaimi MES, Desa MNM, Eskandarian N, Pillay SG, Ismail Z, Neela VK, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 Jan-Feb;10(1):14-21.
    PMID: 27095302 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.01.009
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize GBS isolates that were collected from three major hospitals in a densely populated area of Klang Valley for their demographics, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genetic background.

    METHODS: Sixty GBS isolates from sterile and non-sterile samples in three major hospitals in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia were collected by convenience sampling from 2012 until March 2014. These isolates were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, serotypes and genotypes. Patients' demographic data and clinical information were collected from lab request forms.

    RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was the only underlying condition (7 patients, 23.3%); the remaining samples were from patients who were immunocompromised due to medications. Fifty-nine (98%) isolates were sensitive to penicillin, while 78.3% and 88.3% of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Serotype Ia was the most common serotype (n=27, 45%), followed by serotype III (n=10, 16.7%), V (n=9, 15%), VI (n=8, 13.3%), VIII (n=2, 3.3%) and VII (n=1, 1.7%). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing showed a diverse genetic pedigree for all isolates, including four major groups that clustered according to geographical location.

    CONCLUSION: This preliminary study determines the prevalence of limited common serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in distinct GBS isolates. Nonetheless, the RAPD clustering pattern suggests a close genetic lineage of the GBS isolates based on their isolation sites and location of hospitals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Lai NM, Taylor JE, Tan K, Choo YM, Ahmad Kamar A, Muhamad NA
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 Mar 23;3:CD011082.
    PMID: 27007217 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011082.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Central venous catheters (CVCs) provide secured venous access in neonates. Antimicrobial dressings applied over the CVC sites have been proposed to reduce catheter-related blood stream infection (CRBSI) by decreasing colonisation. However, there may be concerns on the local and systemic adverse effects of these dressings in neonates.

    OBJECTIVES: We assessed the effectiveness and safety of antimicrobial (antiseptic or antibiotic) dressings in reducing CVC-related infections in newborn infants. Had there been relevant data, we would have evaluated the effects of antimicrobial dressings in different subgroups, including infants who received different types of CVCs, infants who required CVC for different durations, infants with CVCs with and without other antimicrobial modifications, and infants who received an antimicrobial dressing with and without a clearly defined co-intervention.

    SEARCH METHODS: We used the standard search strategy of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group (CNRG). We searched the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library 2015, Issue 9), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (EBCHOST), CINAHL and references cited in our short-listed articles using keywords and MeSH headings, up to September 2015.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: We included randomised controlled trials that compared an antimicrobial CVC dressing against no dressing or another dressing in newborn infants.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We extracted data using the standard methods of the CNRG. Two review authors independently assessed the eligibility and risk of bias of the retrieved records. We expressed our results using risk difference (RD) and risk ratio (RR) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs).

    MAIN RESULTS: Out of 173 articles screened, three studies were included. There were two comparisons: chlorhexidine dressing following alcohol cleansing versus polyurethane dressing following povidone-iodine cleansing (one study); and silver-alginate patch versus control (two studies). A total of 855 infants from level III neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) were evaluated, 705 of whom were from a single study. All studies were at high risk of bias for blinding of care personnel or unclear risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors. There was moderate-quality evidence for all major outcomes.The single study comparing chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing against polyurethane dressing/povidone-iodine cleansing showed no significant difference in the risk of CRBSI (RR 1.18, 95% CI 0.53 to 2.65; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.03; 655 infants, moderate-quality evidence) and sepsis without a source (RR 1.06, 95% CI 0.75 to 1.52; RD 0.01, 95% CI -0.04 to 0.06; 705 infants, moderate-quality evidence). There was a significant reduction in the risk of catheter colonisation favouring chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing group (RR 0.62, 95% CI 0.45 to 0.86; RD -0.09, 95% CI -0.15 to -0.03; number needed to treat for an additional beneficial outcome (NNTB) 11, 95% CI 7 to 33; 655 infants, moderate-quality evidence). However, infants in the chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing group were significantly more likely to develop contact dermatitis, with 19 infants in the chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing group having developed contact dermatitis compared to none in the polyurethane dressing/povidone-iodine cleansing group (RR 43.06, 95% CI 2.61 to 710.44; RD 0.06, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.08; number needed to treat for an additional harmful outcome (NNTH) 17, 95% CI 13 to 33; 705 infants, moderate-quality evidence). The roles of chlorhexidine dressing in the outcomes reported were unclear, as the two assigned groups received different co-interventions in the form of different skin cleansing agents prior to catheter insertion and during each dressing change.In the other comparison, silver-alginate patch versus control, the data for CRBSI were analysed separately in two subgroups as the two included studies reported the outcome using different denominators: one using infants and another using catheters. There were no significant differences between infants who received silver-alginate patch against infants who received standard line dressing in CRBSI, whether expressed as the number of infants (RR 0.50, 95% CI 0.14 to 1.78; RD -0.12, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.09; 1 study, 50 participants, moderate-quality evidence) or as the number of catheters (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.89; RD -0.05, 95% CI -0.20 to 0.10; 1 study, 118 participants, moderate-quality evidence). There was also no significant difference between the two groups in mortality (RR 0.55, 95% CI 0.15 to 2.05; RD -0.04, 95% CI -0.13 to 0.05; two studies, 150 infants, I² = 0%, moderate-quality evidence). No adverse skin reaction was recorded in either group.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: Based on moderate-quality evidence, chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol skin cleansing reduced catheter colonisation, but made no significant difference in major outcomes like sepsis and CRBSI compared to polyurethane dressing/povidone-iodine cleansing. Chlorhexidine dressing/alcohol cleansing posed a substantial risk of contact dermatitis in preterm infants, although it was unclear whether this was contributed mainly by the dressing material or the cleansing agent. While silver-alginate patch appeared safe, evidence is still insufficient for a recommendation in practice. Future research that evaluates antimicrobial dressing should ensure blinding of caregivers and outcome assessors and ensure that all participants receive the same co-interventions, such as the skin cleansing agent. Major outcomes like sepsis, CRBSI and mortality should be assessed in infants of different gestation and birth weight.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Wong CS, Cheah FC
    J. Pediatr. Surg., 2012 Dec;47(12):2336-40.
    PMID: 23217901 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.029
    Cephalhematoma is normally a self-limiting condition affecting 1%-2% of live births, especially following instrumental forceps delivery. The sub-periosteal bleed is characteristically limited by the cranial sutures. Although benign in most instances, this condition may, in a small proportion of cases, be complicated by hyperbilirubinemia or scalp infection. We describe a case of cephalhematoma in a newborn infant infected with Escherichia coli resulting in an extensive deep seated scalp abscess. The infection was also systemic causing E. coli septicemia and initial assessment assumed local extension including bone and meningeal to cause skull osteomyelitis and meningitis respectively. Further investigations and multiple-modality imaging with ultrasound, CT scan and bone scintigraphy outlined the involvement as limited to the scalp, resulting in a shorter antibiotic treatment period and earlier discharge from hospital. The infant recovered well with parenteral antibiotics, saucerization of the abscess and a later skin grafting procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Al-Mekhlafi AM, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Azazy AA, Fong MY
    Parasit Vectors, 2011;4:94.
    PMID: 21619624 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-94
    Malaria remains a significant health problem in Yemen with Plasmodium falciparum being the predominant species which is responsible for 90% of the malaria cases. Despite serious concerns regarding increasing drug resistance, chloroquine is still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of choloroquine resistance (CQR) of P. falciparum isolated from Yemen based on the pfcrt T76 mutation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Alwi M, Choo KK, Radzi NA, Samion H, Pau KK, Hew CC
    J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 2011 Jun;141(6):1355-61.
    PMID: 21227471 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.085
    Our objective was to determine the feasibility and early to medium-term outcome of stenting the patent ductus arteriosus at the time of radiofrequency valvotomy in the subgroup of patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and intermediate right ventricle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Nor Azlin MI, Nor NA, Sufian SS, Mustafa N, Jamil MA, Kamaruddin NA
    Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand, 2007;86(4):407-8.
    PMID: 17486460
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. ESRD Incidence Study Group, Stewart JH, McCredie MR, Williams SM
    Nephrol. Dial. Transplant., 2006 Aug;21(8):2178-83.
    PMID: 16595584
    Only unbiased estimates of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) incidence and trends are useful for disease control-identification of risk factors and measuring the effect of intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Van Rostenberghe H, Noraida R, Wan Pauzi WI, Habsah H, Zeehaida M, Rosliza AR, et al.
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2006 Apr;59(2):120-1.
    PMID: 16632913
    Pantoea infections are uncommon in humans. Most reports have involved adults or children after thorn injuries. There are only a few reports of systemic infections with Pantoea. This is the first report of the clinical picture of systemic Pantoea spp. infection in neonates as observed during an outbreak in a neonatal intensive care unit caused by infected parenteral nutrition solutions. Even though detected early, the infections had a fulminant course, causing septicemic shock and respiratory failure. Pulmonary disease was prominent and presented mainly as pulmonary hemorrhage and adult respiratory distress syndrome. The organism was sensitive to most antibiotics used in neonatal intensive care units, but the clinical response to antibiotic therapy was poor. The fatality rate was very high: 7 out of 8 infected infants succumbed to the infection (87.5%).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Osman O, Fong MY, Devi S
    Jpn. J. Infect. Dis., 2007 Jul;60(4):205-8.
    PMID: 17642533
    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of dengue infection in Brunei and to determine the predominant serotype circulating in the country. The study generated useful epidemiological data on dengue infection in Brunei. A total of 271 samples from patients suspected of having dengue infections were selected and analyzed. All patients were seen in clinics and hospitals in Brunei. The samples were collected from April 2005 to April 2006 and transported to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Arbovirus Reference and Research, University of Malaya, Malaysia. The following tests were used to achieve the objectives: in-house IgM-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, virus isolation in mosquito albopictus cell line (C6/36), and viral RNA detection and serotyping by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results show that 45 people were positive for dengue-specific IgM (27 males and 18 females), while RT-PCR detected dengue viral RNA in 12 patients, 3 identified as DEN-1 and 9 as DEN-2. Dengue virus was isolated from 6 patients using the C6/36 cell line; 3 were DEN-2 isolates and 3 were DEN-1 isolates. These data show that dengue virus is circulating in Brunei and the predominant infecting serotype for that period was DEN-2 followed by DEN-1. This study is the first to report the detection and isolation of dengue virus from Brunei using RT-PCR and culture in the C6/36 albopictus mosquito cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Lee WS
    J Paediatr Child Health, 2008 Jan;44(1-2):57-61.
    PMID: 17640283
    To study factors leading to delayed referral in neonatal cholestasis at a tertiary centre in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Chan PW, Lok FY, Khatijah SB
    PMID: 12757230
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a common infection in young children and may result in hospitalization. We examined the incidence of, and risk factors associated with, hypoxemia and respiratory failure in 216 children aged < 24 months admitted consecutively for proven RSV bronchiolitis. Hypoxemia was defined as SpO2 < 90% in room air and severe RSV bronchiolitis requiring intubation and ventilation was categorized as respiratory failure. Corrected age at admission was used for premature children (gestation < 37 weeks). Hypoxemia was suffered by 31 (14.3%) children. It was more likely to occur in children who were Malay (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.05-6.23, p=0.03) or premature (OR 6.72, 95%CI 2.69-16.78, p<0.01). Hypoxemia was also more likely to develop in children with failure to thrive (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.28-6.82, p<0.01). The seven (3.2%) children who were both premature (OR 11.94, 95%CI 2.50-56.99, p<0.01) and failure to thrive (OR 6.41, 95%CI 1.37-29.87, p=0.02) were more likely to develop respiratory failure. Prematurity was the only significant risk factor for hypoxemia and respiratory failure by logistic regression analysis (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.55, p<0.01 and OR 1.14 95%CI 1.02-2.07, p=0.02 respectively). Prematurity was the single most important risk factor for both hypoxemia and respiratory failure in RSV bronchiolitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Ariffin H, Navaratnam P, Kee TK, Balan G
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 2004 Feb;50(1):26-31.
    PMID: 14984166
    The pattern of antibiotic resistance amongst gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in paediatric units, which have heavy empirical usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics, was studied prospectively over a 6-month period. A total of 200 consecutive, non-duplicate gram-negative isolates were obtained from 109 patients admitted to intensive care and oncology units in two hospitals. The commonest isolates were Klebsiella spp (36.5 per cent) and Pseudomonas (20.0 per cent). The isolates showed lower susceptibility rates to the third-generation cephalosporins (47-62 per cent) compared with cefepime (91 per cent), imipenem (90 per cent) and ciprofloxacin (99 per cent). Fifty-four (52.8 per cent) Klebsiella and Escherichia coli isolates were determined to be extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains. Antibiotics found to be effective against ESBL-producers were imipenem and ciprofloxacin. The high resistance rate amongst GNB to third-generation cephalosporins is a likely consequence of heavy empirical usage of this group of antibiotics. The carbapenems and quinolones remain useful agents in the management of patients admitted to these units.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. David P, Subramaniam K
    PMID: 16228975
    Extensive research on prenatal alcohol exposure has proven the potent teratogenicity of this substance of abuse. Children born to alcoholic mothers are often diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Those afflicted with FAS often have muscle weakness, muscle wasting, and atrophy. This study assessed the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on the developing rat neuromuscular system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Lee WS, Chong LA, Begum S, Abdullah WA, Koh MT, Lim EJ
    J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 2001 May;23(4):244-6.
    PMID: 11846304
    We report a newborn infant girl, born to consanguineous parents, with recurrent intracranial hemorrhage secondary to congenital factor V deficiency with factor V inhibitor. Repeated transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates, administrations of immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone and cyclophosphamide), and intravenous immunoglobulin failed to normalize the coagulation profiles. Exchange transfusion followed-up by administrations of activated prothrombin complex and transfusions of FFP and platelet concentrates caused a temporary normalization of coagulation profile, enabling an insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for progressive hydrocephalus. The treatment was complicated by thrombosis of left brachial artery and ischemia of left middle finger. The child finally died from another episode of intracranial hemorrhage 10 days after insertion of the VP shunt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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