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  1. Chen BC, McGown IN, Thong MK, Pitt J, Yunus ZM, Khoo TB, et al.
    J. Inherit. Metab. Dis., 2010 Dec;33 Suppl 3:S159-62.
    PMID: 20177786 DOI: 10.1007/s10545-010-9056-z
    Most cases of adenylosuccinate lyase (ADSL OMIM 103050) deficiency reported to date are confined to the various European ethnic groups. We report on the first Malaysian case of ADSL deficiency, which appears also to be the first reported Asian case. The case was diagnosed among a cohort of 450 patients with clinical features of psychomotor retardation, global developmental delay, seizures, microcephaly and/or autistic behaviour. The patient presented with frequent convulsions and severe myoclonic jerk within the first few days of life and severe psychomotor retardation. The high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) profile of the urine revealed the characteristic biochemical markers of succinyladenosine (S-Ado) and succinyl-aminoimidazole carboximide riboside (SAICAr). The urinary S-Ado/SAICAr ratio was found to be 1.02 (type I ADSL deficiency). The patient was compound heterozygous for two novel mutations, c.445C > G (p.R149G) and c.774_778insG (p.A260GfsX24).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  2. Lin, Hai Peng, Mohd Sham Kasim
    MyJurnal
    Malaysia is a rapidly developing country with a very young population, about 36% of which are below the age of 15 years. The standard of child health has improved greatly. However, there are great changes in the morbidity and mortality patterns of childhood diseases relating mainly to an improved standard of living; availability of safe water supply and adequate sanitary latrines; a higher literacy rate; rapid industrialisation and urban migration. The infant mortality rate has droppedfrom 50.1 per 1,000 livebirths in 1986 to 10.4 in 1995, and similar trends apply also to neonatal, perinatal and toddler mortality rates. Nevertheless, current major child health problems are those relating to events in the perinatal period and to infections. Despite improvements in the standard of neonatal care with the use ofhigh technology, the commonest cause of certified deaths still occur in the neonatal period. A rapid and inexpensive screening test for G6PD deficiency, a disease present in 2-3% of the population, is now widely available and, together with the use of phototherapy is largely responsible for the declining incidence of kernicterus in the country. Infections remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality although their patterns have changed. The very high (>95%) WHO-EPI-vaccines coverage rate is linked to the great reduction in the incidence of diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, poliomyelitis and measles. Childhood tuberculosis is less common now, with about 250 - 300 reported cases per year and TB meningitis is rare with about 30-40 reported cases/year. The hepatitis B carrier rate is high (5%) and the introduction of routine newborn hepatitis B vaccination in 1989 is expected to have a positive impact as is the immunisation of young girls against rubella introduced in 1985 in reducing the incidence of congenital rubella syndrome. The incidence of malaria has declined but remains prevalent in the interiors of PeninsularMalaysia and in Sabah and Sarawak. Filariasis is largely under control. Unfortunately, despite great efforts at mosquito control, dengue virus infection remains a major problem with thousands of cases reported every year. Children are most susceptible to dengue haemorrhagic fever with many dying from the shock syndrome. The incidence of acute gastroenteritis has also dropped with most cases being due to a viral aetiology. Acute respiratory infections, mostly viral in origin, account for most attendances at paediatric outpatient services. Although staphylococcal and streptococcal impetigo and pneumonia are common, the incidence of streptococcal related diseases like rheumatic fever and acute glomendonephritis is rapidly declining. The nutritional status of children has improved in tandem with the rise in the standard of living, but subclinical malnutrition is prevalent, particularly among urban squatters and the rural poor. There is a disturbing decline in breastfeeding among urban working mothers. Poor weaning practices and food habits are responsible for the common occurrence of nutritional anaemia (5%) among infants and young children. Greater prosperity, rapid industrialisation and urbanisation have resulted in changes in the childhood disease pattern where non-communicable diseases assume greater importance as the problems of malnutrition and infection are gradually overcome. Road traffic accidents are a major killer and home accidents, largely preventable, are an important cause of morbidity and mortality. Childhood cancer, with about 550 new cases a year, is an important cause of death beyond infancy. Major congenital malformations, with a 1% prevalence rate, cause much ill-health. Thalassaemia is a particularly common genetic disease with fl thalassaemia gene frequency of about 5%. The prevalence of asthma is increasing, with a rate of 13.9% in the Kiang Valley but the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms is much higher. Physical, sexual child abuse and neglect, abandoned babies, substance abuse are but signs of stress of modern city living and peoples inability to cope with it. Although the general standard of child health has greatly improved, there are several states where it is still not satisfactory. In Sabah where there is a large illegal immigrant population, the infant mortality and infection rates are relatively high. In Kelantan and Trengganu, it is common for parents to refuse permission for a lumbar puncture required to treat meningitis. Other still deeply entrenched, culturally-related adverse health practices include : a fatalistic attitude to illness; a preference for traditional practitioners of medicine resulting in late treatment; and 'doctor-hopping' with unrealistic expectations of 'instant cure'. Childhood illnesses that are uncommon in Malaysia include: cystic fibrosis, coeliac disease, ulcerative colitis, Crohns disease, Sudden Infant Death Syndrome, Encopresis, enuresis and epiglottitis due to Haemophilus Influen:ae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  3. Suhaimi MES, Desa MNM, Eskandarian N, Pillay SG, Ismail Z, Neela VK, et al.
    J Infect Public Health, 2017 Jan-Feb;10(1):14-21.
    PMID: 27095302 DOI: 10.1016/j.jiph.2016.01.009
    BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: The purpose of this study is to characterize GBS isolates that were collected from three major hospitals in a densely populated area of Klang Valley for their demographics, serotypes, antibiotic susceptibility patterns and genetic background.

    METHODS: Sixty GBS isolates from sterile and non-sterile samples in three major hospitals in the Klang Valley area of Malaysia were collected by convenience sampling from 2012 until March 2014. These isolates were studied for their antimicrobial susceptibilities, serotypes and genotypes. Patients' demographic data and clinical information were collected from lab request forms.

    RESULTS: Diabetes mellitus was the only underlying condition (7 patients, 23.3%); the remaining samples were from patients who were immunocompromised due to medications. Fifty-nine (98%) isolates were sensitive to penicillin, while 78.3% and 88.3% of the isolates were sensitive to erythromycin and clindamycin, respectively. Serotype Ia was the most common serotype (n=27, 45%), followed by serotype III (n=10, 16.7%), V (n=9, 15%), VI (n=8, 13.3%), VIII (n=2, 3.3%) and VII (n=1, 1.7%). Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) typing showed a diverse genetic pedigree for all isolates, including four major groups that clustered according to geographical location.

    CONCLUSION: This preliminary study determines the prevalence of limited common serotypes and antimicrobial resistance in distinct GBS isolates. Nonetheless, the RAPD clustering pattern suggests a close genetic lineage of the GBS isolates based on their isolation sites and location of hospitals.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  4. Wong CS, Cheah FC
    J. Pediatr. Surg., 2012 Dec;47(12):2336-40.
    PMID: 23217901 DOI: 10.1016/j.jpedsurg.2012.09.029
    Cephalhematoma is normally a self-limiting condition affecting 1%-2% of live births, especially following instrumental forceps delivery. The sub-periosteal bleed is characteristically limited by the cranial sutures. Although benign in most instances, this condition may, in a small proportion of cases, be complicated by hyperbilirubinemia or scalp infection. We describe a case of cephalhematoma in a newborn infant infected with Escherichia coli resulting in an extensive deep seated scalp abscess. The infection was also systemic causing E. coli septicemia and initial assessment assumed local extension including bone and meningeal to cause skull osteomyelitis and meningitis respectively. Further investigations and multiple-modality imaging with ultrasound, CT scan and bone scintigraphy outlined the involvement as limited to the scalp, resulting in a shorter antibiotic treatment period and earlier discharge from hospital. The infant recovered well with parenteral antibiotics, saucerization of the abscess and a later skin grafting procedure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  5. Chan PW, Lok FY, Khatijah SB
    PMID: 12757230
    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) bronchiolitis is a common infection in young children and may result in hospitalization. We examined the incidence of, and risk factors associated with, hypoxemia and respiratory failure in 216 children aged < 24 months admitted consecutively for proven RSV bronchiolitis. Hypoxemia was defined as SpO2 < 90% in room air and severe RSV bronchiolitis requiring intubation and ventilation was categorized as respiratory failure. Corrected age at admission was used for premature children (gestation < 37 weeks). Hypoxemia was suffered by 31 (14.3%) children. It was more likely to occur in children who were Malay (OR 2.56, 95%CI 1.05-6.23, p=0.03) or premature (OR 6.72, 95%CI 2.69-16.78, p<0.01). Hypoxemia was also more likely to develop in children with failure to thrive (OR 2.96, 95%CI 1.28-6.82, p<0.01). The seven (3.2%) children who were both premature (OR 11.94, 95%CI 2.50-56.99, p<0.01) and failure to thrive (OR 6.41, 95%CI 1.37-29.87, p=0.02) were more likely to develop respiratory failure. Prematurity was the only significant risk factor for hypoxemia and respiratory failure by logistic regression analysis (OR 1.17, 95%CI 1.06-1.55, p<0.01 and OR 1.14 95%CI 1.02-2.07, p=0.02 respectively). Prematurity was the single most important risk factor for both hypoxemia and respiratory failure in RSV bronchiolitis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  6. Lee WS, Chong LA, Begum S, Abdullah WA, Koh MT, Lim EJ
    J. Pediatr. Hematol. Oncol., 2001 May;23(4):244-6.
    PMID: 11846304
    We report a newborn infant girl, born to consanguineous parents, with recurrent intracranial hemorrhage secondary to congenital factor V deficiency with factor V inhibitor. Repeated transfusions of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP) and platelet concentrates, administrations of immunosuppressive therapy (prednisolone and cyclophosphamide), and intravenous immunoglobulin failed to normalize the coagulation profiles. Exchange transfusion followed-up by administrations of activated prothrombin complex and transfusions of FFP and platelet concentrates caused a temporary normalization of coagulation profile, enabling an insertion of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for progressive hydrocephalus. The treatment was complicated by thrombosis of left brachial artery and ischemia of left middle finger. The child finally died from another episode of intracranial hemorrhage 10 days after insertion of the VP shunt.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  7. Ariffin H, Navaratnam P, Kee TK, Balan G
    J. Trop. Pediatr., 2004 Feb;50(1):26-31.
    PMID: 14984166
    The pattern of antibiotic resistance amongst gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in paediatric units, which have heavy empirical usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics, was studied prospectively over a 6-month period. A total of 200 consecutive, non-duplicate gram-negative isolates were obtained from 109 patients admitted to intensive care and oncology units in two hospitals. The commonest isolates were Klebsiella spp (36.5 per cent) and Pseudomonas (20.0 per cent). The isolates showed lower susceptibility rates to the third-generation cephalosporins (47-62 per cent) compared with cefepime (91 per cent), imipenem (90 per cent) and ciprofloxacin (99 per cent). Fifty-four (52.8 per cent) Klebsiella and Escherichia coli isolates were determined to be extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains. Antibiotics found to be effective against ESBL-producers were imipenem and ciprofloxacin. The high resistance rate amongst GNB to third-generation cephalosporins is a likely consequence of heavy empirical usage of this group of antibiotics. The carbapenems and quinolones remain useful agents in the management of patients admitted to these units.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  8. Al-Mekhlafi AM, Mahdy MA, Al-Mekhlafi HM, Azazy AA, Fong MY
    Parasit Vectors, 2011;4:94.
    PMID: 21619624 DOI: 10.1186/1756-3305-4-94
    Malaria remains a significant health problem in Yemen with Plasmodium falciparum being the predominant species which is responsible for 90% of the malaria cases. Despite serious concerns regarding increasing drug resistance, chloroquine is still used for the prevention and treatment of malaria in Yemen. This study was carried out to determine the prevalence of choloroquine resistance (CQR) of P. falciparum isolated from Yemen based on the pfcrt T76 mutation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  9. Alwi M, Choo KK, Radzi NA, Samion H, Pau KK, Hew CC
    J. Thorac. Cardiovasc. Surg., 2011 Jun;141(6):1355-61.
    PMID: 21227471 DOI: 10.1016/j.jtcvs.2010.08.085
    Our objective was to determine the feasibility and early to medium-term outcome of stenting the patent ductus arteriosus at the time of radiofrequency valvotomy in the subgroup of patients with pulmonary atresia with intact ventricular septum and intermediate right ventricle.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  10. Chye JK, Lim CT
    Singapore Med J, 1999 Sep;40(9):565-70.
    PMID: 10628243
    To determine the survival rates and risk factors associated with mortality in premature very low birth weight or VLBW (< or = 1500 grams) infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  11. Chye JK, Lim CT, Leong HL, Wong PK
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1999 Mar;28(2):193-8.
    PMID: 10497665
    This study aims to determine the prevalence of and risk factors associated with retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. All premature VLBW infants, admitted into the neonatal intensive care unit of the University Hospital Kuala Lumpur, were screened from 4 weeks of life. Perinatal and neonatal data were retrieved from the infants' medical notes. Between August 1994 and July 1996, 100 infants had their eyes examined serially. Of the 15 (15%) infants with ROP, all were less than 31 weeks gestation, and only 1 infant had birth weight above 1250 g. Five (5%) infants had severe ROP; 4 infants underwent cryotherapy for stage 3 threshold disease. Infants with ROP, as compared to infants without ROP, had lower birth weight [mean (SEM) 993 (50) g versus 1205 (22) g, P < 0.001], lower gestational age [mean (SEM) 28.0 (0.4) weeks versus 30.1 (0.2) weeks, P < 0.001], higher rates of patent ductus arteriosus and chronic lung disease, greater number of radiographic examinations and episodes of late-onset suspected/confirmed sepsis, and required longer duration of supplemental oxygen, ventilation, xanthine, antibiotics and intralipid use, but were slower to establish full enteral feeds. On multivariate logistic regression analysis, birth weight < or = 1000 g [OR 2.38, 95% CI 1.25, 4.55, P = 0.009] and gestational age < or = 28 weeks [OR 2.86, 95% CI 1.47, 5.56, P = 0.002] were significant predictors of increased risk of this disease. In conclusion, ROP is strongly associated with smaller, more immature and sicker neonates. Prevention of prematurity would help reduce the incidence of this disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  12. Ho JJ, Amar HS, Mohan AJ, Hon TH
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Apr;35(2):175-80.
    PMID: 10365356
    OBJECTIVE: To examine the prevalence and pattern of neurodevelopmental handicap at 2 years of age in very low birth weight infants (VLBW) admitted in 1993 to a level 3 Malaysian nursery.

    METHODS: All VLBW babies born in the hospital or referred for neonatal care during 1993 were enrolled prospectively in the study. At 2 years of age development was assessed using the Griffiths mental scales. Neurological, hearing and visual assessments were graded into five groups according to functional handicap. Control infants were randomly selected during attendance at a primary health care clinic.

    RESULTS: One hundred and fifty VLBW infants were admitted and 82 (54.6%) survived to 2 years, of whom 77 (93.9%) were assessed. The mean General Quotient (GQ) on the Griffiths Scales was 94 (15.7) for the study group and 104 (8.3) for the 60 controls. For GQ, 21 (27.3%) of the study population were 1 or more SD below the mean (18 between 1 and 2 SD and 3 > 2 SD) compared with 1 (1.6%) of the controls who was 1-2 SD below the mean. Visual impairment occurred in 2 study infants and none of the controls. There was no hearing impairment in either group. Cerebral palsy occurred in 3 (1 mild and 2 moderate-severe) of the study group and none of the controls. Functionally 18 (23.3%) of the study group had mild handicap, 1 (1.3%) moderate, 2 (2.5%) severe, 2 (2.5%) multiply severe and 54 (70.2%) were normal.

    CONCLUSION: Although survival was low, overall rates of functional handicap were similar to those reported in developed countries but the proportion with moderate or severe handicap was low.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  13. Choo KE, Davis TM, Ismail A, Ong KH
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 1997 Dec;57(6):656-9.
    PMID: 9430522
    The objective of this study was to investigate the longevity of positive dot enzyme immunosorbent assay (dot EIA) results for IgM and IgG to a Salmonella typhi outer membrane protein in Malaysian children with enteric fever. The patients were children one month to 12 years of age with clinical evidence of typhoid fever, positive blood or stool cultures for S. typhi, and/or a positive Widal test result who were admitted over a two-year period to General Hospital (Kota Bharu, Malaysia). These patients received standard inpatient treatment for enteric fever including chloramphenicol therapy for 14 days. Dot EIA tests were performed as part of clinical and laboratory assessments on admission, at two weeks, and then at 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 21 months postdischarge. Assessment of the longevity of positive dot EIA IgM and IgG titers was done by Kaplan-Meier analysis. In 94 evaluable patients, 28% were dot EIA IgM positive but IgG negative on admission, 50% were both IgM and IgG positive, and 22% were IgM negative and IgG positive. Mean persistence of IgM dot EIA positivity was 2.6 months (95% confidence interval = 2.0-3.1 months) and that of IgG was 5.4 months (4.5-6.3 months). There were no significant differences between the three subgroups. Thus, positive IgM and IgG results determined by dot EIA within four and seven months, respectively, following documented or suspected enteric fever in a child from an endemic area should be interpreted with caution. In other clinical situations, the dot EIA remains a rapid and reliable aid to diagnosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  14. Lim NL, Nordin MM, Cheah IG
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1994 Mar;49(1):4-11.
    PMID: 8057989
    An open prospective descriptive pilot study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness and experience in the use of ExosurfNeonatal, a synthetic surfactant, on preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome in the neonatal intensive care unit of the Paediatric Institute. Of 10 infants treated, seven (70%) survived with no major handicap on discharge. The mean duration of ventilation for these survivors was 6.4 days, mean duration of oxygen therapy 9.1 days and mean length of hospital stay 38.3 days. A comparison was made with a retrospective analysis of 15 neonates who were admitted during an eight month period prior to the pilot study. These infants were mechanically ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome but not given surfactant therapy. Of these, nine (60%) survived (P > 0.1 compared to Exosurf treated infants), but two developed post haemorrhagic hydrocephalus requiring shunting. For these nine survivors, the mean duration of ventilator therapy was 12.6 days, the mean duration of oxygen therapy 20.7 days and the mean length of hospital stay 70.8 days. This difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Of the three ExosurfNeonatal treated infants who died, two were extremely premature. Both developed grade IV periventricular haemorrhage while the third infant was admitted in shock and hypothermia and died from intraventricular haemorrhage and pulmonary interstitial emphysema. Except for the very sick and extremely premature infants, surfactant therapy is useful in reducing the mortality and morbidity of premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome in our neonatal intensive unit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  15. Kasim MS, Cheah I, Shafie HM
    Child Abuse Negl, 1995 Jul;19(7):847-54.
    PMID: 7583742
    This paper gives a detailed account of 30 cases of childhood deaths caused by physical abuse, detected by the Suspected Child Abuse and Neglect (SCAN) team, General Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. They consisted of 12 Malays, 6 Chinese, 9 Indian, and 1 Indonesian child. Three cases could not be ascertained as to their ethnic origin. There were 13 male and 17 female children. The average age of the abused children was 2 years 5 months. The most frequent causes of death were intracranial hemorrhage and intraabdominal trauma. Of the 17 cases of intracranial hemorrhage, only four had X-ray evidence of skull fracture. This suggests the possibility of whiplash injuries with/without the abuser suspecting that he/she had injured the child. Of the 22 abusers who could be identified, there was no sex differentiation. Fathers formed the largest group of perpetrators, followed by mothers and childminders. Fifteen of the natural parents of the abused children were married, four were divorced and four were never married. Five of the abusers had aggressive personalities and three were drug addicts. Only one abuser was found to be an alcoholic even though a few were also under suspicion. For most cases, trigger factors could not be identified.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  16. Khor GL
    PMID: 1342754
    Kuala Lumpur is the capital city of Malaysia with an estimated population of 1.55 million. Approximately 12% of the population live in squatter settlements occupying about 7% of the city total area. The squatter settlements generally are provided with basic amenities such as piped water, toilet facilities and electricity. Health indicators for the overall population of Kuala Lumpur are better off than for the rest of the country; however, intra-city differentials prevail along ethnic and socio-economic lines. Malays and Indians have higher rates for stillbirths, and neonatal, infant and toddler mortality than the Chinese. The wide disparity in the socio-economic status between the advantaged and the poor groups in the city is reflected in the dietary practices and nutritional status of young children from these communities. The percentage of preschool children from urban poor households with inadequate intakes of calories and nutrients is two to three times higher than those from the advantaged group. Compared to rural infants, a lower percentage of urban infants are breastfed. A lower percentage of Malays from the urban advantaged group breastfed, compared with the urban poor group. The reversed trend is found for the Chinese community. Growth attainment of young children from the urban poor is worse than the urban advantaged, though better than the rural poor. Health and nutritional practices implications related to both undernutrition and overnutrition are discussed, to illustrate the twin challenges of malnutrition in the city.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  17. Biglari S, Alfizah H, Ramliza R, Rahman MM
    J. Med. Microbiol., 2015 Jan;64(Pt 1):53-8.
    PMID: 25381148 DOI: 10.1099/jmm.0.082263-0
    Antimicrobial resistance in Acinetobacter baumannii is a growing public health concern and an important pathogen in nosocomial infections. We investigated the genes involved in resistance to carbapenems and cephalosporins in clinical A. baumannii isolates from a tertiary medical centre in Malaysia. A. baumannii was isolated from 167 clinical specimens and identified by sequencing of the 16S rRNA and rpoB genes. The MIC for imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidime and cefepime were determined by the E-test method. The presence of carbapenemase and cephalosporinase genes was investigated by PCR. The isolates were predominantly nonsusceptible to carbapenems and cephalosporins (>70 %) with high MIC values. ISAba1 was detected in all carbapenem-nonsusceptible A. baumannii harbouring the blaOXA-23-like gene. The presence of blaOXA-51-like and ISAba1 upstream of blaOXA-51 was not associated with nonsusceptibility to carbapenems. A. baumannii isolates harbouring ISAba1-blaADC (85.8 %) were significantly associated with nonsusceptibility to cephalosporins (P<0.0001). However, ISAba1-blaADC was not detected in a minority (<10 %) of the isolates which were nonsusceptible to cephalosporins. The acquired OXA-23 enzymes were responsible for nonsusceptibility to carbapenems in our clinical A. baumannii isolates and warrant continuous surveillance to prevent further dissemination of this antibiotic resistance gene. The presence of ISAba1 upstream of the blaADC was a determinant for cephalosporin resistance. However, the absence of this ISAba1-blaADC in some of the isolates may suggest other resistance mechanisms and need further investigation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  18. Jefferies JM, Mohd Yusof MY, Devi Sekaran S, Clarke SC
    PLoS ONE, 2014;9(6):e97912.
    PMID: 24941079 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0097912
    Although Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of childhood disease in South East Asia, little has previously been reported regarding the epidemiology of invasive pneumococcal disease in Malaysia and very few studies have explored pneumococcal epidemiology using multilocus sequence typing (MLST). Here we describe serotype, multilocus sequence type (ST), and penicillin susceptibility of thirty pneumococcal invasive disease isolates received by the University of Malaya Medical Centre between February 2000 and January 2007 and relate this to the serotypes included in current pneumococcal conjugate vaccines. A high level of diversity was observed; fourteen serotypes and 26 sequence types (ST), (11 of which were not previously described) were detected from 30 isolates. Penicillin non-susceptible pneumococci accounted for 33% of isolates. The extent of molecular heterogeneity within carried and disease-causing Malaysian pneumococci remains unknown. Larger surveillance and epidemiological studies are now required in this region to provide robust evidence on which to base future vaccine policy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  19. Moy FM, Ray A, Buckley BS, West HM
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2017 06 11;6:CD009613.
    PMID: 28602020 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD009613.pub3
    BACKGROUND: Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is recommended as a key component of the management plan for diabetes therapy during pregnancy. No existing systematic reviews consider the benefits/effectiveness of various techniques of blood glucose monitoring on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes. The effectiveness of the various monitoring techniques is unclear.

    OBJECTIVES: To compare techniques of blood glucose monitoring and their impact on maternal and infant outcomes among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes.

    SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 November 2016), searched reference lists of retrieved studies and contacted trial authors.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs comparing techniques of blood glucose monitoring including SMBG, continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) or clinic monitoring among pregnant women with pre-existing diabetes mellitus (type 1 or type 2). Trials investigating timing and frequency of monitoring were also included. RCTs using a cluster-randomised design were eligible for inclusion but none were identified.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two review authors independently assessed study eligibility, extracted data and assessed the risk of bias of included studies. Data were checked for accuracy. The quality of the evidence was assessed using the GRADE approach.

    MAIN RESULTS: This review update includes at total of 10 trials (538) women (468 women with type 1 diabetes and 70 women with type 2 diabetes). The trials took place in Europe and the USA. Five of the 10 included studies were at moderate risk of bias, four studies were at low to moderate risk of bias, and one study was at high risk of bias. The trials are too small to show differences in important outcomes such as macrosomia, preterm birth, miscarriage or death of baby. Almost all the reported GRADE outcomes were assessed as being very low-quality evidence. This was due to design limitations in the studies, wide confidence intervals, small sample sizes, and few events. In addition, there was high heterogeneity for some outcomes.Various methods of glucose monitoring were compared in the trials. Neither pooled analyses nor individual trial analyses showed any clear advantages of one monitoring technique over another for primary and secondary outcomes. Many important outcomes were not reported.1. Self-monitoring versus standard care (two studies, 43 women): there was no clear difference for caesarean section (risk ratio (RR) 0.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.40 to 1.49; one study, 28 women) or glycaemic control (both very low-quality), and not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality and neonatal mortality and morbidity composite. Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, large-for-gestational age, neurosensory disability, and preterm birth were not reported in either study.2. Self-monitoring versus hospitalisation (one study, 100 women): there was no clear difference for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (pre-eclampsia and hypertension) (RR 4.26, 95% CI 0.52 to 35.16; very low-quality: RR 0.43, 95% CI 0.08 to 2.22; very low-quality). There was no clear difference in caesarean section or preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation (both very low quality), and the sample size was too small to assess perinatal mortality (very low-quality). Large-for-gestational age, mortality or morbidity composite, neurosensory disability and preterm birth less than 34 weeks were not reported.3. Pre-prandial versus post-prandial glucose monitoring (one study, 61 women): there was no clear difference between groups for caesarean section (RR 1.45, 95% CI 0.92 to 2.28; very low-quality), large-for-gestational age (RR 1.16, 95% CI 0.73 to 1.85; very low-quality) or glycaemic control (very low-quality). The results for hypertensive disorders of pregnancy: pre-eclampsia and perinatal mortality are not meaningful because these outcomes were too rare to show differences in a small sample (all very low-quality). The study did not report the outcomes mortality or morbidity composite, neurosensory disability or preterm birth.4. Automated telemedicine monitoring versus conventional system (three studies, 84 women): there was no clear difference for caesarean section (RR 0.96, 95% CI 0.62 to 1.48; one study, 32 women; very low-quality), and mortality or morbidity composite in the one study that reported these outcomes. There were no clear differences for glycaemic control (very low-quality). No studies reported hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, large-for-gestational age, perinatal mortality (stillbirth and neonatal mortality), neurosensory disability or preterm birth.5.CGM versus intermittent monitoring (two studies, 225 women): there was no clear difference for pre-eclampsia (RR 1.37, 95% CI 0.52 to 3.59; low-quality), caesarean section (average RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.65 to 1.54; I² = 62%; very low-quality) and large-for-gestational age (average RR 0.89, 95% CI 0.41 to 1.92; I² = 82%; very low-quality). Glycaemic control indicated by mean maternal HbA1c was lower for women in the continuous monitoring group (mean difference (MD) -0.60 %, 95% CI -0.91 to -0.29; one study, 71 women; moderate-quality). There was not enough evidence to assess perinatal mortality and there were no clear differences for preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation (low-quality). Mortality or morbidity composite, neurosensory disability and preterm birth less than 34 weeks were not reported.6. Constant CGM versus intermittent CGM (one study, 25 women): there was no clear difference between groups for caesarean section (RR 0.77, 95% CI 0.33 to 1.79; very low-quality), glycaemic control (mean blood glucose in the 3rd trimester) (MD -0.14 mmol/L, 95% CI -2.00 to 1.72; very low-quality) or preterm birth less than 37 weeks' gestation (RR 1.08, 95% CI 0.08 to 15.46; very low-quality). Other primary (hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, large-for-gestational age, perinatal mortality (stillbirth and neonatal mortality), mortality or morbidity composite, and neurosensory disability) or GRADE outcomes (preterm birth less than 34 weeks' gestation) were not reported.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: This review found no evidence that any glucose monitoring technique is superior to any other technique among pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. The evidence base for the effectiveness of monitoring techniques is weak and additional evidence from large well-designed randomised trials is required to inform choices of glucose monitoring techniques.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
  20. Al-Talib H, Latif B, Mohd-Zain Z
    J. Clin. Microbiol., 2014 Sep;52(9):3244-9.
    PMID: 24958797 DOI: 10.1128/JCM.00891-14
    Diarrheal diseases cause illness and death among children younger than 10 years in developing countries. Conventional testing for the detection of hemorrhagic bacteria takes 2 to 5 days to yield complete information on the organism and its antibiotic sensitivity pattern. Hence, in the present study, we developed a molecular-based diagnostic assay that identifies common hemorrhagic bacteria in stool samples. A set of specific primers were designed for the detection of Salmonella spp., Shigella spp., enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC), and Campylobacter spp., suitable for use in a one-tube PCR assay. The assay in the present study simultaneously detected five genes, namely, ompC for the Salmonella genus, virA for the Shigella genus, eaeA for EHEC, 16S rRNA for the Campylobacter genus, and hemA for an internal control. Specific primer pairs were successfully designed and simultaneously amplified the targeted genes. Validation with 20 Gram-negative and 17 Gram-positive strains yielded 100% specificity. The limit of detection of the multiplex PCR assay was 1 × 10(3) CFU at the bacterial cell level and 100 pg at the genomic DNA level. Further evaluation of the multiplex PCR with 223 bacterium-spiked stool specimens revealed 100% sensitivity and specificity. We conclude that the developed multiplex PCR assay was rapid, giving results within 4 h, which is essential for the identification of hemorrhagic bacteria, and it might be useful as an additional diagnostic tool whenever time is important in the diagnosis of hemorrhagic bacteria that cause diarrhea. In addition, the presence of an internal control in the multiplex PCR assay is important for excluding false-negative cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infant, Newborn
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