Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  2. Yang F, Guo GZ, Chen JQ, Ma HW, Liu T, Huang DN, et al.
    Epidemiol. Infect., 2014 Feb;142(2):225-33.
    PMID: 23587429 DOI: 10.1017/S0950268813000897
    A suspected dengue fever outbreak occurred in 2010 at a solitary construction site in Shenzhen city, China. To investigate this epidemic, we used serological, molecular biological, and bioinformatics techniques. Of nine serum samples from suspected patients, we detected seven positive for dengue virus (DENV) antibodies, eight for DENV-1 RNA, and three containing live viruses. The isolated virus, SZ1029 strain, was sequenced and confirmed as DENV-1, showing the highest E-gene homology to D1/Malaysia/36000/05 and SG(EHI)DED142808 strains recently reported in Southeast Asia. Further phylogenetic tree analysis confirmed their close relationship. At the epidemic site, we also detected 14 asymptomatic co-workers (out of 291) positive for DENV antibody, and DENV-1-positive mosquitoes. Thus, we concluded that DENV-1 caused the first local dengue fever outbreak in Shenzhen. Because no imported case was identified, the molecular fingerprints of the SZ1029 strain suggest this outbreak may be due to vertical transmission imported from Southeast Asia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  3. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  4. Wong HV, Vythilingam I, Sulaiman WY, Lulla A, Merits A, Chan YF, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 Jan;94(1):182-6.
    PMID: 26598564 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0318
    Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs and adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs and 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs and progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism and significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  5. Tan SS, Chua A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):103-4.
    PMID: 23629552
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  6. Tan PC, Rajasingam G, Devi S, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2008 May;111(5):1111-7.
    PMID: 18448743 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816a49fc
    To estimate prevalence rate of recent dengue infection in parturients, as well as the vertical transmission rate, and to compare pregnancy outcomes among infected women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Tan CG, Ideris A, Omar AR, Yii CP, Kleven SH
    Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 2014 09 02;81(1):e1-e7.
    PMID: 25686255 DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v81i1.708
    The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA) of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20-25 h at 37 °C, 22-25 h at 16 °C, and 23-27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h). The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary
  8. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Hardcastle M, Williamson NB
    Vet. Parasitol., 2015 Jun 15;210(3-4):141-4.
    PMID: 25935293 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.03.019
    To determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating Neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. Twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in Groups A and B were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation and Group C was maintained as a negative control group. Lambs born from ewes in Group A were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. Lambs in Groups B and C were untreated. All lambs in Groups A and B were seropositive at 12 weeks of age. At 12 weeks of age, no differences between lambs in Group A and Group B were observed in serological results (ELISA and western blot), presence of N. caninum-related brain histopathological lesions or the number of organisms detected by qPCR. Group C remained negative for serology, detection of N. caninum DNA as well as histopathology throughout the study. Results indicate that N. caninum congenitally-infected lambs had a continuing infection with N. caninum despite being treated with toltrazuril.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary*
  9. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Hardcastle M, Williamson NB
    Vet. Parasitol., 2015 Mar 15;208(3-4):150-8.
    PMID: 25638717 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.12.036
    Recent reports indicate N. caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in New Zealand. Knowledge about the mode of transmission of neosporosis in sheep in New Zealand is limited. This study aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission that would occur in lambs born from experimentally inoculated ewes and to determine if previous inoculation would protect the lambs from N. caninum infection. A group of 50 ewes was divided into 2 groups with one group being inoculated with 5×10(6) N. caninum tachyzoites prior to pregnancy in Year 1. In Year 2, each of these groups was subdivided into 2 groups with one from each original group being inoculated with 1×10(7) N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation. Inoculation of N. caninum tachyzoites into ewes prior to mating resulted in no congenital transmission in lambs born in Year 1 but without further inoculation, 7 out of 11 lambs in Year 2 were positive for N. caninum infection. Ewes that were inoculated in both years resulted in all 12 lambs born in Year 2 being positive for N. caninum infection. This indicates that previous inoculation in Year 1 did not result in any vertical transmission in that year but did not provide any protection against vertical transmission in Year 2. These results suggest that vertical transmission occurs readily once the ewe is infected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary*
  10. Sow, Emmy, Noorsuzana Mohd Shariff, Chong, Soon Eu, Tun Maizura Mohd. Fathullah, Siti Salmah Noordin
    MyJurnal
    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is one of the major public health problems in Malaysia. It remains the most common permanent deferral among blood donors. In Malaysia, the national vaccination programme has been introduced since 1989 to prevent HBV transmission. The objective of this study is to determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of HBV infection among first-time blood donors after the implementation of the national hepatitis B vaccination programme. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study involving tracing of the database of National Blood Centre Malaysia. The record of first-time blood donors who had donated between 1st January 2010 and 31st December 2015 and were screened HBV positive was reviewed and analysed. Results: There were 376,737 first-time donors who had donated blood and 575 of them screened positive for HBV. The overall prevalence of seropositive for hepatitis B was 0.15%. The prevalence was higher at 0.23% among donors born before the year 1989 (pre-vaccination era) compared to 0.05% among donors born in and after the year 1989 (post-vaccination era). Perinatal transmission was found to have 15 times higher odds of developing HBV infection as compared to those who had the combination of risk factors among those born after the year 1989 (adjusted OR=14.95, 95% CI 1.80=124.01). Conclusion: The implementation of the national vaccination programme reduced the prevalence of hepatitis B among donors who received vaccination at birth compared to those who did not.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  11. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  12. Saini R, Khim TP, Rahman SA, Ismail M, Tang TH
    Virol. J., 2010;7:131.
    PMID: 20550718 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-131
    Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  13. Sahlan N, Fadzilah MN, Muslim A, Shaari SA, Abdul Rahman T, Hoh BP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Aug;74(4):320-325.
    PMID: 31424040
    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among the non-indigenous people in Malaysia has been well established and range between 3% and 5%. However, data from the indigenous (Orang Asli) people is still lacking. The Negrito population is the most remotely located Orang Asli tribe with limited access to health care facilities. This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology and seroprevalence of HBV infection among the Negrito.

    METHODS: Surveys were conducted in five Negrito settlements in Kelantan and Perak states in Malaysia. A total of 150 participants were recruited. Clinical history was taken and physical examination was performed. Five millilitres of whole blood were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    RESULTS: Participants were mainly from the Bateq (49.3%) and Mendriq (29.4%) sub-tribes. Overall, 13 subjects (8.7 %); nine males and four females were HBsAg positive. Nine of the HBsAg positive subjects were ≥35 years old. All of them had history of home deliver without evidence of antenatal record. Six (46%) of the HBsAg positive subjects had tattoo and body piercing in the past.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection rate amongst the Negrito tribe is almost three-fold compared to the national rates. The reason for this finding remains unclear. Tattooing, body piercing and vertical transmission could be the main possible routes of transmission of HBV among the Negrito population in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  14. Prameela KK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):644-51.
    PMID: 23770969 MyJurnal
    Breastmilk protects the infant from many diseases and many short- term and long- term benefits accrue. At the same time it is also known that breastfeeding acts as a vehicle for some infective agents. It is now accepted that breastmilk transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus- 1 (HIV-1) is an important mode of paediatric infection . Despite this fact, many researchers have observed that corresponding to the volume of milk consumed by the infant, maternal transmission via breastmilk is still comparatively low. Some have noted the long latency period of breastmilk HIV transmission with evidence of numerous anti-HIV factors in breastmilk. Although there are accepted standard guidelines on infant feeding in mothers who are HIV positive in many countries, it maybe equally important to realize gaps in our knowledge of mother- to -child HIV transmission. From an evolutionary perspective, the role of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) and of breastmilk , in contributing to and possibly in influencing HIV-1 transmission is intriguing. The presence of HIV-1 or of other viruses in maternal milk seem to be a requisite to spur immunological defenses to optimize necessary protection to the infant. This article reviews some aspects of the science of HIV transmission through breastmilk and reflects the concept -based understanding of current policies on HIV and breastfeeding. At the same time, it highlights uncertainties in this field and the urgency for future research in this direction. Accepting current notions of breastmilk HIV transmission, greater deliberation by research may throw more light on why breastfeeding with its abundant advantages is fraught with the hazards of transmission of a deadly disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  15. Nur Syazwani Jarkasi, Zamberi Sekawi, Cheah, Yoke Kqueen, Zulkefley Othman
    MyJurnal
    Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a human-infected virus that is present ubiquitously in nature. Globally, it infects up to 95% of the healthy individuals without any clinical manifestations. The widely used laboratory diagnosis of TTV infection is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nevertheless, several other methods have been developed. The rapid growth of TTV variants over time has posed a challenge in estimating the global TTV infection as none of the PCR protocol has the ability to detect the entire spectrum of TTV variants. Multiple TTV epidemiological studies have been conducted among Asian population, whereas other continents showed a limited number of studies. The horizontal and vertical transmission of TTV among humans population, as well as interspecies transmission are potentially related to the global widespread of TTV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  16. Nhidza AF, Naicker T, Stray-Pedersen B, Gumbo F, Chisango T, Sibanda E, et al.
    Afr J Reprod Health, 2018 Sep;22(3):43-50.
    PMID: 30381931 DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2018/v22i3.5
    This study aimed at investigating the maternal characteristics that in turn influence the immunological status of infants in asymptomatic enteric pathogen carriers in mother baby pairs (MBPs) in a high HIV burdened population in Harare, Zimbabwe. BIOPLEX immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples from 39 MBPs for 27 cytokines and 6 immunoglobulins. The MBP were purposively selected based on HIV infection and Entamoeba histolytica carriage. Logistic regression was used to identify any link between maternal demographic and clinical data with infant cytokine and immunoglobulin levels. Maternal E. histolytica carriers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α cytokines (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79) and high levels of IgA immunoglobulin (OR: 8.1; 95% CI: 1.45-45.06). HIV infected mothers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IgG2 (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.00) and IgA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05-0.90) immunoglobulins. Notably, it was highly likely to deliver infants with low IgG4 levels (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.02) for maternal mean age above 30.38 years (Standard deviation 6.09) though not significant (p=0.05). Maternal E. histolytica asymptomatic carriage, and HIV-infection status result in low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α and immunoglobulins IgG2, IgG4 and IgA on their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  17. Nallusamy R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):442-5.
    PMID: 10971993
    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  18. Loh HS, Mohd-Lila MA, Abdul-Rahman SO, Kiew LJ
    Virol. J., 2006;3:42.
    PMID: 16737550
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection is the major viral cause of well-documented birth defects in human. Because CMV is species-specific, the main obstacle to developing animal models for congenital infection is the difference in placental architecture, which preludes virus transmission across the placenta. The rat placenta, resembling histologically to that of human, could therefore facilitate the study of CMV congenital infection in human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  19. Lim CT, Thong MK, Parasakthi N, Ngeow YF
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1997 Jul;26(4):421-5.
    PMID: 9395802
    Between January 1984 and December 1994, 30 cases of early neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) septicaemia were managed in the Neonatal Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Two neonates were outborn and 28 were inborn, giving an average annual incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia of 0.4/1000 livebirths among inborn babies. In a separate survey over a three-month period, GBS genital carriage rate among 196 parturients was found to be 9.7%. Of the infants with GBS septicaemia, the mean gestational age was 37.5 +/- 3.8 weeks and the mean birthweight was 2540 +/- 716 g. Twelve (40%) were preterm infants and 14 (47%) were low birthweight infants. Male and female infants were almost equally affected. Prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal pyrexia accounted for only 5 (17%) and 3 (10%) of the cases respectively. Twenty-four (80%) neonates had onset of symptoms within 6 hours of life and respiratory symptoms were observed in 24 (80%) of the cases, while meningitis was uncommon. Six (20%) neonates died. Preterm and low birthweight infants had higher mortality than their term counterparts: 42% versus 6% and 36% versus 6% respectively. Of those who died, 4 (67%) required respiratory support right from birth and the mean time of onset of symptoms was 4 hours (range 0 to 21 hours) and the duration of survival was only 28.8 hours (range 12 to 38 hours). As the incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia was low, mass screening and chemoprophylaxis for GBS were not recommended. All the GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin, thus one of these antibiotics should be included in the antimicrobial therapy of septic neonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  20. Khairy-Shamel ST, Shatriah I, Adil H, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Rohaizan Y, et al.
    Orbit, 2008;27(5):388-90.
    PMID: 18836940 DOI: 10.1080/01676830802336629
    We reported a case of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with an intracranial extension in an HIV-infected child. It was an uncommon sarcoma in a retroviral-positive patient that resulted in a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The child is currently asymptomatic following surgery, chemotherapy, and reinstitution of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
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