Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Saini R, Khim TP, Rahman SA, Ismail M, Tang TH
    Virol. J., 2010;7:131.
    PMID: 20550718 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-131
    Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  2. Loh HS, Mohd-Lila MA, Abdul-Rahman SO, Kiew LJ
    Virol. J., 2006;3:42.
    PMID: 16737550
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection is the major viral cause of well-documented birth defects in human. Because CMV is species-specific, the main obstacle to developing animal models for congenital infection is the difference in placental architecture, which preludes virus transmission across the placenta. The rat placenta, resembling histologically to that of human, could therefore facilitate the study of CMV congenital infection in human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  3. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Hardcastle M, Williamson NB
    Vet. Parasitol., 2015 Mar 15;208(3-4):150-8.
    PMID: 25638717 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2014.12.036
    Recent reports indicate N. caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in New Zealand. Knowledge about the mode of transmission of neosporosis in sheep in New Zealand is limited. This study aimed to determine the rate of vertical transmission that would occur in lambs born from experimentally inoculated ewes and to determine if previous inoculation would protect the lambs from N. caninum infection. A group of 50 ewes was divided into 2 groups with one group being inoculated with 5×10(6) N. caninum tachyzoites prior to pregnancy in Year 1. In Year 2, each of these groups was subdivided into 2 groups with one from each original group being inoculated with 1×10(7) N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation. Inoculation of N. caninum tachyzoites into ewes prior to mating resulted in no congenital transmission in lambs born in Year 1 but without further inoculation, 7 out of 11 lambs in Year 2 were positive for N. caninum infection. Ewes that were inoculated in both years resulted in all 12 lambs born in Year 2 being positive for N. caninum infection. This indicates that previous inoculation in Year 1 did not result in any vertical transmission in that year but did not provide any protection against vertical transmission in Year 2. These results suggest that vertical transmission occurs readily once the ewe is infected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary*
  4. Syed-Hussain SS, Howe L, Pomroy WE, West DM, Hardcastle M, Williamson NB
    Vet. Parasitol., 2015 Jun 15;210(3-4):141-4.
    PMID: 25935293 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.03.019
    To determine if toltrazuril was effective in eliminating Neospora caninum infection from congenitally infected lambs. Twenty-eight ewes were allocated to 3 groups where animals in Groups A and B were inoculated with 1 × 10(7)N. caninum tachyzoites on Day 120 of gestation and Group C was maintained as a negative control group. Lambs born from ewes in Group A were treated with toltrazuril (20mg/kg) on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21 after birth. Lambs in Groups B and C were untreated. All lambs in Groups A and B were seropositive at 12 weeks of age. At 12 weeks of age, no differences between lambs in Group A and Group B were observed in serological results (ELISA and western blot), presence of N. caninum-related brain histopathological lesions or the number of organisms detected by qPCR. Group C remained negative for serology, detection of N. caninum DNA as well as histopathology throughout the study. Results indicate that N. caninum congenitally-infected lambs had a continuing infection with N. caninum despite being treated with toltrazuril.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control; Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary*
  5. Cheah TS, Mattsson JG, Zaini M, Sani RA, Jakubek EB, Uggla A, et al.
    Vet. Parasitol., 2004 Dec 15;126(3):263-9.
    PMID: 15567590
    In order to attempt isolate the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, an N. caninum seropositive pregnant Sahiwal Friesian cross heifer from a large-scale dairy farm in Malaysia was kept for observation until parturition at the Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh. The heifer gave birth to a female calf that was weak, underweight and unable to rise. Precolostral serum from the calf had an N. caninum indirect fluorescent antibody test titre of 1:3200. It died 12 h after birth and necropsy was performed. Brain homogenate from the calf was inoculated into 10 BALB/c mice that were kept for 3 months after which brain tissue from the mice was inoculated onto 24 h fresh monolayer Vero cell lines. The cell cultures were examined daily until growth of intracellular protozoa was observed. DNA of the organisms from the cell cultures was analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. DNA fragments of the expected size were amplified from the isolate using N. caninum-specific primers, and sequence analysis of ITS1 clearly identified the isolate as N. caninum. This is the first successful isolation of N. caninum from a bovine in Malaysia, and the isolate is designated Nc-MalB1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary
  6. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  7. Hamid MZ, Aziz NA, Zulkifli ZS, Norlijah O, Azhar RK
    PMID: 18564712
    A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of progressive encephalopathy (PE) and its associated clinical manifestations amongst a cohort of HIV infected children attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of the Pediatric Institute, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia. Neurological and neurobehavioral assessments were performed in 55 children with HIV over a 24-month study period. Parameters assessed were physical and neurological assessments, CD4 counts, CD4 percentages, RNA viral loads and an IQ assessment at four monthly intervals. PE was diagnosed when patient developed at least one of the definitive criteria for PE based on the Consensus of Pediatric Neurology/Psychology Working Group, AIDS Clinical Trial 1996. The incidence of encephalopathy was 18.2% (n = 10) in 2002. All the patients had hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, abnormal deep tendon reflexes and five had impairment in brain growth. The CD4 counts and CD4 percentages were more likely to be associated with PE compared to the non-PE group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  8. Nur Syazwani Jarkasi, Zamberi Sekawi, Cheah, Yoke Kqueen, Zulkefley Othman
    MyJurnal
    Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a human-infected virus that is present ubiquitously in nature. Globally, it infects up to 95% of the healthy individuals without any clinical manifestations. The widely used laboratory diagnosis of TTV infection is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nevertheless, several other methods have been developed. The rapid growth of TTV variants over time has posed a challenge in estimating the global TTV infection as none of the PCR protocol has the ability to detect the entire spectrum of TTV variants. Multiple TTV epidemiological studies have been conducted among Asian population, whereas other continents showed a limited number of studies. The horizontal and vertical transmission of TTV among humans population, as well as interspecies transmission are potentially related to the global widespread of TTV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  9. Tan CG, Ideris A, Omar AR, Yii CP, Kleven SH
    Onderstepoort J. Vet. Res., 2014 09 02;81(1):e1-e7.
    PMID: 25686255 DOI: 10.4102/ojvr.v81i1.708
    The present study was based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of the 16S ribosomal nucleic acid (rRNA) of Mycoplasma for detection of viable Mycoplasma gallisepticum. To determine the stability of M. gallisepticum 16S rRNA in vitro, three inactivation methods were used and the suspensions were stored at different temperatures. The 16S rRNA of M. gallisepticum was detected up to approximately 20-25 h at 37 °C, 22-25 h at 16 °C, and 23-27 h at 4 °C. The test, therefore, could detect viable or recently dead M. gallisepticum (< 20 h). The RT-PCR method was applied during an in vivo study of drug efficacy under experimental conditions, where commercial broiler-breeder eggs were inoculated with M. gallisepticum into the yolk. Hatched chicks that had been inoculated in ovo were treated with Macrolide 1. The method was then applied in a flock of day 0 chicks with naturally acquired vertical transmission of M. gallisepticum, treated with Macrolide 2. Swabs of the respiratory tract were obtained for PCR and RT-PCR evaluations to determine the viability of M. gallisepticum. This study proved that the combination of both PCR and RT-PCR enables detection and differentiation of viable from non-viable M. gallisepticum.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary
  10. Prameela KK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):644-51.
    PMID: 23770969 MyJurnal
    Breastmilk protects the infant from many diseases and many short- term and long- term benefits accrue. At the same time it is also known that breastfeeding acts as a vehicle for some infective agents. It is now accepted that breastmilk transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus- 1 (HIV-1) is an important mode of paediatric infection . Despite this fact, many researchers have observed that corresponding to the volume of milk consumed by the infant, maternal transmission via breastmilk is still comparatively low. Some have noted the long latency period of breastmilk HIV transmission with evidence of numerous anti-HIV factors in breastmilk. Although there are accepted standard guidelines on infant feeding in mothers who are HIV positive in many countries, it maybe equally important to realize gaps in our knowledge of mother- to -child HIV transmission. From an evolutionary perspective, the role of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) and of breastmilk , in contributing to and possibly in influencing HIV-1 transmission is intriguing. The presence of HIV-1 or of other viruses in maternal milk seem to be a requisite to spur immunological defenses to optimize necessary protection to the infant. This article reviews some aspects of the science of HIV transmission through breastmilk and reflects the concept -based understanding of current policies on HIV and breastfeeding. At the same time, it highlights uncertainties in this field and the urgency for future research in this direction. Accepting current notions of breastmilk HIV transmission, greater deliberation by research may throw more light on why breastfeeding with its abundant advantages is fraught with the hazards of transmission of a deadly disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  11. Tan SS, Chua A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):103-4.
    PMID: 23629552
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  12. Nallusamy R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):442-5.
    PMID: 10971993
    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  13. Chua KB, Ngeow YF, Lim CT, Ng KB, Chye JK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):242-6.
    PMID: 10972036
    A prospective study was carried out among pregnant women and their newborn babies in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1996 to June 1997. The maternal cervical colonization rates of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) were found to be 57.5% and 15.8% respectively while the isolation rates from nasopharyngeal secretions of the newborns were 50.8% for UU and 6.6% for MH. The overall transmission rates were 88.4% for UU and 42.1% for MH. There was no significant difference in the transmission rates of either organism from mothers to their respective newborn babies by the maturity of pregnancy. In preterm babies, the nasopharyngeal isolation rates of UU and MH were not influenced by the babies' gestational age and birth weight nor by the maternal history of abortion or parity. However, there was a tendency for UU to persist in the nasopharyngeal secretion of preterm babies especially those of birth weight below 2 kg. None of the babies contaminated with mycoplasmas at birth developed respiratory symptoms during six to eight weeks of follow-up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  14. Chin PS, Khoo AP, Asmah Hani AW, Chem YK, Norizah I, Chua KB
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):265-6.
    PMID: 19248708 MyJurnal
    We report a newborn baby girl with acute dengue due to vertical transmission. A 31 year old factory worker of 38+ week gestation, gravida 5 para 3+1, developed acute dengue fever two days prior to delivery. She delivered a normal term baby girl by spontaneous vaginal delivery and recovered uneventfully without peripartum haemorrhage despite the presence of thrombocytopenia. The baby girl developed low grade fever on day four of post-natal life and except for the transient thrombocytopenia, also recovered uneventfully following three days of mild illness. The clinical diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection was confirmed by laboratory tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  15. Sahlan N, Fadzilah MN, Muslim A, Shaari SA, Abdul Rahman T, Hoh BP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Aug;74(4):320-325.
    PMID: 31424040
    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among the non-indigenous people in Malaysia has been well established and range between 3% and 5%. However, data from the indigenous (Orang Asli) people is still lacking. The Negrito population is the most remotely located Orang Asli tribe with limited access to health care facilities. This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology and seroprevalence of HBV infection among the Negrito.

    METHODS: Surveys were conducted in five Negrito settlements in Kelantan and Perak states in Malaysia. A total of 150 participants were recruited. Clinical history was taken and physical examination was performed. Five millilitres of whole blood were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    RESULTS: Participants were mainly from the Bateq (49.3%) and Mendriq (29.4%) sub-tribes. Overall, 13 subjects (8.7 %); nine males and four females were HBsAg positive. Nine of the HBsAg positive subjects were ≥35 years old. All of them had history of home deliver without evidence of antenatal record. Six (46%) of the HBsAg positive subjects had tattoo and body piercing in the past.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection rate amongst the Negrito tribe is almost three-fold compared to the national rates. The reason for this finding remains unclear. Tattooing, body piercing and vertical transmission could be the main possible routes of transmission of HBV among the Negrito population in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  16. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  17. Boettiger DC, Sudjaritruk T, Nallusamy R, Lumbiganon P, Rungmaitree S, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    J Adolesc Health, 2016 Apr;58(4):451-459.
    PMID: 26803201 DOI: 10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.11.006
    PURPOSE: About a third of untreated, perinatally HIV-infected children reach adolescence. We evaluated the durability and effectiveness of non-nucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-based antiretroviral therapy (ART) in this population.

    METHODS: Data from perinatally HIV-infected, antiretroviral-naïve patients initiated on NNRTI-based ART aged 10-19 years who had ≥6 months of follow-up were analyzed. Competing risk regression was used to assess predictors of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure (World Health Organization Stage 3/4 event or death). Viral suppression was defined as a viral load <400 copies/mL.

    RESULTS: Data from 534 adolescents met our inclusion criteria (56.2% female; median age at treatment initiation 11.8 years). After 5 years of treatment, median height-for-age z score increased from -2.3 to -1.6, and median CD4+ cell count increased from 131 to 580 cells/mm(3). The proportion of patients with viral suppression after 6 months was 87.6% and remained >80% up to 5 years of follow-up. NNRTI substitution and clinical failure occurred at rates of 4.9 and 1.4 events per 100 patient-years, respectively. Not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation was associated with NNRTI substitution (hazard ratio [HR], 1.5 vs. using; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.0-2.2; p = .05). Baseline CD4+ count ≤200 cells/mm(3) (HR, 3.3 vs. >200; 95% CI = 1.2-8.9; p = .02) and not using cotrimoxazole prophylaxis at ART initiation (HR, 2.1 vs. using; 95% CI = 1.0-4.6; p = .05) were both associated with clinical failure.

    CONCLUSIONS: Despite late ART initiation, adolescents achieved good rates of catch-up growth, CD4+ count recovery, and virological suppression. Earlier ART initiation and routine cotrimoxazole prophylaxis in this population may help to reduce current rates of NNRTI substitution and clinical failure.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  18. Wong HV, Vythilingam I, Sulaiman WY, Lulla A, Merits A, Chan YF, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 Jan;94(1):182-6.
    PMID: 26598564 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0318
    Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs and adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs and 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs and progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism and significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  19. Cheang HK, Wong HT, Ho SC, Chew KS, Lee WS
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Apr;54(4):224-6.
    PMID: 23624451
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the immune response in infants who received the three-shot hepatitis B vaccine in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Consecutive infants born between March 2002 and April 2010 who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine at a community clinic in Malaysia were enrolled in the study. Screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) was performed after the completion of primary immunisation, at approximately one year of age.

    RESULTS: A total of 572 infants (median age 9.3 ± 2.7 months; range 6.3-48 months) were screened for immune response to hepatitis B vaccination - 553 (96.7%) infants had adequate levels of anti-HBs (≥ 10 IU/L). Of the 440 mothers whose HBsAg status was known, 14 (3.2%) were positive for HBsAg. None of the 14 infants who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers were positive for HBsAg, and all but one infant had anti-HBs level ≥ 10 IU/L. Gender, gestational age and maternal HBsAg status were not found to significantly affect the subsequent immune response in infants following vaccination.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of Malaysian mothers who are positive for HBsAg remains high. The three-shot hepatitis B vaccine, given as part of universal vaccination against hepatitis B, provides adequate anti-HBs in the vast majority of infants in a community setting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
  20. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
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