Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 32 in total

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  1. Lim CT, Thong MK, Parasakthi N, Ngeow YF
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1997 Jul;26(4):421-5.
    PMID: 9395802
    Between January 1984 and December 1994, 30 cases of early neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) septicaemia were managed in the Neonatal Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Two neonates were outborn and 28 were inborn, giving an average annual incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia of 0.4/1000 livebirths among inborn babies. In a separate survey over a three-month period, GBS genital carriage rate among 196 parturients was found to be 9.7%. Of the infants with GBS septicaemia, the mean gestational age was 37.5 +/- 3.8 weeks and the mean birthweight was 2540 +/- 716 g. Twelve (40%) were preterm infants and 14 (47%) were low birthweight infants. Male and female infants were almost equally affected. Prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal pyrexia accounted for only 5 (17%) and 3 (10%) of the cases respectively. Twenty-four (80%) neonates had onset of symptoms within 6 hours of life and respiratory symptoms were observed in 24 (80%) of the cases, while meningitis was uncommon. Six (20%) neonates died. Preterm and low birthweight infants had higher mortality than their term counterparts: 42% versus 6% and 36% versus 6% respectively. Of those who died, 4 (67%) required respiratory support right from birth and the mean time of onset of symptoms was 4 hours (range 0 to 21 hours) and the duration of survival was only 28.8 hours (range 12 to 38 hours). As the incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia was low, mass screening and chemoprophylaxis for GBS were not recommended. All the GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin, thus one of these antibiotics should be included in the antimicrobial therapy of septic neonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  2. Chye JK, Lim CT, Ng KB, Lim JM, George R, Lam SK
    Clin. Infect. Dis., 1997 Dec;25(6):1374-7.
    PMID: 9431381
    Dengue, an important mosquito-borne flavivirus infection, is endemic in Southeast Asia. We describe two mothers who had acute dengue 4 and 8 days before the births of their infants. One mother had worsening of her proteinuric pregnancy-induced hypertension, liver dysfunction, and coagulopathy and required multiple transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. Her male infant was ill at birth, developed respiratory distress and a large uncontrollable left intracerebral hemorrhage, and died of multiorgan failure on day 6 of life. Dengue virus type 2 was isolated from the infant's blood, and IgM antibody specific to dengue virus was detected in the mother's blood. The second mother had a milder clinical course; she gave birth to a female infant who was thrombocytopenic at birth and had an uneventful hospitalization. Dengue virus type 2 was recovered from the mother's blood, and IgM antibody specific to dengue virus was detected in the infant's blood. This report highlights not only the apparently rare occurrence of vertical transmission of dengue virus in humans but also the potential risk of death for infected neonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  3. Chua KB, Ngeow YF, Ng KB, Chye JK, Lim CT
    Singapore Med J, 1998 Jul;39(7):300-2.
    PMID: 9885690
    A prospective study was carried out at the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur to determine the cervical carriage rate of Ureaplasma urealyticum and Mycoplasma hominis among healthy pregnant women at delivery and the incidence of nasopharyngeal colonisation among their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  4. Nallusamy R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):442-5.
    PMID: 10971993
    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  5. Amar HS, Ho JJ, Mohan AJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Feb;35(1):63-6.
    PMID: 10234638
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the community prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women at the time of delivery in a Malaysian setting.

    METHODOLOGY: Cord blood samples from a pilot screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism in 1995 at Ipoh city and surrounding district hospitals were screened anonymously for HIV 1 and 2. HIV status was determined using chemiluminescent technology. Positive samples were retested using the Genelavia Mixt assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 4927 samples were tested. The ethnic breakdown included 51.7% Malays, 18.9% Chinese, 14.3% Indian, 2.3% Others and 12.9% unknown. The geographical distribution of samples was 73.9% urban, 24.2% rural and 1.9% unknown. The seroprevalence of HIV positivity was 3.25 per 1000 deliveries (95% CI: 1.92-5.16). Seroprevalence was higher for samples from rural and Malay mothers.

    CONCLUSION: The high seroprevalence in this study suggests that the spread of HIV is far wider than that anticipated by mandatory national reporting. It also supports antenatal screening and the use of antiretroviral therapy as an important strategy to reduce perinatal transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  6. Chua KB, Ngeow YF, Lim CT, Ng KB, Chye JK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):242-6.
    PMID: 10972036
    A prospective study was carried out among pregnant women and their newborn babies in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1996 to June 1997. The maternal cervical colonization rates of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) were found to be 57.5% and 15.8% respectively while the isolation rates from nasopharyngeal secretions of the newborns were 50.8% for UU and 6.6% for MH. The overall transmission rates were 88.4% for UU and 42.1% for MH. There was no significant difference in the transmission rates of either organism from mothers to their respective newborn babies by the maturity of pregnancy. In preterm babies, the nasopharyngeal isolation rates of UU and MH were not influenced by the babies' gestational age and birth weight nor by the maternal history of abortion or parity. However, there was a tendency for UU to persist in the nasopharyngeal secretion of preterm babies especially those of birth weight below 2 kg. None of the babies contaminated with mycoplasmas at birth developed respiratory symptoms during six to eight weeks of follow-up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  7. Elliott R
    Can HIV AIDS Policy Law Rev, 2003 Apr;8(1):77.
    PMID: 12924337
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  8. Balkis, A.K., Zahari, C.D.
    MyJurnal
    National Antenatal HIV Screening Programme has been integrated as a routine screening in antenatal care in early 1998 and in Terengganu since May 1998 involving all health centers in the state. As of December 2001, a total number of 57,882 antenatal mothers were screened (97.5% of all new antenatal mothers). The HIV prevalence rate among antenatal mothers was found to be 0.052%. All HIV positive mothers were married and majority were Malays (93 .3%). Ninety percents of them revealed that the only risk factorfor HIV was through sexual contact. HIV positive status was confirmed in 66 .7% ofthe husbands. All twenty eight mothers that managed to be followed up delivered to live birth babies. All newborns reported to have good Apgar score (9 at 5 minutes of life). Mean birth weight was 3 .08 kilograms 1- 0.45 and only 8% were premature babies. The observed rate of HIV vertical transmission was 6.25% and this is lower than the expected mother to child transmission rate of 30% without intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  9. Cheah TS, Mattsson JG, Zaini M, Sani RA, Jakubek EB, Uggla A, et al.
    Vet. Parasitol., 2004 Dec 15;126(3):263-9.
    PMID: 15567590
    In order to attempt isolate the protozoan parasite Neospora caninum, an N. caninum seropositive pregnant Sahiwal Friesian cross heifer from a large-scale dairy farm in Malaysia was kept for observation until parturition at the Veterinary Research Institute, Ipoh. The heifer gave birth to a female calf that was weak, underweight and unable to rise. Precolostral serum from the calf had an N. caninum indirect fluorescent antibody test titre of 1:3200. It died 12 h after birth and necropsy was performed. Brain homogenate from the calf was inoculated into 10 BALB/c mice that were kept for 3 months after which brain tissue from the mice was inoculated onto 24 h fresh monolayer Vero cell lines. The cell cultures were examined daily until growth of intracellular protozoa was observed. DNA of the organisms from the cell cultures was analyzed by PCR and DNA sequencing. DNA fragments of the expected size were amplified from the isolate using N. caninum-specific primers, and sequence analysis of ITS1 clearly identified the isolate as N. caninum. This is the first successful isolation of N. caninum from a bovine in Malaysia, and the isolate is designated Nc-MalB1.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/veterinary
  10. Loh HS, Mohd-Lila MA, Abdul-Rahman SO, Kiew LJ
    Virol. J., 2006;3:42.
    PMID: 16737550
    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) congenital infection is the major viral cause of well-documented birth defects in human. Because CMV is species-specific, the main obstacle to developing animal models for congenital infection is the difference in placental architecture, which preludes virus transmission across the placenta. The rat placenta, resembling histologically to that of human, could therefore facilitate the study of CMV congenital infection in human.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  11. Hamid MZ, Aziz NA, Zulkifli ZS, Norlijah O, Azhar RK
    PMID: 18564712
    A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of progressive encephalopathy (PE) and its associated clinical manifestations amongst a cohort of HIV infected children attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of the Pediatric Institute, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia. Neurological and neurobehavioral assessments were performed in 55 children with HIV over a 24-month study period. Parameters assessed were physical and neurological assessments, CD4 counts, CD4 percentages, RNA viral loads and an IQ assessment at four monthly intervals. PE was diagnosed when patient developed at least one of the definitive criteria for PE based on the Consensus of Pediatric Neurology/Psychology Working Group, AIDS Clinical Trial 1996. The incidence of encephalopathy was 18.2% (n = 10) in 2002. All the patients had hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, abnormal deep tendon reflexes and five had impairment in brain growth. The CD4 counts and CD4 percentages were more likely to be associated with PE compared to the non-PE group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  12. Tan PC, Rajasingam G, Devi S, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2008 May;111(5):1111-7.
    PMID: 18448743 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816a49fc
    To estimate prevalence rate of recent dengue infection in parturients, as well as the vertical transmission rate, and to compare pregnancy outcomes among infected women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  13. Chin PS, Khoo AP, Asmah Hani AW, Chem YK, Norizah I, Chua KB
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):265-6.
    PMID: 19248708 MyJurnal
    We report a newborn baby girl with acute dengue due to vertical transmission. A 31 year old factory worker of 38+ week gestation, gravida 5 para 3+1, developed acute dengue fever two days prior to delivery. She delivered a normal term baby girl by spontaneous vaginal delivery and recovered uneventfully without peripartum haemorrhage despite the presence of thrombocytopenia. The baby girl developed low grade fever on day four of post-natal life and except for the transient thrombocytopenia, also recovered uneventfully following three days of mild illness. The clinical diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection was confirmed by laboratory tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  14. Khairy-Shamel ST, Shatriah I, Adil H, Zunaina E, Bakiah S, Rohaizan Y, et al.
    Orbit, 2008;27(5):388-90.
    PMID: 18836940 DOI: 10.1080/01676830802336629
    We reported a case of orbital rhabdomyosarcoma with an intracranial extension in an HIV-infected child. It was an uncommon sarcoma in a retroviral-positive patient that resulted in a diagnostic and therapeutic dilemma. The child is currently asymptomatic following surgery, chemotherapy, and reinstitution of highly active retroviral therapy (HAART).
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  15. Shamsuddin K, Marmuji LZ
    Singapore Med J, 2010 Oct;51(10):800-5.
    PMID: 21103816
    Several strategies have been developed to reduce hepatitis B infections. These include antenatal screening, universal immunisation of newborns and immunoglobulin therapy for babies who are at risk. Antenatal screening for hepatitis B is not routinely performed, but all newborns in Malaysia are immunised against hepatitis B. We assessed the prevalence of hepatitis B and the factors associated with it among antenatal mothers in Ipoh. This information is useful in decision-making for future hepatitis B screening programmes for antenatal mothers, allowing for immunoglobulin therapies for newborns if their mother's hepatitis B virus (HBV) status is known.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  16. Saini R, Khim TP, Rahman SA, Ismail M, Tang TH
    Virol. J., 2010;7:131.
    PMID: 20550718 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-131
    Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  17. Wong LP, Syuhada AR
    PMID: 22299438
    Globally, HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes deter the effectiveness of HIV prevention and care programs. This study investigated the general public's perceptions about HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with or affected by HIV/AIDS in order to understand the root of HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discriminatory attitudes. Study was carried out using qualitative focus group discussions (FGD). An interview guide with semi-structured questions was used. Participants were members of the public in Malaysia. Purposive sampling was adopted for recruitment of participants. A total 14 focus group discussions (n = 74) was carried out between March and July 2008. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination towards people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) was profound. Key factors affecting discriminatory attitudes included high-risk taking behavior, individuals related to stigmatized identities, sources of HIV infection, stage of the disease, and relationship with an infected person. Other factors that influence attitudes toward PLWHA include ethnicity and urban-rural locality. Malay participants were less likely than other ethnic groups to perceive no stigmatization if their spouses were HIV positive. HIV/AIDS-related stigma and discrimination were stronger among participants in rural settings. The differences indicate attitudes toward PLWHA are influenced by cultural differences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  18. Prameela KK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):644-51.
    PMID: 23770969 MyJurnal
    Breastmilk protects the infant from many diseases and many short- term and long- term benefits accrue. At the same time it is also known that breastfeeding acts as a vehicle for some infective agents. It is now accepted that breastmilk transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus- 1 (HIV-1) is an important mode of paediatric infection . Despite this fact, many researchers have observed that corresponding to the volume of milk consumed by the infant, maternal transmission via breastmilk is still comparatively low. Some have noted the long latency period of breastmilk HIV transmission with evidence of numerous anti-HIV factors in breastmilk. Although there are accepted standard guidelines on infant feeding in mothers who are HIV positive in many countries, it maybe equally important to realize gaps in our knowledge of mother- to -child HIV transmission. From an evolutionary perspective, the role of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) and of breastmilk , in contributing to and possibly in influencing HIV-1 transmission is intriguing. The presence of HIV-1 or of other viruses in maternal milk seem to be a requisite to spur immunological defenses to optimize necessary protection to the infant. This article reviews some aspects of the science of HIV transmission through breastmilk and reflects the concept -based understanding of current policies on HIV and breastfeeding. At the same time, it highlights uncertainties in this field and the urgency for future research in this direction. Accepting current notions of breastmilk HIV transmission, greater deliberation by research may throw more light on why breastfeeding with its abundant advantages is fraught with the hazards of transmission of a deadly disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  19. Azwa I, Khong SY
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2012 Dec;41(12):587-94.
    PMID: 23303117
    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is a devastating consequence of HIV infection during pregnancy and is largely preventable. Evidence-based interventions such as universal antenatal screening, provision of antiretroviral therapy, delivery by elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding have ensured that the rates of MTCT remain low in Malaysia. This review discusses the most recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy with emphasis on antiretroviral treatment strategies and obstetric care in a middle income country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control*
  20. Tan SS, Chua A
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Apr;68(2):103-4.
    PMID: 23629552
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
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