Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 36 in total

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  1. Nur Syazwani Jarkasi, Zamberi Sekawi, Cheah, Yoke Kqueen, Zulkefley Othman
    MyJurnal
    Torque Teno Virus (TTV) is a human-infected virus that is present ubiquitously in nature. Globally, it infects up to 95% of the healthy individuals without any clinical manifestations. The widely used laboratory diagnosis of TTV infection is Polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nevertheless, several other methods have been developed. The rapid growth of TTV variants over time has posed a challenge in estimating the global TTV infection as none of the PCR protocol has the ability to detect the entire spectrum of TTV variants. Multiple TTV epidemiological studies have been conducted among Asian population, whereas other continents showed a limited number of studies. The horizontal and vertical transmission of TTV among humans population, as well as interspecies transmission are potentially related to the global widespread of TTV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  2. Chin PS, Khoo AP, Asmah Hani AW, Chem YK, Norizah I, Chua KB
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2008 Aug;63(3):265-6.
    PMID: 19248708 MyJurnal
    We report a newborn baby girl with acute dengue due to vertical transmission. A 31 year old factory worker of 38+ week gestation, gravida 5 para 3+1, developed acute dengue fever two days prior to delivery. She delivered a normal term baby girl by spontaneous vaginal delivery and recovered uneventfully without peripartum haemorrhage despite the presence of thrombocytopenia. The baby girl developed low grade fever on day four of post-natal life and except for the transient thrombocytopenia, also recovered uneventfully following three days of mild illness. The clinical diagnosis of acute dengue virus infection was confirmed by laboratory tests.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  3. Yap PK, Loo Xin GL, Tan YY, Chellian J, Gupta G, Liew YK, et al.
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2019 Sep;71(9):1339-1352.
    PMID: 31144296 DOI: 10.1111/jphp.13107
    OBJECTIVES: Antiretroviral agents (ARVs) have been the most promising line of therapy in the management of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. Some of these ARVs are used in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to suppress the transmission of HIV. Prophylaxis is primarily used in uninfected people, before exposure, to effectively prevent HIV infection. Several studies have shown that ART PrEP prevents HIV acquisition from sexual, blood and mother-to-child transmissions. However, there are also several challenges and limitations to PrEP. This review focuses on the current antiretroviral therapies used in PrEP.

    KEY FINDINGS: Among ARVs, the most common drugs employed from the class of entry inhibitors are maraviroc (MVC), which is a CCR5 receptor antagonist. Other entry inhibitors like emtricitabine (FTC) and tenofovir (TFV) are also used. Rilpivirine (RPV) and dapivirine (DPV) are the most common drugs employed from the Non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTIs) class, whereas, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is primarily used in the Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor (NRTIs) class. Cabotegravir (CAB) is an analog of dolutegravir, and it is an integrase inhibitor. Some of these drugs are also used in combination with other drugs from the same class.

    SUMMARY: Some of the most common pre-exposure prophylactic strategies employed currently are the use of inhibitors, namely entry inhibitors, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors, integrase and protease inhibitors. In addition, we have also discussed on the adverse effects caused by ART in PrEP, pharmacoeconomics factors and the use of antiretroviral prophylaxis in serodiscordant couples.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  4. Hamid MZ, Aziz NA, Zulkifli ZS, Norlijah O, Azhar RK
    PMID: 18564712
    A prospective cohort study was conducted to determine the incidence of progressive encephalopathy (PE) and its associated clinical manifestations amongst a cohort of HIV infected children attending the HIV/AIDS clinic of the Pediatric Institute, Kuala Lumpur Hospital, Malaysia. Neurological and neurobehavioral assessments were performed in 55 children with HIV over a 24-month study period. Parameters assessed were physical and neurological assessments, CD4 counts, CD4 percentages, RNA viral loads and an IQ assessment at four monthly intervals. PE was diagnosed when patient developed at least one of the definitive criteria for PE based on the Consensus of Pediatric Neurology/Psychology Working Group, AIDS Clinical Trial 1996. The incidence of encephalopathy was 18.2% (n = 10) in 2002. All the patients had hepatosplenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, abnormal deep tendon reflexes and five had impairment in brain growth. The CD4 counts and CD4 percentages were more likely to be associated with PE compared to the non-PE group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  5. Chua KB, Ngeow YF, Lim CT, Ng KB, Chye JK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1999 Jun;54(2):242-6.
    PMID: 10972036
    A prospective study was carried out among pregnant women and their newborn babies in the University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur from January 1996 to June 1997. The maternal cervical colonization rates of Ureaplasma urealyticum (UU) and Mycoplasma hominis (MH) were found to be 57.5% and 15.8% respectively while the isolation rates from nasopharyngeal secretions of the newborns were 50.8% for UU and 6.6% for MH. The overall transmission rates were 88.4% for UU and 42.1% for MH. There was no significant difference in the transmission rates of either organism from mothers to their respective newborn babies by the maturity of pregnancy. In preterm babies, the nasopharyngeal isolation rates of UU and MH were not influenced by the babies' gestational age and birth weight nor by the maternal history of abortion or parity. However, there was a tendency for UU to persist in the nasopharyngeal secretion of preterm babies especially those of birth weight below 2 kg. None of the babies contaminated with mycoplasmas at birth developed respiratory symptoms during six to eight weeks of follow-up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  6. Tan PC, Rajasingam G, Devi S, Omar SZ
    Obstet Gynecol, 2008 May;111(5):1111-7.
    PMID: 18448743 DOI: 10.1097/AOG.0b013e31816a49fc
    To estimate prevalence rate of recent dengue infection in parturients, as well as the vertical transmission rate, and to compare pregnancy outcomes among infected women.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  7. Wong HV, Vythilingam I, Sulaiman WY, Lulla A, Merits A, Chan YF, et al.
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2016 Jan;94(1):182-6.
    PMID: 26598564 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.15-0318
    Vertical transmission may contribute to the maintenance of arthropod-borne viruses, but its existence in chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is unclear. Experimental vertical transmission of infectious clones of CHIKV in Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from Malaysia was investigated. Eggs and adult progeny from the second gonotrophic cycles of infected parental mosquitoes were tested. Using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), 56.3% of pooled eggs and 10% of adult progeny had detectable CHIKV RNA, but no samples had detectable infectious virus by plaque assay. Transfected CHIKV RNA from PCR-positive eggs did not yield infectious virus in BHK-21 cells. Thus, vertical transmission of viable CHIKV was not demonstrated. Noninfectious CHIKV RNA persists in eggs and progeny of infected Ae. aegypti, but the mechanism and significance are unknown. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that vertical transmission exists in CHIKV, as positive results reported in previous studies were almost exclusively based only on viral RNA detection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  8. Bartlett AW, Mohamed TJ, Sudjaritruk T, Kurniati N, Nallusamy R, Hansudewechakul R, et al.
    Pediatr. Infect. Dis. J., 2019 03;38(3):287-292.
    PMID: 30281549 DOI: 10.1097/INF.0000000000002208
    BACKGROUND: Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents (PHIVA) are exposed to a chronic systemic infection and long-term antiretroviral therapy (ART), leaving them susceptible to morbidities associated with inflammation, immunodeficiency and drug toxicity.

    METHODS: Data collected 2001 to 2016 from PHIVA 10-19 years of age within a regional Asian cohort were analyzed using competing risk time-to-event and Poisson regression analyses to describe the nature and incidence of morbidity events and hospitalizations and identify factors associated with disease-related, treatment-related and overall morbidity. Morbidity was defined according to World Health Organization clinical staging criteria and U.S. National Institutes of Health Division of AIDS criteria.

    RESULTS: A total 3,448 PHIVA contributed 17,778 person-years. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 5.5 years, and ART initiation was 6.9 years. There were 2,562 morbidity events and 307 hospitalizations. Cumulative incidence for any morbidity was 51.7%, and hospitalization was 10.0%. Early adolescence was dominated by disease-related infectious morbidity, with a trend toward noninfectious and treatment-related morbidity in later adolescence. Higher overall morbidity rates were associated with a CD4 count <350 cells/µL, HIV viral load ≥10,000 copies/mL and experiencing prior morbidity at age <10 years. Lower overall morbidity rates were found for those 15-19 years of age compared with 10-14 years and those who initiated ART at age 5-9 years compared with <5 or ≥10 years.

    CONCLUSIONS: Half of our PHIVA cohort experienced a morbidity event, with a trend from disease-related infectious events to treatment-related and noninfectious events as PHIVA age. ART initiation to prevent immune system damage, optimize virologic control and minimize childhood morbidity are key to limiting adolescent morbidity.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  9. Nallusamy R
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Dec;53(4):442-5.
    PMID: 10971993
    Two cases of invasive early-onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis are reported. One neonate was born at term with no risk factors and the other preterm at 35 weeks. Sepsis was not detected at birth for either of these babies and diagnosis was made at the stage of severe sepsis. A fatal outcome resulted despite treatment. Pneumococcal sepsis was confirmed after death in both these cases. Although maternal carriage was not documented in either case, the ages at presentation and progression suggested perinatal acquisition of infection. Early onset neonatal pneumococcal sepsis presents similarly as early onset neonatal Group B streptococcal (GBS) sepsis. Vaginal carriage of pneumococcus is rare but the micro-organism may have a higher invasion to colonisation ratio (attack rate) than GBS. Risk factors for invasive disease are similar to GBS.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  10. Lim CT, Thong MK, Parasakthi N, Ngeow YF
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 1997 Jul;26(4):421-5.
    PMID: 9395802
    Between January 1984 and December 1994, 30 cases of early neonatal group B streptococcus (GBS) septicaemia were managed in the Neonatal Unit, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur. Two neonates were outborn and 28 were inborn, giving an average annual incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia of 0.4/1000 livebirths among inborn babies. In a separate survey over a three-month period, GBS genital carriage rate among 196 parturients was found to be 9.7%. Of the infants with GBS septicaemia, the mean gestational age was 37.5 +/- 3.8 weeks and the mean birthweight was 2540 +/- 716 g. Twelve (40%) were preterm infants and 14 (47%) were low birthweight infants. Male and female infants were almost equally affected. Prolonged rupture of membranes and maternal pyrexia accounted for only 5 (17%) and 3 (10%) of the cases respectively. Twenty-four (80%) neonates had onset of symptoms within 6 hours of life and respiratory symptoms were observed in 24 (80%) of the cases, while meningitis was uncommon. Six (20%) neonates died. Preterm and low birthweight infants had higher mortality than their term counterparts: 42% versus 6% and 36% versus 6% respectively. Of those who died, 4 (67%) required respiratory support right from birth and the mean time of onset of symptoms was 4 hours (range 0 to 21 hours) and the duration of survival was only 28.8 hours (range 12 to 38 hours). As the incidence of neonatal GBS septicaemia was low, mass screening and chemoprophylaxis for GBS were not recommended. All the GBS isolates were sensitive to penicillin and ampicillin, thus one of these antibiotics should be included in the antimicrobial therapy of septic neonates.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  11. Balkis, A.K., Zahari, C.D.
    MyJurnal
    National Antenatal HIV Screening Programme has been integrated as a routine screening in antenatal care in early 1998 and in Terengganu since May 1998 involving all health centers in the state. As of December 2001, a total number of 57,882 antenatal mothers were screened (97.5% of all new antenatal mothers). The HIV prevalence rate among antenatal mothers was found to be 0.052%. All HIV positive mothers were married and majority were Malays (93 .3%). Ninety percents of them revealed that the only risk factorfor HIV was through sexual contact. HIV positive status was confirmed in 66 .7% ofthe husbands. All twenty eight mothers that managed to be followed up delivered to live birth babies. All newborns reported to have good Apgar score (9 at 5 minutes of life). Mean birth weight was 3 .08 kilograms 1- 0.45 and only 8% were premature babies. The observed rate of HIV vertical transmission was 6.25% and this is lower than the expected mother to child transmission rate of 30% without intervention.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  12. Prameela KK
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2012 Dec;67(6):644-51.
    PMID: 23770969 MyJurnal
    Breastmilk protects the infant from many diseases and many short- term and long- term benefits accrue. At the same time it is also known that breastfeeding acts as a vehicle for some infective agents. It is now accepted that breastmilk transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus- 1 (HIV-1) is an important mode of paediatric infection . Despite this fact, many researchers have observed that corresponding to the volume of milk consumed by the infant, maternal transmission via breastmilk is still comparatively low. Some have noted the long latency period of breastmilk HIV transmission with evidence of numerous anti-HIV factors in breastmilk. Although there are accepted standard guidelines on infant feeding in mothers who are HIV positive in many countries, it maybe equally important to realize gaps in our knowledge of mother- to -child HIV transmission. From an evolutionary perspective, the role of the mammary epithelial cell (MEC) and of breastmilk , in contributing to and possibly in influencing HIV-1 transmission is intriguing. The presence of HIV-1 or of other viruses in maternal milk seem to be a requisite to spur immunological defenses to optimize necessary protection to the infant. This article reviews some aspects of the science of HIV transmission through breastmilk and reflects the concept -based understanding of current policies on HIV and breastfeeding. At the same time, it highlights uncertainties in this field and the urgency for future research in this direction. Accepting current notions of breastmilk HIV transmission, greater deliberation by research may throw more light on why breastfeeding with its abundant advantages is fraught with the hazards of transmission of a deadly disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  13. Chan WK, Yeoh KY, Lim CY, Lai SM, Lee JL, Leow AHR, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2018 06;73(3):137-140.
    PMID: 29962496 MyJurnal
    INTRODUCTION: There have been no published data on the transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among children of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive mothers in Malaysia.

    METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of all the children of HBsAg-positive mothers who delivered at the University of Malaya Medical Centre between 1993 and 2000.

    RESULTS: A total of 60 HBsAg-positive mothers and their 154 children participated in the study. HBsAg was detected in four children (2.6%) while IgG antibody to the hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc IgG) was detected in seventeen children (11.0%). The mother's age at childbirth was significantly lower in the children with detectable HBsAg (22.5±6.1 years vs. 29.7±4.5 years, p=0.043) and anti-HBc IgG (26.6±6.1 years vs. 30.0±4.3 years, p=0.004). Children born in the 1980s were significantly more likely to have detectable HBsAg (18.8% vs. 0.7%, p=0.004) and anti-HBc IgG (37.5% vs. 8.0%, p=0.000) compared with those born later. All children with detectable HBsAg were born via spontaneous vaginal delivery, and hepatitis B immunoglobulin was either not given or the administration status was unknown. The majority of mothers with chronic HBV infection (70.4%) were not under any regular follow-up for their chronic HBV infection and the main reason was the lack of awareness of the need to do so (47.4%).

    CONCLUSION: Transmission of HBV infection among children of HBsAg-positive mothers in Malaysia is low. However, attention needs to be given to the high rate of HBsAgpositive mothers who are not on any regular follow-up.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data
  14. Sahlan N, Fadzilah MN, Muslim A, Shaari SA, Abdul Rahman T, Hoh BP
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2019 Aug;74(4):320-325.
    PMID: 31424040
    INTRODUCTION: Prevalence of Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection among the non-indigenous people in Malaysia has been well established and range between 3% and 5%. However, data from the indigenous (Orang Asli) people is still lacking. The Negrito population is the most remotely located Orang Asli tribe with limited access to health care facilities. This study was undertaken to determine the epidemiology and seroprevalence of HBV infection among the Negrito.

    METHODS: Surveys were conducted in five Negrito settlements in Kelantan and Perak states in Malaysia. A total of 150 participants were recruited. Clinical history was taken and physical examination was performed. Five millilitres of whole blood were collected and tested for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) using electrochemiluminescence immunoassay.

    RESULTS: Participants were mainly from the Bateq (49.3%) and Mendriq (29.4%) sub-tribes. Overall, 13 subjects (8.7 %); nine males and four females were HBsAg positive. Nine of the HBsAg positive subjects were ≥35 years old. All of them had history of home deliver without evidence of antenatal record. Six (46%) of the HBsAg positive subjects had tattoo and body piercing in the past.

    CONCLUSION: The prevalence of HBV infection rate amongst the Negrito tribe is almost three-fold compared to the national rates. The reason for this finding remains unclear. Tattooing, body piercing and vertical transmission could be the main possible routes of transmission of HBV among the Negrito population in Malaysia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical
  15. Saini R, Khim TP, Rahman SA, Ismail M, Tang TH
    Virol. J., 2010;7:131.
    PMID: 20550718 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-7-131
    Association of High-risk Human Papillomavirus (HR-HPV) with oral cancer has been established recently. Detecting these viruses in oral cavity is important to prevent oral lesions related to them. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HR-HPV in the oral cavity of women with cervical cancer, and their children. A total of 70 women, previously diagnosed with cervical cancer, and 46 children of these women, born by vaginal delivery only, were selected for this study. Buccal swabs were collected from their oral cavity and HPV detection was carried out using Hybrid Capture 2 high-risk HPV (HC2 HR-HPV) detection system.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  16. Azwa I, Khong SY
    Ann. Acad. Med. Singap., 2012 Dec;41(12):587-94.
    PMID: 23303117
    Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of human immunodefi ciency virus (HIV) is a devastating consequence of HIV infection during pregnancy and is largely preventable. Evidence-based interventions such as universal antenatal screening, provision of antiretroviral therapy, delivery by elective caesarean section and avoidance of breastfeeding have ensured that the rates of MTCT remain low in Malaysia. This review discusses the most recent advances in the management of HIV infection in pregnancy with emphasis on antiretroviral treatment strategies and obstetric care in a middle income country.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control*
  17. Amar HS, Ho JJ, Mohan AJ
    J Paediatr Child Health, 1999 Feb;35(1):63-6.
    PMID: 10234638
    OBJECTIVE: To determine the community prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women at the time of delivery in a Malaysian setting.

    METHODOLOGY: Cord blood samples from a pilot screening programme for congenital hypothyroidism in 1995 at Ipoh city and surrounding district hospitals were screened anonymously for HIV 1 and 2. HIV status was determined using chemiluminescent technology. Positive samples were retested using the Genelavia Mixt assay.

    RESULTS: A total of 4927 samples were tested. The ethnic breakdown included 51.7% Malays, 18.9% Chinese, 14.3% Indian, 2.3% Others and 12.9% unknown. The geographical distribution of samples was 73.9% urban, 24.2% rural and 1.9% unknown. The seroprevalence of HIV positivity was 3.25 per 1000 deliveries (95% CI: 1.92-5.16). Seroprevalence was higher for samples from rural and Malay mothers.

    CONCLUSION: The high seroprevalence in this study suggests that the spread of HIV is far wider than that anticipated by mandatory national reporting. It also supports antenatal screening and the use of antiretroviral therapy as an important strategy to reduce perinatal transmission.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
  18. Cheang HK, Wong HT, Ho SC, Chew KS, Lee WS
    Singapore Med J, 2013 Apr;54(4):224-6.
    PMID: 23624451
    INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to assess the immune response in infants who received the three-shot hepatitis B vaccine in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Consecutive infants born between March 2002 and April 2010 who received three doses of hepatitis B vaccine at a community clinic in Malaysia were enrolled in the study. Screening for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and antibody against HBsAg (anti-HBs) was performed after the completion of primary immunisation, at approximately one year of age.

    RESULTS: A total of 572 infants (median age 9.3 ± 2.7 months; range 6.3-48 months) were screened for immune response to hepatitis B vaccination - 553 (96.7%) infants had adequate levels of anti-HBs (≥ 10 IU/L). Of the 440 mothers whose HBsAg status was known, 14 (3.2%) were positive for HBsAg. None of the 14 infants who were born to HBsAg-positive mothers were positive for HBsAg, and all but one infant had anti-HBs level ≥ 10 IU/L. Gender, gestational age and maternal HBsAg status were not found to significantly affect the subsequent immune response in infants following vaccination.

    CONCLUSION: The proportion of Malaysian mothers who are positive for HBsAg remains high. The three-shot hepatitis B vaccine, given as part of universal vaccination against hepatitis B, provides adequate anti-HBs in the vast majority of infants in a community setting in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control
  19. Sudjaritruk T, Boettiger DC, Nguyen LV, Mohamed TJ, Wati DK, Bunupuradah T, et al.
    J Int AIDS Soc, 2019 06;22(6):e25312.
    PMID: 31179641 DOI: 10.1002/jia2.25312
    INTRODUCTION: Recommendations on the optimal frequency of plasma viral load (pVL) monitoring in children living with HIV (CLWH) who are stable on combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) are inconsistent. This study aimed to determine the impact of annual versus semi-annual pVL monitoring on treatment outcomes in Asian CLWH.

    METHODS: Data on children with perinatally acquired HIV aged <18 years on first-line, non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor-based cART with viral suppression (two consecutive pVL <400 copies/mL over a six-month period) were included from a regional cohort study; those exposed to prior mono- or dual antiretroviral treatment were excluded. Frequency of pVL monitoring was determined at the site-level based on the median rate of pVL measurement: annual 0.75 to 1.5, and semi-annual >1.5 tests/patient/year. Treatment failure was defined as virologic failure (two consecutive pVL >1000 copies/mL), change of antiretroviral drug class, or death. Baseline was the date of the second consecutive pVL <400 copies/mL. Competing risk regression models were used to identify predictors of treatment failure.

    RESULTS: During January 2008 to March 2015, there were 1220 eligible children from 10 sites that performed at least annual pVL monitoring, 1042 (85%) and 178 (15%) were from sites performing annual (n = 6) and semi-annual pVL monitoring (n = 4) respectively. Pre-cART, 675 children (55%) had World Health Organization clinical stage 3 or 4, the median nadir CD4 percentage was 9%, and the median pVL was 5.2 log10 copies/mL. At baseline, the median age was 9.2 years, 64% were on nevirapine-based regimens, the median cART duration was 1.6 years, and the median CD4 percentage was 26%. Over the follow-up period, 258 (25%) CLWH with annual and 40 (23%) with semi-annual pVL monitoring developed treatment failure, corresponding to incidence rates of 5.4 (95% CI: 4.8 to 6.1) and 4.3 (95% CI: 3.1 to 5.8) per 100 patient-years of follow-up respectively (p = 0.27). In multivariable analyses, the frequency of pVL monitoring was not associated with treatment failure (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.12; 95% CI: 0.80 to 1.59).

    CONCLUSIONS: Annual compared to semi-annual pVL monitoring was not associated with an increased risk of treatment failure in our cohort of virally suppressed children with perinatally acquired HIV on first-line NNRTI-based cART.

    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical*
  20. Nhidza AF, Naicker T, Stray-Pedersen B, Gumbo F, Chisango T, Sibanda E, et al.
    Afr J Reprod Health, 2018 Sep;22(3):43-50.
    PMID: 30381931 DOI: 10.29063/ajrh2018/v22i3.5
    This study aimed at investigating the maternal characteristics that in turn influence the immunological status of infants in asymptomatic enteric pathogen carriers in mother baby pairs (MBPs) in a high HIV burdened population in Harare, Zimbabwe. BIOPLEX immunoassay was used to analyse serum samples from 39 MBPs for 27 cytokines and 6 immunoglobulins. The MBP were purposively selected based on HIV infection and Entamoeba histolytica carriage. Logistic regression was used to identify any link between maternal demographic and clinical data with infant cytokine and immunoglobulin levels. Maternal E. histolytica carriers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α cytokines (OR: 0.14; 95% CI: 0.03-0.79) and high levels of IgA immunoglobulin (OR: 8.1; 95% CI: 1.45-45.06). HIV infected mothers were more likely to have infants with low levels of IgG2 (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.00) and IgA (OR: 0.22; 95% CI: 0.05-0.90) immunoglobulins. Notably, it was highly likely to deliver infants with low IgG4 levels (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.06-1.02) for maternal mean age above 30.38 years (Standard deviation 6.09) though not significant (p=0.05). Maternal E. histolytica asymptomatic carriage, and HIV-infection status result in low levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-12p70, FGF-basic, GM-CSF and TNF-α and immunoglobulins IgG2, IgG4 and IgA on their infants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data*
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