Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 468 in total

  1. Maki MAA, Kumar PV, Cheah SC, Siew Wei Y, Al-Nema M, Bayazeid O, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2019 May 31;4(5):8767-8777.
    PMID: 31459966 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.9b00109
    Several studies have shown that the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor; everolimus (EV) improves patient survival in several types of cancer. However, the meaningful efficacy of EV as a single agent for the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC) has failed to be proven in multiple clinical trials. Combination therapy is one of the options that could increase the efficacy and decrease the toxicity of the anticancer therapy. This study revealed that the β-cyclodextrin (β-CD):FGF7 complex has the potential to improve the antiproliferative effect of EV by preventing FGF receptor activation and by enhancing EV cellular uptake and intracellular retention. Molecular docking techniques were used to investigate the possible interaction between EV, β-CD, and FGF7. Molecular docking insights revealed that β-CD and EV are capable to form a stable inclusion complex with FGF at the molecular level. The aqueous solubility of the inclusion complex was increased (3.1 ± 0.23 μM) when compared to the aqueous solubility of pure EV (1.7 ± 0.16 μM). In addition, the in vitro cytotoxic activity of a FGF7:β-CD:EV complex on Caco-2 cell line was investigated using real-time xCELLigence technology. The FGF7:β-CD:EV complex has induced apoptosis of Caco-2 cells and shown higher cytotoxic activity than the parent drug EV. With the multitargets effect of β-CD:FGF7 and EV, the antiproliferative effect of EV was remarkably improved as the IC50 value of EV was reduced from 9.65 ± 1.42 to 1.87 ± 0.33 μM when compared to FGF7:β-CD:EV complex activity. In conclusion, the findings advance the understanding of the biological combinational effects of the β-CD:FGF7 complex and EV as an effective treatment to combat CRC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Paudel P, Seong SH, Fauzi FM, Bender A, Jung HA, Choi JS
    ACS Omega, 2020 Apr 07;5(13):7705-7715.
    PMID: 32280914 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c00684
    The present study examines the effect of human monoamine oxidase active anthraquinones emodin, alaternin (=7-hydroxyemodin), aloe-emodin, and questin from Cassia obtusifolia Linn seeds in modulating human dopamine (hD1R, hD3R, and hD4R), serotonin (h5-HT1AR), and vasopressin (hV1AR) receptors that were predicted as prime targets from proteocheminformatics modeling via in vitro cell-based functional assays, and explores the possible mechanisms of action via in silico modeling. Emodin and alaternin showed a concentration-dependent agonist effect on hD3R with EC50 values of 21.85 ± 2.66 and 56.85 ± 4.59 μM, respectively. On hV1AR, emodin and alaternin showed an antagonist effect with IC50 values of 10.25 ± 1.97 and 11.51 ± 1.08 μM, respectively. Interestingly, questin and aloe-emodin did not have any observable effect on hV1AR. Only alaternin was effective in antagonizing h5-HT1AR (IC50: 84.23 ± 4.12 μM). In silico studies revealed that a hydroxyl group at C1, C3, and C8 and a methyl group at C6 of anthraquinone structure are essential for hD3R agonist and hV1AR antagonist effects, as well as for the H-bond interaction of 1-OH group with Ser192 at a proximity of 2.0 Å. Thus, based on in silico and in vitro results, hV1AR, hD3R, and h5-HT1AR appear to be prime targets of the tested anthraquinones.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Kanwal, Khan KM, Chigurupati S, Ali F, Younus M, Aldubayan M, et al.
    ACS Omega, 2021 Jan 26;6(3):2264-2275.
    PMID: 33521466 DOI: 10.1021/acsomega.0c05581
    Indole-3-acetamides (1-24) were synthesized via coupling of indole-3-acetic acid with various substituted anilines in the presence of coupling reagent 1,1-carbonyldiimidazole. The structures of synthetic molecules were elucidated through different spectroscopic techniques including electron ionization-mass spectroscopy (EI-MS), 1H-, 13C NMR, and high-resolution EI-MS (HREI-MS). These compounds were screened for their antihyperglycemic and antioxidant potentials. All compounds displayed good to moderate inhibition against α-amylase enzyme with IC50 values ranging between 1.09 ± 0.11 and 2.84 ± 0.1 μM compared to the standard acarbose (IC50 = 0.92 ± 0.4 μM). Compound 15 (IC50 = 1.09 ± 0.11 μM) was the most active compound of the series and exhibited good inhibition against α-amylase; in addition, this compound also exhibited good antioxidant potential with IC50 values of 0.35 ± 0.1 and 0.81 ± 0.25 μM in 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl-hydrate (DPPH) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays, respectively. The binding interactions of synthetic molecules with the enzyme's active site were confirmed via in silico studies. The current study had identified a number of lead molecules as potential antihyperglycemic and antioxidant agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Abdullah NR, Sharif F, Azizan NH, Hafidz IFM, Supramani S, Usuldin SRA, et al.
    AIMS Microbiol, 2020;6(4):379-400.
    PMID: 33364534 DOI: 10.3934/microbiol.2020023
    The pellet morphology and diameter range (DR) of Ganoderma lucidum were observed in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF) for the trio total production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and endopolysaccharide (ENS). Two factors were involved in RBF; broth replacement ratio (BRR: 60%, 75% and 90%) and broth replacement time point (BRTP: log, transition and stationary phase) in days. In RBF, 34.31 g/L of biomass favoured small-compact pellets with DR of 20.67 µm< d < 24.00 µm (75% BRR, day 11 of BRTP). EPS production of 4.34 g/L was prone to ovoid-starburst pellets with DR of 34.33 µm< d <35.67 µm (75% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). Meanwhile, the highest 2.43 g/L of ENS production favoured large-hollow pellets with DR of 34.00 µm< d < 38.67 µm (90% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). In addition, RBF successfully shortened the biomass-EPS-ENS fermentation period (31, 33 and 35 days) from batch to 5 days, in seven consecutive cycles of RBF. In a FTIR detection, β-glucan (BG) from EPS and ENS extracts were associated with β-glycosidic linkages (2925 cm-1, 1635 cm-1, 1077 cm-1, 920 cm-1 and 800 cm-1 wavelengths) with similar 1H NMR spectral behaviour (4.58, 3.87 and 3.81 ppm). Meanwhile, 4 mg/L of BG gave negative cytotoxic effects on normal gingival cell line (hGF) but induced antiproliferation (IC50 = 0.23 mg/mL) against cancerous oral Asian cellosaurus cell line (ORL-48). Together, this study proved that G. lucidum mycelial pellets could withstand seven cycles of long fermentation condition and possessed anti-oral cancer beta-glucan, which suits large-scale natural drug fermentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Abdelnasir S, Anwar A, Kawish M, Anwar A, Shah MR, Siddiqui R, et al.
    AMB Express, 2020 Jul 17;10(1):127.
    PMID: 32681358 DOI: 10.1186/s13568-020-01061-z
    Acanthamoeba castellanii can cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis. Currently, no single drug has been developed to effectively treat infections caused by Acanthamoeba. Recent studies have shown that drugs conjugated with nanoparticles exhibit potent in vitro antiamoebic activity against pathogenic free-living amoebae. In this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system based on iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with metronidazole which were further loaded with amphotericin B to produce enhanced antiamoebic effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The results showed that metronidazole-nanoparticles-amphotericin B (Met-MNPs-Amp) significantly inhibited the viability of these amoebae as compared to the respective controls including drugs and nanoparticles alone. Met-MNPs-Amp exhibited IC50 at 50 μg/mL against both A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts. Furthermore, these nanoparticles did not affect the viability of rat and human cells and showed safe hemolytic activity. Hence, the results obtained in this study have potential utility in drug development against infections caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii. A combination of drugs can lead to successful prognosis against these largely neglected infections. Future studies will determine the value of conjugating molecules with diagnostic and therapeutic potential to provide theranostic approaches against these serious infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Indah M Amin, Mohd Ridzuan Hamid, Dayang Zahidah A. Othman, Rosfaiizah Siran, Siti Hamimah S.A. Kadir, Narimah AH Hasani
    ASM Science Journal, 2014;8(2):165-173.
    Aloe emodin, an anthraquinone of Aloe barbadensis Miller has been shown to have more cytotoxic effect in
    different kinds of human cancer cell lines compared to normal. Accordingly, we found it to selectively inhibit
    the proliferation of oestrogen-receptor-positive-(ER+)-breast cancer cells, MCF-7; but not controls cells,
    MCF-10A. However, its precise mechanism is not well understood. Several studies have shown that there is
    evidence of increased intracellular calcium (Ca2+), both at early and late stage of apoptosis which associated
    with the down-regulation of ERK1/2 proliferative pathway. Therefore, we aim to elucidate the involvement
    of intracellular Ca2+ in aloe emodin induced apoptosis on MCF-7. Apoptotic morphological changes were
    observed under fluorescence microscope. The involvement of cytoplasmic Ca2+ and MAPKs were investigated
    using Fluo-4 intracellular Ca2+ imaging and QuantiGene 2.0 Plex assay, respectively. IC50 of aloe emodin
    (80 μM) at 72 hours incubation was used. Data were evaluated using the one-way or two-way ANOVA tests.
    Our results indicated that aloe emodin at IC50 80µM induced apoptosis on MCF-7 through the association of
    intracellular Ca2+ signalling. This observation include a significant increased (p
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Chang YJ, Pong LY, Hassan SS, Choo WS
    Access Microbiol, 2020;2(1):acmi000073.
    PMID: 33062932 DOI: 10.1099/acmi.0.000073
    This study investigated the antiviral activity of betacyanins from red pitahaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) and red spinach (Amaranthus dubius) against dengue virus type 2 (DENV-2). The pulp of red pitahaya and the leaves of red spinach were extracted using methanol followed by sub-fractionation and Amberlite XAD16N column chromatography to obtain betacyanin fractions. The half maximum cytotoxicity concentration for betacyanin fractions from red pitahaya and red spinach on Vero cells were 4.346 and 2.287 mg ml-1, respectively. The half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of betacyanin fraction from red pitahaya was 125.8 μg ml-1 with selectivity index (SI) of 5.8. For betacyanin fraction from red spinach, the IC50 value was 14.62 µg ml-1 with SI of 28.51. Using the maximum non-toxic betacyanin concentration, direct virucidal effect against DENV-2 was obtained from betacyanin fraction from red pitahaya (IC50 of 126.70 μg ml-1; 95.0 % virus inhibition) and red spinach (IC50 value of 106.80 μg ml-1; 65.9 % of virus inhibition). Betacyanin fractions from red pitahaya and red spinach inhibited DENV-2 in vitro.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Wei LS, Wee W, Siong JY, Syamsumir DF
    Acta Med Iran, 2011;49(10):670-4.
    PMID: 22071643
    Peperomia pellucida leaf extract was characterized for its anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant activities, and chemical compositions. Anticancer activity of P. pellucida leaf extract was determined through Colorimetric MTT (tetrazolium) assay against human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7) cell line and the antimicrobial property of the plant extract was revealed by using two-fold broth micro-dilution method against 10 bacterial isolates. Antioxidant activity of the plant extract was then characterized using α, α-diphenyl-β-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging method and the chemical compositions were screened and identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results of present study indicated that P. pellucida leaf extract possessed anticancer activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) of 10.4 ± 0.06 µg/ml. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were ranged from 31.25 to 125 mg/l in which the plant extract was found to inhibit the growth of Edwardsiella tarda, Escherichia coli, Flavobacterium sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Vibrio cholerae at 31.25 mg/l; Klebsiella sp., Aeromonas hydrophila and Vibrio alginolyticus at 62.5 mg/l; and it was able to control the growth of Salmonella sp. and Vibrio parahaemolyticus at 125 mg/l. At the concentration of 0.625 ppt, the plant extract was found to inhibit 30% of DPPH, free radical. Phytol (37.88%) was the major compound in the plant extract followed by 2-Naphthalenol, decahydro- (26.20%), Hexadecanoic acid, methyl ester (18.31%) and 9,12-Octadecadienoic acid (Z,Z)-, methyl ester (17.61%). Findings from this study indicated that methanol extract of P. pellucida leaf possessed vast potential as medicinal drug especially in breast cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Ali MA, Ismail R, Choon TS, Yoon YK, Wei AC, Pandian S, et al.
    Acta Pol Pharm, 2011 May-Jun;68(3):343-8.
    PMID: 21648188
    A series of novel 3-(substituted phenyl)-6,7-dimethoxy-3a,4-dihydro-3H-indeno[1,2-c]isoxazole analogues were synthesized by the reaction of 5,6-dimethoxy-2-[(E)-1-phenylmethylidene]-1-indanone with hydroxylamine hydrochloride. The title compounds were tested for their in vitro anti-HIV activity. Among the compounds, (4g) showed a promising anti-HIV activity in the in vitro testing against IIIB and ROD strains. The IC50 of both IIIB and ROD were found to be 9.05 microM and > 125 microM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Muhammad SNH, Yaacob NS, Safuwan NAM, Fauzi AN
    PMID: 33906591 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210427104804
    BACKGROUND: Survival and progression of cancer cells are highly dependent on aerobic glycolysis. Strobilanthes crispus has been shown to have promising anticancer effects on breast cancer cells. The involvement of the glycolysis pathway in producing these effects is unconfirmed, thus further investigation is required to elucidate this phenomenon.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of S. crispus active fraction (F3) and its bioactive components on glycolysis in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).

    METHODS: This study utilizes F3, lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol to be administered in MDA-MB-231 cells for measurement of antiglycolytic activities through cell poliferation, glucose uptake, and lactate concentration assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay of MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with F3 and its bioactive components lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The IC50 value in each compound was determined by MTT assay to be used in subsequent assays. The determination of glucose uptake activity and lactate concentration were quantified using fluorescence spectrophotometry.

    RESULTS: Antiproliferative activities were observed for F3 and its bioactive components, with IC50 values of 100 µg/mL (F3), 20 µM (lutein), 25 µM (β-sitosterol), and 90 μM (stigmasterol) in MDA-MB-231 cells at 48 h. The percentage of glucose uptake and lactate concentration in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with F3, lutein, or β sitosterol were significantly lower than those observed in the untreated cells in a time-dependent manner. However, treatment with stigmasterol decreased the concentration of lactate without affecting the glucose uptake in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    CONCLUSION: The antiglycolytic activities of F3 on MDA-MB-231 cells are attributed to its bioactive components.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Hazalin NA, Lim SM, Cole AL, Majeed AB, Ramasamy K
    Anticancer Drugs, 2013 Sep;24(8):852-61.
    PMID: 23764760 DOI: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e3283635a47
    There is growing interest in the discovery of bioactive metabolites from endophytes as an alternative source of therapeutics. Identification of their therapeutic targets is essential in understanding the underlying mechanisms and enhancing the resultant therapeutic effects. As such, bioactive compounds produced by endophytic fungi from plants at the National Park, Pahang, Malaysia, were investigated. Five known compounds were identified using LC-UV-MS-NMR and they include trichodermol, 7-epi-brefeldin A, (3R,4S)-4-hydroxymellein, desmethyl-lasiodiplodin and cytochalasin D. The present study went on to investigate the potential anticancer effects of these compounds and the corresponding molecular mechanisms of the lead compound against human breast adenocarcinoma, MCF-7. For the preliminary screening, the cytotoxicity and apoptotic effects of these compounds against MCF-7 were examined. The compounds were also tested against noncarcinogenic hepatocytes (WRL68). The differential cytotoxicity was then determined using the MTT assay. Desmethyl-lasiodiplodin was found to suppress the growth of MCF-7, yielding an inhibitory concentration (IC50) that was seven-fold lower than that of the normal cells. The cytotoxic effect of desmethyl-lasiodiplodin was accompanied by apoptosis. Subsequent analysis demonstrated increased expression levels of caspase 3, c-myc and p53. Further, desmethyl-lasiodiplodin resulted in inhibition of monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-3, a cytokine involved in cell survival and metastasis. Hence, this study proposed that desmethyl-lasiodiplodin inhibited growth and survival of MCF-7 through the induction of apoptosis. This anticancer effect is mediated, in part, by upregulation of apoptotic genes and downregulation of MCP-3. As desmethyl-lasiodiplodin elicited minimal impact against normal hepatocytes, our findings also imply its potential use as a specific apoptotic agent in breast cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Lim SH, Wu L, Burgess K, Lee HB
    Anticancer Drugs, 2009 Jul;20(6):461-8.
    PMID: 19387338 DOI: 10.1097/CAD.0b013e32832b7bee
    Conventional cytotoxic anticancer drugs that target all rapidly dividing cells are nonselective in their mechanism of action, because they disrupt essential components that are crucial to both malignant and proliferating normal cells. Instead, targeting cellular functions that are distinctly different between normal and cancer cells may provide a basis for selective killing of tumor cells. One such strategy that is still largely unexplored is to utilize the relatively higher negative mitochondrial membrane potential in carcinoma cells compared with adjacent normal epithelial cells to enhance accumulation and retention of cytotoxic lipophilic cations in the former. In this study, the anticancer activities of a new class of rosamines with cyclic amine substituents and their structure-activity relationships were investigated. From an in-vitro cell growth inhibition assay, 14 of the rosamines inhibited the growth of human leukemia HL-60 cells by 50% at micromolar or lower concentrations. Derivatives containing hydrophilic substituents had less potent activity, whereas aryl substitution at the meso position conferred extra activity with thiofuran and para-iodo aryl substitutions being the most potent. In addition, both compounds were at least 10-fold more cytotoxic than rhodamine 123 against a panel of cell lines of different tissue origin and similar to rhodamine 123, exhibited more cytotoxicity against cancer cells compared with immortalized normal epithelial cells of the same organ type. In subsequent experiments, the para-iodo aryl substituted rosamine was found to localize exclusively within the mitochondria and induced apoptosis as the major mode of cell death. Our results suggest that these compounds offer potential for the design of mitochondria-targeting agents that either directly kill or deliver cytotoxic drugs to selectively kill cancer cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Iqbal K, Abdalla SAO, Anwar A, Iqbal KM, Shah MR, Anwar A, et al.
    Antibiotics (Basel), 2020 May 25;9(5).
    PMID: 32466210 DOI: 10.3390/antibiotics9050276
    The pathogenic free-living amoeba, Acanthamoeba castellanii, is responsible for a rare but deadly central nervous system infection, granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and a blinding eye disease called Acanthamoeba keratitis. Currently, a combination of biguanides, amidine, azoles and antibiotics are used to manage these infections; however, the host cell cytotoxicity of these drugs remains a challenge. Furthermore, Acanthamoeba species are capable of transforming to the cyst form to resist chemotherapy. Herein, we have developed a nano drug delivery system based on iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with isoniazid, which were further loaded with amphotericin B (ISO-NPs-AMP) to cause potent antiamoebic effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The IC50 of isoniazid conjugated with magnetic nanoparticles and loaded with amphotericin B was found to be 45 μg/mL against Acanthamoeba castellanii trophozoites and 50 μg/mL against cysts. The results obtained in this study have promising implications in drug discovery as these nanomaterials exhibited high trophicidal and cysticidal effects, as well as limited cytotoxicity against rat and human cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Ji X, Usman A, Razalli NH, Sambanthamurthi R, Gupta SV
    Anticancer Res, 2015 Jan;35(1):97-106.
    PMID: 25550539
    Oil palm phenolics (OPP) or Palm Juice (PJ), a water soluble extract from the palm fruit (Elaies guineensis) has been documented to have anti-carcinogenic activities in various cancer types.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Tee TT, Azimahtol HL
    Anticancer Res, 2005 May-Jun;25(3B):2205-13.
    PMID: 16158965
    Extracts of the plant Eurycoma longifolia have been shown to possess cytotoxic, antimalarial, anti-ulcer, antipyretic and plant growth inhibition activities. The present study investigated the effects of extracts and their chromatographic fractions from the root of E. longifolia on the growth of a human breast cancer cell line, MCF-7. Our data indicated that E. longifolia extracts and fractions exert a direct antiproliferative activity on MCF-7. The bioassay-guided root fractionation resulted in the isolation of three active fractions, F5, F6 and F7, which displayed IC50 values of (6.17+/-0.38) microg/ml, (4.40+/-0.42) microg/ml and (20.00+/-0.08) microg/ml, respectively. The resultant from F7 purification, F16, exhibited a higher cytotoxic activity towards MCF-7, (IC50=15.23+/-0.66 microg/ml) and a certain degree of selectivity against a normal breast cell line, MCF-10A (IC50=66.31-0.47 microg/ml). F16 significantly increased apoptosis in MCF-7 cells, as evaluated by the Tdt-mediated dUTP nick end labelling assay and nuclear morphology. Western blotting revealed down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein expression. F16, however, did not affect the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bax. These results, therefore, suggest that F16 has antiproliferative effects on MCF-7 cells by inducing apoptosis through the modulation of Bcl-2 protein levels.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Mediani A, Abas F, Tan CP, Khatib A
    Antioxidants (Basel), 2014 May 07;3(2):358-70.
    PMID: 26784876 DOI: 10.3390/antiox3020358
    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Tan CW, Sam IC, Chong WL, Lee VS, Chan YF
    Antiviral Res, 2017 07;143:186-194.
    PMID: 28457855 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2017.04.017
    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arthropod-borne flavivirus that causes newborn microcephaly and Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults. No therapeutics are available to treat ZIKV infection or other flaviviruses. In this study, we explored the inhibitory effect of glycosaminoglycans and analogues against ZIKV infection. Highly sulfated heparin, dextran sulfate and suramin significantly inhibited ZIKV infection in Vero cells. De-sulfated heparin analogues lose inhibitory effect, implying that sulfonate groups are critical for viral inhibition. Suramin, an FDA-approved anti-parasitic drug, inhibits ZIKV infection with 3-5 log10 PFU viral reduction with IC50value of ∼2.5-5 μg/ml (1.93 μM-3.85 μM). A time-of-drug-addition study revealed that suramin remains potent even when administrated at 1-24 hpi. Suramin inhibits ZIKV infection by preventing viral adsorption, entry and replication. Molecular dynamics simulation revealed stronger interaction of suramin with ZIKV NS3 helicase than with the envelope protein. Suramin warrants further investigation as a potential antiviral candidate for ZIKV infection. Heparan sulfate (HS) is a cellular attachment receptor for multiple flaviviruses. However, no direct ZIKV-heparin interaction was observed in heparin-binding analysis, and downregulate or removal of cellular HS with sodium chlorate or heparinase I/III did not inhibit ZIKV infection. This indicates that cell surface HS is not utilized by ZIKV as an attachment receptor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Lani R, Hassandarvish P, Shu MH, Phoon WH, Chu JJ, Higgs S, et al.
    Antiviral Res, 2016 Sep;133:50-61.
    PMID: 27460167 DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2016.07.009
    This study focuses on the antiviral activity of selected flavonoids against the Chikungunya virus (CHIKV), a mosquito-transmitted virus that can cause incapacitating arthritis in infected individuals. Based on the results of screening on Vero cells, the tested compounds were evaluated further with various assays, including cytotoxicity assay, virus yield assay by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), virus RNA replication assay with a CHIKV replicon cell line, Western blotting, and quantitative immunofluorescence assay. Baicalein, fisetin, and quercetagetin displayed potent inhibition of CHIKV infection, with 50% inhibitory concentrations [IC50] of 1.891 μg/ml (6.997 μM), 8.444 μg/ml (29.5 μM), and 13.85 μg/ml (43.52 μM), respectively, and with minimal cytotoxicity. The time-of-addition studies and various antiviral assays demonstrated that baicalein and quercetagetin mainly inhibited CHIKV binding to the Vero cells and displayed potent activity against extracellular CHIKV particles. The qRT-PCR, immunofluorescence assay, and Western blot analyses indicated that each of these flavonoids affects CHIKV RNA production and viral protein expression. These data provide the first evidence of the intracellular anti-CHIKV activity of baicalein, fisetin, and quercetagetin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Shukor MY, Masdor N, Baharom NA, Jamal JA, Abdullah MP, Shamaan NA, et al.
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2008 Mar;144(3):283-91.
    PMID: 18556817
    A heavy-metal assay has been developed using bromelain, a protease. The enzyme is assayed using casein as a substrate with Coomassie dye to track completion of hydrolysis of casein. In the absence of inhibitors, casein is hydrolysed to completion, and the solution is brown. In the presence of metal ions such as Hg2+ and Cu2+, the hydrolysis of casein is inhibited, and the solution remains blue. Exclusion of sulfhydryl protective agent and ethylenediaminetetraacetic in the original assay improved sensitivity to heavy metals several fold. The assay is sensitive to Hg2+ and Cu2+, exhibiting a dose-response curve with an IC50 of 0.15 mg 1(-1) for Hg2+ and a one-phase binding curve with an IC50 of 0.23 mg 1(-1) for Cu2+. The IC50 value for Hg2+ is found to be lower to several other assays such as immobilized urease and papain assay, whilst the IC50 value for Cu2+ is lower than immobilized urease, 15-min Microtox, and rainbow trout.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Atif M, Bhatti HN, Haque RA, Iqbal MA, Ahamed Khadeer MB, Majid AMSA
    Appl Biochem Biotechnol, 2020 Jul;191(3):1171-1189.
    PMID: 32002729 DOI: 10.1007/s12010-019-03186-9
    Synthesis and anticancer studies of three symmetrically and non-symmetrically substituted silver(I)-N-Heterocyclic carbene complexes of type [(NHC)2-Ag]PF6 (7-9) and their respective (ligands) benzimidazolium salts (4-6) are described herein. Compound 5 and Ag-NHC-complex 7 were characterized by the single crystal X-ray diffraction technique. Structural studies for 7 showed that the silver(I) center has linear C-Ag-C coordination geometry (180.00(10)o). Other azolium and Ag-NHC analogues were confirmed by H1 and C13-NMR spectroscopy. The synthesized analogues were biologically characterized for in vitro anticancer activity against three cancer cell lines including human colorectal cancer (HCT 116), breast cancer (MCF-7), and erythromyeloblastoid leukemia (K-562) cell lines and in terms of in vivo acute oral toxicity (IAOT) in view of agility and body weight of female rats. In vitro anticancer activity showed the values of IC50 in range 0.31-17.9 μM in case of K-562 and HCT-116 cancer cell lines and 15.1-35.2 μM in case of MCF-7 while taking commercially known anticancer agents 5-fluorouracil, tamoxifen, and betulinic acid which have IC50 values 5.2, 5.5, and 17.0 μM, respectively. In vivo study revealed vigor and agility of all test animals which explores the biocompatibility and non-toxicity of the test analogues.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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