Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 468 in total

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  1. Taher M, Salleh WMNHW, Alkhamaiseh SI, Ahmad F, Rezali MF, Susanti D, et al.
    Z Naturforsch C J Biosci, 2021 Jan 27;76(1-2):87-91.
    PMID: 32931451 DOI: 10.1515/znc-2020-0089
    A phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Calophyllum canum resulted in the isolation of a new xanthone dimer identified as biscaloxanthone (1), together with four compounds; trapezifoliaxanthone (2), trapezifolixanthone A (3), taraxerone (4) and taraxerol (5). The structures of these compounds were determined via spectroscopic methods of IR, UV, MS and NMR (1D and 2D). The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-3 were screened against A549, MCF-7, C33A and 3T3L1 cell lines, wherein weak cytotoxic activities were observed (IC50 > 50 μm).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Nakisah MA, Ida Muryany MY, Fatimah H, Nor Fadilah R, Zalilawati MR, Khamsah S, et al.
    World J Microbiol Biotechnol, 2012 Mar;28(3):1237-44.
    PMID: 22805843 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-011-0927-8
    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Subramanian AP, Jaganathan SK, Mandal M, Supriyanto E, Muhamad II
    World J Gastroenterol, 2016 Apr 21;22(15):3952-61.
    PMID: 27099438 DOI: 10.3748/wjg.v22.i15.3952
    AIM: To investigate the inhibitory action of diet-derived phenolic compound gallic acid (GA) against HCT-15 colon cancer cells.
    METHODS: The antiproliferative effect of GA against colon cancer cells was determined by performing thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. The colony forming ability of GA treated colon cancer cells was evaluated using the colony forming assay. The cell cycle changes induced by GA in HCT-15 cells were analyzed by propidium iodide staining. Levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and mitochondrial membrane potential of HCT-15 exposed to GA was assessed using 2',7'-dichlorfluorescein-diacetate and rhodamine-123 respectively, with the help of flow cytometry. Morphological changes caused by GA treatment in the colon cancer cells were identified by scanning electron microscope and photomicrograph examination. Apoptosis was confirmed using flow cytometric analysis of GA treated HCT-15 cells after staining with Yo-Pro-1.
    RESULTS: MTT assay results illustrated that GA has an inhibitory effect on HCT-15 cells with IC50 value of 740 μmol/L. A time-dependent inhibition of colony formation was evident with GA treatment. Cell cycle arrest was evident from the accumulation of GA treated HCT-15 cells at sub-G1 phase (0.98 ± 1.03 vs 58.01 ± 2.05) with increasing exposure time. Flow cytometric analysis of GA treated HCT-15 cells depicted early events associated with apoptosis like lipid layer breakage and fall in mitochondrial membrane potential apart from an increase in the generation of ROS which were in a time dependent manner. SEM and photomicrograph images of the GA-treated cells displayed membrane blebbing and cell shrinking characteristics of apoptosis. Further apoptosis confirmation by Yo-Pro-1 staining also showed the time-dependent increase of apoptotic cells after treatment.
    CONCLUSION: These results show that GA induced ROS dependent apoptosis and inhibited the growth of colon cancer cells.
    KEYWORDS: Apoptosis; Cell cycle; Colon cancer; Gallic acid; Lipid layer break; Reactive oxygen species
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Zandi K, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Wong PF, Mustafa MR, Abubakar S
    Virol J, 2011;8:560.
    PMID: 22201648 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-560
    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne disease currently with no effective antiviral or vaccine available. Effort to find antivirals for it has focused on bioflavonoids, a plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with many potential health benefits. In the present study, antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type -2 (DENV-2) in Vero cell was evaluated. Anti-dengue activity of these compounds was determined at different stages of DENV-2 infection and replication cycle. DENV replication was measured by Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for each compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Nordin ML, Othman AA, Kadir AA, Shaari R, Osman AY, Mohamed M
    Vet World, 2019;12(2):236-242.
    PMID: 31040564 DOI: 10.14202/vetworld.2019.236-242
    Background and Aim: The increasing prevalence of drug resistance eventually leads scientist to discover new drugs that could solve the problem. Since ancient immemorial times, medicinal plants generally known as herbs were widely used in every culture throughout the world. In fact, currently up to 70,000 plant species have been screened for biological activities and about 70% ends up for commercialization. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the potential cytotoxic and antibacterial effect of Syzygium polyanthum leaves which are local Malaysia plants, against 4T1 and MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells, respectively, and also against bacteria causing mastitis in cows.

    Materials and Methods: The cytotoxic effect of hydromethanolic extract of S. polyanthum against 4T1 and MCF-7 mammary carcinoma cells was evaluated using 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) assay. The cells were treated with the concentration of extracts ranging from 15.63 µg/mL to 1000 µg/ml for 72 h, and the percentage of cell survivability was determined based on minimum concentration that was able to allow at least 50% growth of cancer cells (IC50) after 72 h. The antibacterial activity was tested against common bacteria causing mastitis in cow. The bacteria were isolated from milk samples. The antibacterial activity of the extract was determined by disk diffusion method and susceptibility test based on minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).

    Results: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus hyicus, and Staphylococcus intermedius were isolated from the milk samples that positive for mastitis. The MIC values range from 7.12 mm to 13.5 mm. The extract exhibits the widest zone of inhibition (13.5±0.20 mm) at 1000 mg/ml of concentrations. The extract relatively has low cytotoxicity effect against 4T1 and MCF-7 cells with IC50 values ranging from 672.57±59.42 and 126.05±50.89 µg/ml, respectively.

    Conclusion: S. polyanthum exerts weak antibacterial activity and cytotoxic effect to mammary carcinoma cells. The extract does not toxic to cells. However, further study is recommended, especially, this plant should be tested for in vivo.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Mansur F, Luoga W, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Lowe A, Behnke JM
    Vet Parasitol, 2014 Mar 17;201(1-2):48-58.
    PMID: 24462509 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.12.018
    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 μM, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 μM, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Al-Rofaai A, Rahman WA, Sulaiman SF, Yahaya ZS
    Vet Parasitol, 2012 Nov 23;190(1-2):127-35.
    PMID: 22749290 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.05.028
    This study aimed to represent the first report of the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) against eggs and larvae of susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. As well as, to determine the total tannin compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity of the extract. The egg hatch test was used to evaluate ovicidal activity against unembryonated eggs, whereas larval feeding inhibition assay and MTT-formazan assay were used to evaluate larvicidal activity against first (L(1)) and infective (L(3)) larvae, respectively. The results showed no significant differences were detected between the sensitivities of susceptible and resistant strains of T. colubriformis to the extract. Eggs, L(1) and L(3) were significantly affected (P<0.001) compared with negative control, and L(1) were more sensitive than the eggs and L(3). The total tannin compounds were investigated using tannin quantification assay and determined by 254.44 TAE/mg. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was determined by 2.638 mg/ml. Acute oral toxicity at dose of 5,000 mg/kg, and sub-chronic oral toxicity at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of the extract were observed in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The acute oral toxicity revealed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of methanolic extract of cassava leaves on SD rats was greater than 5,000 mg/kg, whereas the sub-chronic oral toxicity did not show observed adverse effects at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of cassava leaves has direct ovicidal and larvicidal activity against T. colubriformis strains with a safety margin for animals, and it may be potentially utilized as a source of natural antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Ahmad NH, Rahim RA, Mat I
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010 Dec;21(2):101-13.
    PMID: 24575203
    Research on natural products has been widely used as a strategy to discover new drugs with potential for applications in complementary medicines because they have fewer side effects than conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of crude aqueous Catharanthus roseus extract on Jurkat cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aqueous extract was standardised to vinblastine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was used to determine cytotoxicity by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. DNA fragmentation assay was employed to determine if cell death was due to apoptosis. The results showed that the aqueous extract induced cell death of Jurkat cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours post-treatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, cells treated at 48 and 72 hours produced higher cytotoxic effects with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 2.55 μg/ml and 2.38 μg/ml, respectively. In contrast, the extract induced normal PBMC proliferation, especially after 24 hours treatment with 1000 μg/ml. This result indicates that the C. roseus crude aqueous extract showed differential effects of inhibiting the proliferation of the Jurkat cell line and promoting the growth of PBMCs. These data suggest that the extract may be applicable for modulating the normal and transformed immune cells in leukaemia patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Dahari DE, Salleh RM, Mahmud F, Chin LP, Embi N, Sidek HM
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2016 Aug;27(2):53-71.
    PMID: 27688851 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2016.27.2.5
    Exploiting natural resources for bioactive compounds is an attractive drug discovery strategy in search for new anti-malarial drugs with novel modes of action. Initial screening efforts in our laboratory revealed two preparations of soil-derived actinomycetes (H11809 and FH025) with potent anti-malarial activities. Both crude extracts showed glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β)-inhibitory activities in a yeast-based kinase assay. We have previously shown that the GSK3 inhibitor, lithium chloride (LiCl), was able to suppress parasitaemia development in a rodent model of malarial infection. The present study aims to evaluate whether anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 involve the inhibition of GSK3β. The acetone crude extracts of H11809 and FH025 each exerted strong inhibition on the growth of Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 in vitro with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) values of 0.57 ± 0.09 and 1.28 ± 0.11 µg/mL, respectively. The tested extracts exhibited Selectivity Index (SI) values exceeding 10 for the 3D7 strain. Both H11809 and FH025 showed dosage-dependent chemo-suppressive activities in vivo and improved animal survivability compared to non-treated infected mice. Western analysis revealed increased phosphorylation of serine (Ser 9) GSK3β (by 6.79 to 6.83-fold) in liver samples from infected mice treated with H11809 or FH025 compared to samples from non-infected or non-treated infected mice. A compound already identified in H11809 (data not shown), dibutyl phthalate (DBP) showed active anti-plasmodial activity against 3D7 (IC50 4.87 ± 1.26 µg/mL which is equivalent to 17.50 µM) and good chemo-suppressive activity in vivo (60.80% chemo-suppression at 300 mg/kg body weight [bw] dosage). DBP administration also resulted in increased phosphorylation of Ser 9 GSK3β compared to controls. Findings from the present study demonstrate that the potent anti-malarial activities of H11809 and FH025 were mediated via inhibition of host GSK3β. In addition, our study suggests that DBP is in part the bioactive component contributing to the anti-malarial activity displayed by H11809 acting through the inhibition of GSK3β.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Nor Hazwani Ahmad, Rohanizah Abdul Rahim, Ishak Mat
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010;21(2):-.
    MyJurnal
    Research on natural products has been widely used as a strategy to discover new drugs with potential for applications in complementary medicines because they have fewer side effects than conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of crude aqueous Catharanthus roseus extract on Jurkat cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aqueous extract was
    standardised to vinblastine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was used to determine cytotoxicity by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. DNA fragmentation assay was employed to determine if cell death was due to apoptosis. The results showed that the aqueous extract induced cell death of Jurkat cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours posttreatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, cells treated at 48 and 72 hours produced higher cytotoxic effects with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)values of 2.55 µg/ml and 2.38 µg/ml, respectively. In contrast, the extract induced normal PBMC proliferation, especially after 24 hours treatment with 1000 µg/ml. This result indicates that the C. roseus crude aqueous extract showed differential effects of inhibiting the proliferation of the Jurkat cell line and promoting the growth of PBMCs. These data suggest that the extract may be applicable for modulating the normal and transformed immune cells in leukaemia patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Widowati W, Ginting CN, Lister INE, Girsang E, Amalia A, Wibowo SHB, et al.
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2020 Oct;31(3):127-144.
    PMID: 33214860 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2020.31.3.9
    Skin aging is a complex natural process characterised by gradual diminishment of structural integrity and physiological imbalance of the skin tissue. Since the oxidative stress is tightly corelated to the skin aging process, the usage of antioxidant may serve as favourable strategies for slowing down the skin aging process. Mangosteen is an important fruit commodity and its extract had been extensively studied and revealing various biological activities. Present study aimed to assess the antioxidant and antiaging activity of mangosteen peel extract (MPE) and its phytochemical compounds. MPE and its compounds were subjected to ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), hydroperoxide (H2O2) scavenging, anti-collagenase, anti-elastase, anti-hyaluronidase and anti-tyrosinase assay. MPE has the highest FRAP 116.31 ± 0.60 μM Fe(II) μg-1 extract, IC50 of MPE on H2O2 scavenging activity was 54.61 μg mL-1. MPE also has the highest anti elastase activity at IC50 7.40 μg mL-1. Alpha-mangostin showed potent anti-collagenase activity (IC50 9.75 μg mL-1). While gamma-mangostin showed potent anti-hyaluronidase (IC50 23.85 μg mL-1) and anti-tyrosinase (IC50 50.35 μg mL-1). MPE and its compounds were evaluated in vitro for antioxidant and antiaging activities. Current findings may provide scientific evidence for possible usage of mangosteen extract and its compounds as antioxidant and antiaging agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Yusof WNSW, Abdullah H
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2020 Apr;31(1):69-84.
    PMID: 32963712 DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2020.31.1.5
    Conventional and modern cancer treatment were reported to manifest adverse effects to the patients. More researches were conducted to search for selective cytotoxic agent of plant natural product on cancer cells. The presences of wide range phytochemicals in Quercus infectoria (QI) extract have been implicated with the cytotoxic effect against various types of cancer cell which remain undiscovered. This present study aimed to evaluate cytotoxic effect of QI extracts on selected human cancer cells and then, the most potent extract was further analysed for general phytochemical constituents. QI galls were extracted successively with n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol yielded three main extracts; n-hexane (QIH), ethyl acetate (QIEA) and methanol (QIM), respectively. The most potent extract was qualitatively analysed for the present of tannin, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. Next, the extracts were tested to determine the cytotoxic activity against cervical cancer cells (HeLa), breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231) and liver cancer cells (Hep G2) using MTT assay. Cytotoxic activity of QI extracts against normal fibroblast (L929) cell line was also evaluated to determine the cytoselective property. Meanwhile, DMSO-treated cells served as negative control while cisplatin-treated cells served as positive control. The most potent extract then chosen to be further investigated for DNA fragmentation as hallmark of apoptosis using Hoechst staining. Qualitative phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannin, alkaloids, glycosides, saponins, terpenoids, flavonoids and phenolic compounds. QIEA extract exhibited the most potent cytotoxic activity against HeLa cells with (IC50 value = 6.33 ± 0.33 μg/mL) and showed cytoselective property against L929 cells. DNA fragmentation revealed QIEA induced apoptosis in the treated cells. The richness of phytochemical constituents in QIEA extract might contribute to the potency of cytotoxic activity towards HeLa cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Haslinda MS, Aiyub Z, Bakar NK, Tohar N, Musa Y, Abdullah NR, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Mar;32(1):129-39.
    PMID: 25801263
    An antiplasmodial screening of Phyllanthus debilis and Phyllanthus urinaria was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D10 (chloroquine-sensitive, CQS) and Gombak A (chloroquine-resistant, CQR) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic crudes from the soxhlet extraction were active against both strains however, P. urinaria (IC50 8.9 μg/ml with CQR strain) exhibited better anti-malarial activity compared to P. debilis (IC50 12.2 μg/ml with CQR strain). Furthermore, the methanolic crude of P. urinaria obtained by the cold extraction has good anti-malarial activity towards CQS (IC50 4.1 μg/ml). The concentration of macronutrients (calcium and magnesium) and trace metals (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) from three Phyllanthus species i.e. P. debilis Klein ex Wild., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L. and Alpinia conchigera Griff. were determined using microwave digestion method and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Standard Reference Material 1547 (peach leaves) was used to validate the method throughout this study. The recovery values were in the range of 80% to 120% which were in very good agreement with the certified values. The three Phyllanthus species and leaves of A. conchigera showed the highest concentration of calcium compared to other metals and macronutrients studied. The significant presence of all the important macronutrients and trace metals which are essential for human health and well-being substantiate their use medicinally in traditional practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Dyary HO, Arifah AK, Sharma RS, Rasedee A, Mohd-Aspollah MS, Zakaria ZA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Mar;31(1):89-96.
    PMID: 24862048 MyJurnal
    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 μg/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 μg/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Muhd Haffiz J, Norhayati I, Getha K, Nor Azah MA, Mohd Ilham A, Lili Sahira H, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):9-14.
    PMID: 23665703 MyJurnal
    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Abdul Wahab K, Ahmad FB, Din LB, Cheah SH, Mock SL
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):139-44.
    PMID: 16493406 MyJurnal
    The crude methanol extracts of Gelsemium elegans leaves were assessed for their cytotoxic activity using the microculture 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability. This study utilized two different types of human cancer cell lines, CaOV-3 (human ovarian cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells), allowing for comparison of toxicity of G. elegans against these two cancer cells lines. Our results showed that the methanol extract of G. elegans exhibited high cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 with an IC50 value of 5microg/ml after 96 h incubation. However, G. elegans displayed discernibly less toxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value 40microg/ml after 96 h incubation and this effect was dose- and time-dependent, up to 72h and 20-30 microg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that G. elegans is potently cytotoxic against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 and to a lesser extend towards the human breast carcinoma cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the extract is selective towards CaOV-3 cells and may have a chemotherapeutic role for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Sakhor W, Teoh TC, Yusof R, Lim SK, Razif MFM
    Trop Biomed, 2020 Sep 01;37(3):609-625.
    PMID: 33612776 DOI: 10.47665/tb.37.3.609
    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) consists of eight genotypes and 90 subtypes, with genotype (GT) 3 being the second most common globally and is linked to higher incidences of steatosis and rapid development of fibrosis and cirrhosis. The NS3/4A serine protease, a heterodimer complex of two HCV non-structural proteins, is an effective target for pharmaceutical intervention due to its essential roles in processing HCV polyproteins and inhibiting innate immunity. This study combines structure-based virtual screening (SBVS) of predefined compound libraries, pharmacokinetic prediction (ADME/T) and in vitro evaluation to identify potential low molecular weight (<500 Dalton) inhibitors of the NS3/4A serine protease (GT3). In silico screening of ZINC and PubChem libraries yielded five selected compounds as potential candidates. Dose-dependent inhibition of the NS3/4A serine protease and HCV replication in HuH-7.5 cells revealed that compound A (PubChem ID No. 16672637) exhibited inhibition towards HCV GT3 with an IC50 of 106.7µM and EC50 of 25.8µM, respectively. Thus, compound A may be developed as a potent, low molecular weight drug against the HCV NS3/4A serine protease of GT3.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):40-47.
    PMID: 33973571 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.035
    The reduced efficacy of the mainstay antimalarial drugs due to the widespread of drugresistant Plasmodium falciparum has necessitated efforts to discover new antimalarial drugs with new targets. Quercus infectoria (Olivier) has long been used to treat various ailments including fever. The acetone extract of the plant galls has recently been reported to have a promising antimalarial activity in vitro. This study was aimed to determine the effect of the Q. infectoria gall acetone crude extract on pH of the digestive vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum. A ratiometric fluorescent probe, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) was used to facilitate a quantitative measurement of the digestive vacuole pH by flow cytometry. Mid trophozoite stage malaria parasites grown in resealed erythrocytes containing FITC-dextran were treated with different concentrations of the acetone extract based on the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Saponin-permeabilized parasites were analyzed to obtain the ratio of green/yellow fluorescence intensity (Rgy) plotted as a function of pH in a pH calibration curve of FITC-dextran. Based on the pH calibration curve, the pH of the digestive vacuole of the acetone extract-treated parasites was significantly altered (pH values ranged from 6.35- 6.71) in a concentration-dependent manner compared to the untreated parasites (pH = 5.32) (p < 0.001). This study provides a valuable insight into the potential of the Q. infectoria galls as a promising antimalarial candidate with a novel mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Ng WK, Yazan LS, Ismail M
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2011 Oct;25(7):1392-8.
    PMID: 21609759 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.04.030
    Thymoquinone (TQ), the active constituent of Nigella sativa or black cumin exhibited cytotoxic effects in several cancer cell lines. In this study, the cytotoxicity of TQ in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (SiHa) was investigated. TQ was cytotoxic towards SiHa cells with IC50 values of 10.67 ± 0.12 and 9.33 ± 0.19 μg/mL as determined by MTT assay and trypan blue dye exclusion test, respectively, after 72 h of incubation. TQ was more cytotoxic towards SiHa cells compared to cisplatin. Interestingly, TQ was less cytotoxic towards the normal cells (3T3-L1 and Vero). Cell cycle analysis performed by flowcytometer showed a significant increase in the accumulation of TQ-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating induction of apoptosis by the compound. Apoptosis induction by TQ was further confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining. Significant elevation of p53 and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was found in the treated cells, without any changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein. In conclusion, thymoquinone from N. sativa was more potent than cisplatin in elimination of SiHa cells via apoptosis with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Faraj FL, Zahedifard M, Paydar M, Looi CY, Abdul Majid N, Ali HM, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:212096.
    PMID: 25548779 DOI: 10.1155/2014/212096
    Two new synthesized and characterized quinazoline Schiff bases 1 and 2 were investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 6.246×10(-6) mol/L and 5.910×10(-6) mol/L, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with 1 and 2 subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS formation. We also found activation of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9 in compounds 1 and 2. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB translocation in MCF-7 cells treated by compound 1 significantly exhibited the association of extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed significant activity towards MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway and are potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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