Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 462 in total

  1. Ab Aziz NA, Salim N, Zarei M, Saari N, Yusoff FM
    Prep Biochem Biotechnol, 2021;51(1):44-53.
    PMID: 32701046 DOI: 10.1080/10826068.2020.1789991
    The study was conducted to determine anti-tyrosinase and antioxidant activities of the extracted collagen hydrolysate (CH) derived from Malaysian jellyfish, Rhopilema hispidum. Collagen was extracted using 1:1 (w:v) 0.1 M NaOH solution at temperature 25 °C for 48 hr followed by treatment of 1:2 (w:v) distilled water for another 24 hr and freeze-dried. The extracted collagen was hydrolyzed using papain at optimum temperature, pH and enzyme/substrate ratio [E/S] of 60 °C, 7.0 and 1:50, respectively. CH was found to exhibit tyrosinase inhibitory activity, DPPH radical scavenging and metal ion-chelating assays up to 64, 28, and 83%, respectively, after 8 hr of hydrolysis process. The molecular weight of CH was found <10 kDa consisting of mainly Gly (19.219%), Glu (10.428%), and Arg (8.848%). The UV-visible spectrum analysis showed a major and minor peak at 218 and 276 nm, accordingly. The FTIR spectroscopy confirmed the amide groups in CH. The SEM images demonstrated spongy and porous structure of CH. In the cytotoxicity study, CH has no cytotoxicity against mouse embryonic 3T3 fibroblast cell line with IC50 value >500 µg/ml. Results revealed that the CH generated from this study has a potential to be developed as active ingredient in cosmeceutical application.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Israf DA, Stanslas J, Yusuf UK, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2005 Jul;68(7):1090-3.
    PMID: 16038556
    A new labdane diterpene glucoside, curcumanggoside (1), together with nine known compounds, including labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial (2), calcaratarin A (3), zerumin B (4), scopoletin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, curcumin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR techniques. All diarylheptanoids and scopoletin showed significant antioxidant activity. Zerumin B, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and curcumin also exhibited cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human tumor cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Abbasi MA, Hassan M, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Siddiqui SZ, Raza H, Shah SAA, et al.
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2018 07 30;26(13):3791-3804.
    PMID: 29903414 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2018.06.005
    The present article describes the synthesis, in vitro urease inhibition and in silico molecular docking studies of a novel series of bi-heterocyclic bi-amides. The synthesis of title compounds was initiated by benzoylation, with benzoyl chloride (1), of the key starter ethyl 2-(2-amino-1,3-thiazol-4-yl)acetate (2) in weak basic aqueous medium followed by hydrazide formation, 4, and cyclization with CS2 to reach the parent bi-heterocyclic nucleophile, N-{4-[(5-sulfanyl-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-yl)methyl]-1,3-thiazol-2-yl}benzamide (5). Various electrophiles, 8a-l, were synthesized by a two-step process and these were finally coupled with 5 to yield the targeted bi-heterocyclic bi-amide molecules, 9a-l. The structures of the newly synthesized products were corroborated by IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, EI-MS and elemental analysis. The in vitro screening of these molecules against urease explored that most of the compounds exhibit potent inhibitory potential against this enzyme. The compound 9j, with IC50 value of 2.58 ± 0.02 µM, exhibited most promising inhibitory activity among the series, relative to standard thiourea having IC50 value of 21.11 ± 0.12 µM. In silico studies fully augmented the experimental enzyme inhibition results. Chemo-informatics analysis showed that synthesized compounds (9a-l) mostly obeyed the Lipinski's rule. Molecular docking study suggested that ligand 9j exhibited good binding energy value (-7.10 kcal/mol) and binds within the active region of target protein. So, on the basis of present investigation, it was inferred that 9j may serve as a novel scaffold for designing more potent urease inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Abbasi MA, Hassan M, Aziz-Ur-Rehman, Siddiqui SZ, Shah SAA, Raza H, et al.
    PeerJ, 2018;6:e4962.
    PMID: 29967717 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.4962
    The present study comprises the synthesis of a new series of sulfonamides derived from 4-methoxyphenethylamine (1). The synthesis was initiated by the reaction of 1 with 4-methylbenzenesulfonyl chloride (2) in aqueous sodium carbonate solution at pH 9 to yield N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)-4-methylbenzensulfonamide (3).This parent molecule 3 was subsequently treated with various alkyl/aralkyl halides, (4a-j), using N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent and LiH as activator to produce a series of new N-(4-methoxyphenethyl)-N-(substituted)-4-methylbenzenesulfonamides (5a-j). The structural characterization of these derivatives was carried out by spectroscopic techniques like IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR. The elemental analysis data was also coherent with spectral data of these molecules. The inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase and DPPH were evaluated and it was observed that N-(4-Methoxyphenethyl)-4-methyl-N-(2-propyl)benzensulfonamide (5c) showed acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity 0.075 ± 0.001 (IC50 0.075 ± 0.001 µM) comparable to Neostigmine methylsulfate (IC50 2.038 ± 0.039 µM).The docking studies of synthesized ligands 5a-j were also carried out against acetylcholinesterase (PDBID 4PQE) to compare the binding affinities with IC50 values. The kinetic mechanism analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk plots demonstrated that compound (5c) inhibits the acetylcholinesterase competitively to form an enzyme inhibitor complex. The inhibition constants Ki calculated from Dixon plots for compound (5c) is 2.5 µM. It was also found from kinetic analysis that derivative 5c irreversible enzyme inhibitor complex. It is proposed on the basis of our investigation that title compound 5c may serve as lead structure for the design of more potent acetylcholinesterase inhibitors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Abbasi MA, Raza H, Rehman AU, Siddiqui SZ, Nazir M, Mumtaz A, et al.
    Drug Res (Stuttg), 2019 Feb;69(2):111-120.
    PMID: 30086567 DOI: 10.1055/a-0654-5074
    In this study, a new series of sulfonamides derivatives was synthesized and their inhibitory effects on DPPH and jack bean urease were evaluated. The in silico studies were also applied to ascertain the interactions of these molecules with active site of the enzyme. Synthesis was initiated by the nucleophilic substitution reaction of 2-(4-methoxyphenyl)-1-ethanamine (1: ) with 4-(acetylamino)benzenesulfonyl chloride (2): in aqueous sodium carbonate at pH 9. Precipitates collected were washed and dried to obtain the parent molecule, N-(4-{[(4-methoxyphenethyl)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl)acetamide (3): . Then, this parent was reacted with different alkyl/aralkyl halides, (4A-M: ), using dimethylformamide (DMF) as solvent and LiH as an activator to produce a series of new N-(4-{[(4-methoxyphenethyl)-(substituted)amino]sulfonyl}phenyl)acetamides (5A-M: ). All the synthesized compounds were characterized by IR, EI-MS, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and CHN analysis data. All of the synthesized compounds showed higher urease inhibitory activity than the standard thiourea. The compound 5 F: exhibited very excellent enzyme inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 0.0171±0.0070 µM relative to standard thiourea having IC50 value of 4.7455±0.0546 µM. Molecular docking studies suggested that ligands have good binding energy values and bind within the active region of taget protein. Chemo-informatics properties were evaluated by computational approaches and it was found that synthesized compounds mostly obeyed the Lipinski' rule.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Abd Ghafar SA, Ismail M, Saiful Yazan L, Fakurazi S, Ismail N, Chan KW, et al.
    PMID: 23606884 DOI: 10.1155/2013/549705
    Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus) from the family Malvaceae, is a valuable fiber plant native to India and Africa and is currently planted as the fourth commercial crop in Malaysia. Kenaf seed oil contains alpha-linolenic acid, phytosterol such as β -sitosterol, vitamin E, and other antioxidants with chemopreventive properties. Kenaf seeds oil (KSO) was from supercritical carbon dioxide extraction fluid (SFE) at 9 different permutations of parameters based on range of pressures from 200 to 600 bars and temperature from 40 to 80°C. They were 200/40, 200/60, 200/80, 400/40, 400/60, 400/80, 600/40, 600/60, and 600/80. Extraction from 9 parameters of KSO-SFE was screened for cytotoxicity towards human colorectal cancer cell lines (HT29) and mouse embryonic fibroblast (NIH/3T3) cell lines using MTS assay. KSO-SFE at 600/40 showed the strongest cytotoxicity towards HT29 with IC50 of 200 µg/mL. The IC50 for NIH/3T3 was not detected even at highest concentration employed. Cell cycle analysis showed a significant increase in the accumulation of KSO-SFE-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating the induction of apoptosis by KSO-SFE. Further apoptosis induction was confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Abd Hamid H, Mutazah R, Yusoff MM, Abd Karim NA, Abdull Razis AF
    Food Chem Toxicol, 2017 Oct;108(Pt B):451-457.
    PMID: 27725206 DOI: 10.1016/j.fct.2016.10.004
    Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects and has been used to treat wounds, colic diarrhoea, heartburns, abscesses and gynaecopathy. The potential antiproliferative activities of R. tomentosa extracts from different solvents were evaluated in vitro on HepG2, MCF-7 and HT 29 cell lines while antioxidant activity was monitored by radical scavenging assay (DPPH), copper reducing antioxidant capacity (CUPRAC) and β-carotene bleaching assay. Extracts from R. tomentosa show the viability of the cells in concentration-dependent manner. According to the IC50 obtained, the ethyl acetate extracts showed significant antiproliferative activity on HepG2 (IC50 11.47 ± 0.280 μg/mL), MCF-7 (IC50 2.68 ± 0.529 μg/mL) and HT 29 (IC50 16.18 ± 0.538 μg/mL) after 72 h of treatment. Bioassay guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract led to the isolation of lupeol. Methanol extracts show significant antioxidant activities in DPPH (EC50 110.25 ± 0.005 μg/ml), CUPRAC (EC50 53.84 ± 0.004) and β-carotene bleaching (EC50 58.62 ± 0.001) due to the presence of high total flavonoid and total phenolic content which were 110.822 ± 0.017 mg butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT)/g and 190.467 ± 0.009 mg gallic acid (GAE)/g respectively. Taken together, the results extracts show the R. tomentosa as a potential source of antioxidant and antiproliferative efficacy.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Abdelkader Hassani, Siti Aslina Hussain?, Abdullah, N., Suryani Kamarudin, Rozita Rosli
    The present work investigated the antioxidant properties and antihypertensive activity of
    magnesium orotate (MgOr) using various established in vitro assays, such as β-carotene
    bleaching activity, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), and nitric oxide scavenging activity as well as angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity. Magnesium orotate
    nanoparticles (MgOrGANPs) were prepared using the gum arabic (GA) as stabiliser coatings
    for nanoparticles through freeze-drying method. The in vitro cytoxicity of MgOrGANPs
    against human breast cancer MCF7, liver cancer HepG2, and colon cancer HT29 was investigated. The nitric oxide (NO) and DPPH scavenging assays of MgOrGANPs showed a
    dose-dependent trend, while 500 and 200 µL/mL were significantly more effective than the
    other concentrations with an IC50 of 89.56 µg/mL and 63.22% DPPH scavenging capacity
    respectively. The exposure of human cancer cells to MgOrGANPs at 1.56 – 1,000 µg/mL
    using 3-)4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl(2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) inhibited the
    growth of cell lines examined in a dose-dependent manner. Hence, MgOrGANPs may have
    great potential to be applied for cancer treatments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Abdelnasir S, Anwar A, Kawish M, Anwar A, Shah MR, Siddiqui R, et al.
    AMB Express, 2020 Jul 17;10(1):127.
    PMID: 32681358 DOI: 10.1186/s13568-020-01061-z
    Acanthamoeba castellanii can cause granulomatous amoebic encephalitis and Acanthamoeba keratitis. Currently, no single drug has been developed to effectively treat infections caused by Acanthamoeba. Recent studies have shown that drugs conjugated with nanoparticles exhibit potent in vitro antiamoebic activity against pathogenic free-living amoebae. In this study, we have developed a nano drug delivery system based on iron oxide nanoparticles conjugated with metronidazole which were further loaded with amphotericin B to produce enhanced antiamoebic effects against Acanthamoeba castellanii. The results showed that metronidazole-nanoparticles-amphotericin B (Met-MNPs-Amp) significantly inhibited the viability of these amoebae as compared to the respective controls including drugs and nanoparticles alone. Met-MNPs-Amp exhibited IC50 at 50 μg/mL against both A. castellanii trophozoites and cysts. Furthermore, these nanoparticles did not affect the viability of rat and human cells and showed safe hemolytic activity. Hence, the results obtained in this study have potential utility in drug development against infections caused by Acanthamoeba castellanii. A combination of drugs can lead to successful prognosis against these largely neglected infections. Future studies will determine the value of conjugating molecules with diagnostic and therapeutic potential to provide theranostic approaches against these serious infections.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Abdul Manap AS, Wei Tan AC, Leong WH, Yin Chia AY, Vijayabalan S, Arya A, et al.
    Front Aging Neurosci, 2019;11:206.
    PMID: 31507403 DOI: 10.3389/fnagi.2019.00206
    Hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology include acetylcholine (ACh) deficiency and plaque deposition. Emerging studies suggest that acetylcholinesterase (AChE) may interact with amyloid β (Aβ) to promote aggregation of insoluble Aβ plaques in brains of patients. Current therapeutic options available for AD patients, such as AChE inhibitors, provide only symptomatic relief. In this study, we screened four natural compounds believed to harbor cognitive benefits-curcumin, piperine, bacoside A, and chebulinic acid. In the first section, preliminary screening through computational molecular docking simulations gauged the suitability of the compounds as novel AChE inhibitors. From here, only compounds that met the in silico selection criteria were selected for the second section through in vitro investigations, including AChE enzyme inhibition assay, 3-(4,5-dimenthylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-dimethyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, Thioflavin T (ThT) assay, and biochemical analysis via a neuronal cell line model. Of the four compounds screened, only curcumin (-9.6 kcal/mol) and piperine (-10.5 kcal/mol) showed favorable binding affinities and interactions towards AChE and were hence selected. In vitro AChE inhibition demonstrated that combination of curcumin and piperine showed greater AChE inhibition with an IC50 of 62.81 ± 0.01 μg/ml as compared to individual compounds, i.e., IC50 of curcumin at 134.5 ± 0.06 μg/ml and IC50 of piperine at 76.6 ± 0.08 μg/ml. In the SH-SY5Y cell model, this combination preserved cell viability up to 85%, indicating that the compounds protect against Aβ-induced neuronal damage (p < 0.01). Interestingly, our results also showed that curcumin and piperine achieved a synergistic effect at 35 μM with an synergism quotient (SQ) value of 1.824. Synergistic behavior indicates that the combination of these two compounds at lower concentrations may provide a better outcome than singularly used for Aβ proteins. Combined curcumin and piperine managed to inhibit aggregation (reduced ThT intensity at 0.432 a.u.; p < 0.01) as well as disaggregation (reduced ThT intensity at 0.532 a.u.; p < 0.01) of fibrillar Aβ42. Furthermore, combined curcumin and piperine reversed the Aβ-induced up-regulation of neuronal oxidative stress (p < 0.01). In conclusion, curcumin and piperine demonstrated promising neuroprotective effects, whereas bacoside A and chebulinic acid may not be suitable lead compounds. These results are hoped to advance the field of natural products research as potentially therapeutic and curative AD agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Abdul Wahab K, Ahmad FB, Din LB, Cheah SH, Mock SL
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):139-44.
    PMID: 16493406 MyJurnal
    The crude methanol extracts of Gelsemium elegans leaves were assessed for their cytotoxic activity using the microculture 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability. This study utilized two different types of human cancer cell lines, CaOV-3 (human ovarian cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells), allowing for comparison of toxicity of G. elegans against these two cancer cells lines. Our results showed that the methanol extract of G. elegans exhibited high cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 with an IC50 value of 5microg/ml after 96 h incubation. However, G. elegans displayed discernibly less toxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value 40microg/ml after 96 h incubation and this effect was dose- and time-dependent, up to 72h and 20-30 microg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that G. elegans is potently cytotoxic against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 and to a lesser extend towards the human breast carcinoma cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the extract is selective towards CaOV-3 cells and may have a chemotherapeutic role for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Abdullah N, Sahibul-Anwar H, Ideris S, Hasuda T, Hitotsuyanagi Y, Takeya K, et al.
    Fitoterapia, 2013 Jul;88:1-6.
    PMID: 23570840 DOI: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.03.028
    Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. f. & Thoms. is a plant widely distributed in Malaysia. The aim of this study is to identify compounds from the roots of G. macrophyllus. The ground roots were extracted with aqueous methanol and partitioned sequentially with n-hexane, chloroform and butanol. Purification from this extracts afforded six compounds with two new compounds, namely goniolandrene-A (1), -B (2). The absolute configuration of goniolandrene B (2) was established by circular dichrosim. The compounds were cytotoxic against the P388 cells with IC50 values ranging from 0.42 to 160 μM. Goniothalamin (3) exhibited the highest inhibition of 0.42 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Abdullah NA, Inman M, Moody CJ, Storr SJ, Martin SG
    Invest New Drugs, 2021 10;39(5):1232-1241.
    PMID: 33768386 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-021-01106-5
    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality for breast cancer but, unfortunately, not all patients respond fully with a significant number experiencing local recurrences. Overexpression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase has been reported to cause multidrug and radiation resistance - their inhibition may therefore improve therapeutic efficacy. Novel indolequinone compounds have been shown, in pancreatic cancer models, to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity and exhibit potent anticancer activity. The present study evaluates, using in vitro breast cancer models, the efficacy of a novel indolequinone compound (IQ9) as a single agent and in combination with ionising radiation using a variety of endpoint assays including cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, enzyme activity, and western blotting. Three triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-436) and two luminal (MCF-7 and T47D) breast cancer cell lines were used. Results show that treatment with IQ9 significantly inhibited thioredoxin reductase activity, and inhibited cell growth and colony formation of breast cancer cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar ranges. Enhanced radiosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells was observed, with sensitiser enhancement ratios of 1.20-1.43, but with no evident radiosensitisation of luminal breast cancer cell lines. IQ9 upregulated protein expression of thioredoxin reductase in luminal but not in triple-negative breast cancer cells which may explain the observed differential radiosensitisation. This study provides important evidence of the roles of the thioredoxin system as an exploitable radiobiological target in breast cancer cells and highlights the potential therapeutic value of indolequinones as radiosensitisers.***This study was not part of a clinical trial. Clinical trial registration number: N/A.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Abdullah NR, Sharif F, Azizan NH, Hafidz IFM, Supramani S, Usuldin SRA, et al.
    AIMS Microbiol, 2020;6(4):379-400.
    PMID: 33364534 DOI: 10.3934/microbiol.2020023
    The pellet morphology and diameter range (DR) of Ganoderma lucidum were observed in a repeated-batch fermentation (RBF) for the trio total production of biomass, exopolysaccharide (EPS) and endopolysaccharide (ENS). Two factors were involved in RBF; broth replacement ratio (BRR: 60%, 75% and 90%) and broth replacement time point (BRTP: log, transition and stationary phase) in days. In RBF, 34.31 g/L of biomass favoured small-compact pellets with DR of 20.67 µm< d < 24.00 µm (75% BRR, day 11 of BRTP). EPS production of 4.34 g/L was prone to ovoid-starburst pellets with DR of 34.33 µm< d <35.67 µm (75% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). Meanwhile, the highest 2.43 g/L of ENS production favoured large-hollow pellets with DR of 34.00 µm< d < 38.67 µm (90% BRR, day 13 of BRTP). In addition, RBF successfully shortened the biomass-EPS-ENS fermentation period (31, 33 and 35 days) from batch to 5 days, in seven consecutive cycles of RBF. In a FTIR detection, β-glucan (BG) from EPS and ENS extracts were associated with β-glycosidic linkages (2925 cm-1, 1635 cm-1, 1077 cm-1, 920 cm-1 and 800 cm-1 wavelengths) with similar 1H NMR spectral behaviour (4.58, 3.87 and 3.81 ppm). Meanwhile, 4 mg/L of BG gave negative cytotoxic effects on normal gingival cell line (hGF) but induced antiproliferation (IC50 = 0.23 mg/mL) against cancerous oral Asian cellosaurus cell line (ORL-48). Together, this study proved that G. lucidum mycelial pellets could withstand seven cycles of long fermentation condition and possessed anti-oral cancer beta-glucan, which suits large-scale natural drug fermentation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Abdullah SA, Jamil S, Basar N, Abdul Lathiff SM, Mohd Arriffin N
    Nat Prod Res, 2017 May;31(10):1113-1120.
    PMID: 27564208 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2016.1222387
    A new dihydrochalcone, 2',4'-dihydroxy-3,4-(2″,2″-dimethylchromeno)-3'-prenyldihydrochalcone (1) together with 4-hydroxyonchocarpin (2), isobavachalcone (3), 4',5-dihydroxy-6,7-(2,2-dimethylpyrano)-2'-methoxy-8-γ,γ-dimethylallyflavone (4), artocarpin (5) and cycloheterophyllin (6) were successfully isolated from the leaves and heartwoods of Artocarpus lowii King (Moraceae). The structures of these compounds were fully characterised using spectroscopic methods and by direct comparison with published data. These compounds were tested for their antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activities. Compound (1) displayed moderate antioxidant activity towards DPPH and tyrosinase inhibitory activities with SC50 value of 223.8 μM and IC50 value of 722.5 μM, respectively. Among the isolated compounds, cycloheterophyllin (6) showed the most potential antioxidant activity with SC50 value of 320.0 and 102.8 μM for ABTS and DPPH radicals scavenging activities, respectively, and also exhibited highest FRAP equivalent value of 4.7 ± 0.09 mM. Compound (6) showed tyrosinase inhibitory activity with the IC50 value of 104.6 μM.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Abed SA, Sirat HM, Taher M
    EXCLI J, 2013;12:404-12.
    PMID: 26600731
    The antioxidant activity and the total phenolic content, as well as the influence of petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts from the leaves of Gynotroches axillaris, on microorganisms were studied. The total phenolic contents were evaluated by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 70.0 to 620 mg GAE/g. The efficiency of antioxidation, which was identified through the scavenging of free radical DPPH, exhibited that the highest IC50 was in the methanolic extract (44.7 µg/mL) as compared to the standard ascorbic acid (25.83 µg/mL) and to standard BHT (17.2 µg/mL). In vitro antimicrobial activity of extracts was tested against Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria and fungi. Methanol extract showed activity in the range (225-900 μg/mL) with both types, while petroleum ether and chloroform extracts were only active with Bacillus subtilis. The three extracts strongly inhibited all fungi with activity 225-450 μg/mL. The toxicity test against brine shrimps indicated that all extracts were non-toxic with LC50 value more than 1000 µg/mL. The finding of this study supports the safety of these extracts to be used in medical treatments.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Ablat A, Halabi MF, Mohamad J, Hasnan MH, Hazni H, Teh SH, et al.
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2017 Feb 06;17(1):94.
    PMID: 28166749 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-017-1610-x
    Brucea javanica (B. javanica) seeds, also known as "Melada pahit" in Indo-Malay region are traditionally used to treat diabetes. The objective of this study was to determine antidiabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of B. javanica seeds on nicotinamide (NA)-streptozotocin (STZ) induced type 2 diabetic (T2D) rats and to analyze its chemical composition that correlate with their pharmacological activities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Abu Bakar MF, Abdul Karim F, Suleiman M, Isha A, Rahmat A
    PMID: 26640502 DOI: 10.1155/2015/936215
    The study aimed to investigate the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of 80% methanol extract of Lepidozia borneensis. The total phenolic and total flavonoid contents were analysed using Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminium chloride colorimetric methods. Antioxidant properties were evaluated by using FRAP, ABTS, and DPPH assays while the effects of L. borneensis on the proliferation of MCF-7 cell line were evaluated by using MTT assay. The results showed that the total phenolic and flavonoid contents were 12.42 ± 0.47 mg GAE/g and 9.36 ± 1.29 mg CE/g, respectively. The GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of at least 35 compounds. The extract was found to induce cytotoxicity against MCF-7 cell line with IC50 value of 47.33 ± 7.37 µg/mL. Cell cycle analysis showed that the extract induced significant arrest at G0/G1 at 24 hours of treatment. After 72 hours of treatment, the proportion of cells in G0/G1 and G2-M phases had decreased significantly as compared to their control. Apoptosis occurred during the first 24 hours and significantly increased to 30.8% after 72 hours of treatment. No activation of caspase 3 was observed. These findings suggest that L. borneensis extract has the potential as natural antioxidant and anticancer agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Yeap SK, Lim KL, Ho WY, Zulfadli AJ, et al.
    PLoS One, 2014;9(10):e105244.
    PMID: 25286005 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0105244
    INTRODUCTION: The kava-kava plant (Piper methsyticum) is traditionally known as the pacific elixir by the pacific islanders for its role in a wide range of biological activities. The extract of the roots of this plant contains a variety of interesting molecules including Flavokawain A and this molecule is known to have anti-cancer properties. Breast cancer is still one of the leading diagnosed cancers in women today. The metastatic process is also very pertinent in the progression of tumorigenesis.

    METHODS: MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 cells were treated with several concentrations of FKA. The apoptotic analysis was done through the MTT assay, BrdU assay, Annexin V analysis, cell cycle analysis, JC-1 mitochondrial dye, AO/PI dual staining, caspase 8/9 fluorometric assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot. For the metastatic assays, the in vitro scratch assay, trans-well migration/invasion assay, HUVEC tube formation assay, ex vivo rat aortic ring assay, quantitative real time PCR and western blot were employed.

    RESULTS: We have investigated the effects of FKA on the apoptotic and metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines. FKA induces apoptosis in both MCF-7 and MDA-MB231 in a dose dependent manner through the intrinsic mitochondrial pathway. Additionally, FKA selectively induces a G2/M arrest in the cell cycle machinery of MDA-MB231 and G1 arrest in MCF-7. This suggests that FKA's anti-cancer activity is dependent on the p53 status. Moreover, FKA also halted the migration and invasion process in MDA-MB231. The similar effects can be seen in the inhibition of the angiogenesis process as well.

    CONCLUSIONS: FKA managed to induce apoptosis and inhibit the metastatic process in two breast cancer cell lines, in vitro. Overall, FKA may serve as a promising candidate in the search of a new anti-cancer drug especially in halting the metastatic process but further in vivo evidence is needed.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Alitheen NB
    Molecules, 2013 Aug 27;18(9):10367-77.
    PMID: 23985955 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910367
    Breast cancer is becoming more prominent in women today. As of now, there are no effective treatments in treating metastatic breast cancer. We have tested the cytotoxic and anti-migration effects of BHAQ, a synthesized anthraquinone, on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. Anthraquinones are an interesting class of molecules that display a wide spectrum of biological applications, including anticancer properties. Cellular inhibition was tested through a MTT assay, double acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and FACS cell cycle analysis. Inhibition of migration was tested by the wound healing method, and migration through a Boyden chamber. BHAQ was cytotoxic towards both cell lines in a dose dependent and possibly cell-dependent manner. Additionally, BHAQ also inhibited the migration of the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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