Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 462 in total

  1. Azfaralariff A, Farahfaiqah F, Shahid M, Sanusi SA, Law D, Mohd Isa AR, et al.
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2022 Jan 30;283:114751.
    PMID: 34662662 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114751
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Marantodes pumilum (MP) herbs, locally known as Kacip Fatimah, are widely used traditionally to improve women's health. The herb is frequently used for gynecological issues such as menstrual problems, facilitating and quickening delivery, post-partum medication, treats flatulence and dysentery, and. MP extracts are thought to aid in the firming and toning of abdominal muscles, tighten breasts and vaginal muscles, and anti-dysmenorrhea. It also was used for the treatment of gonorrhea and hemorrhoids. As MP product has been produced commercially recently, more in-depth studies should be conducted. The presence of numerous active compounds in MP might provide a synergistic effect and potentially offer other health benefits than those already identified and known.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: This study aimed to use a computational target fishing approach to predict the possible therapeutic effect of Marantodes pumilum and evaluated their effectivity.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study involves a computational approach to identify the potential targets by using target fishing. Several databases were used: PubChem database to obtain the chemical structure of interested compounds; Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology Database and Analysis Platform (TCMSP) server and the SWISSADME web tool to identify and select the compounds having drug-likeness properties; PharmMapper was used to identify top ten target protein of the selected compounds and Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (OMIM) was used to predict human genetic problems; the gene id of top-10 proteins was obtained from UniProtKB to be analyzed by using GeneMANIA server to check the genes' function and their co-expression; Gene Pathway established by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) and Gene Ontology (GO) of the selected targets were analyzed by using EnrichR server and confirmed by using DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery) version 6.8 and STRING database. All the interaction data was analyzed by Cytoscape version 3.7.2 software. The protein structure of most putative proteins was obtained from the RCSB protein data bank. Thedocking analysis was conducted using PyRx biological software v0.8 and illustrated by BIOVIA Discovery Studio Visualizer version 20.1.0. As a preliminary evaluation, a cell viability assay using Sulforhodamine B was conducted to evaluate the potential of the predicted therapeutic effect.

    RESULTS: It was found that four studied compounds are highly correlated with three proteins: EFGR, CDK2, and ESR1. These proteins are highly associated with cancer pathways, especially breast cancer and prostate cancer. Qualitatively, cell proliferation assay conducted shown that the extract has IC50 of 88.69 μg/ml against MCF-7 and 66.51 μg/ml against MDA-MB-231.

    CONCLUSIONS: Natural herbs are one of the most common forms of complementary and alternative medicine, and they play an important role in disease treatment. The results of this study show that in addition to being used traditionally to maintain women's health, the use of Marantodes pumilum indirectly has the potential to protect against the development of cancer cells, especially breast cancer. Therefore, further research is necessary to confirm the potential of this plant to be used in the development of anti-cancer drugs, especially for breast cancer.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Low ZX, OuYong BM, Hassandarvish P, Poh CL, Ramanathan B
    Sci Rep, 2021 10 27;11(1):21221.
    PMID: 34707245 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-98949-y
    Dengue is an arthropod-borne viral disease that has become endemic and a global threat in many countries with no effective antiviral drug available currently. This study showed that flavonoids: silymarin and baicalein could inhibit the dengue virus in vitro and were well tolerated in Vero cells with a half-maximum cytotoxic concentration (CC50) of 749.70 µg/mL and 271.03 µg/mL, respectively. Silymarin and baicalein exerted virucidal effects against DENV-3, with a selective index (SI) of 10.87 and 21.34, respectively. Baicalein showed a better inhibition of intracellular DENV-3 progeny with a SI of 7.82 compared to silymarin. Baicalein effectively blocked DENV-3 attachment (95.59%) to the Vero cells, while silymarin prevented the viral entry (72.46%) into the cells, thus reducing viral infectivity. Both flavonoids showed promising antiviral activity against all four dengue serotypes. The in silico molecular docking showed that silymarin could bind to the viral envelope (E) protein with a binding affinity of - 8.5 kcal/mol and form hydrogen bonds with the amino acids GLN120, TRP229, ASN89, and THR223 of the E protein. Overall, this study showed that silymarin and baicalein exhibited potential anti-DENV activity and could serve as promising antiviral agents for further development against dengue infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Abdullah NA, Inman M, Moody CJ, Storr SJ, Martin SG
    Invest New Drugs, 2021 10;39(5):1232-1241.
    PMID: 33768386 DOI: 10.1007/s10637-021-01106-5
    Radiotherapy is an effective treatment modality for breast cancer but, unfortunately, not all patients respond fully with a significant number experiencing local recurrences. Overexpression of thioredoxin and thioredoxin reductase has been reported to cause multidrug and radiation resistance - their inhibition may therefore improve therapeutic efficacy. Novel indolequinone compounds have been shown, in pancreatic cancer models, to inhibit thioredoxin reductase activity and exhibit potent anticancer activity. The present study evaluates, using in vitro breast cancer models, the efficacy of a novel indolequinone compound (IQ9) as a single agent and in combination with ionising radiation using a variety of endpoint assays including cell proliferation, clonogenic survival, enzyme activity, and western blotting. Three triple-negative breast cancer (MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, and MDA-MB-436) and two luminal (MCF-7 and T47D) breast cancer cell lines were used. Results show that treatment with IQ9 significantly inhibited thioredoxin reductase activity, and inhibited cell growth and colony formation of breast cancer cells with IC50 values in the low micromolar ranges. Enhanced radiosensitivity of triple-negative breast cancer cells was observed, with sensitiser enhancement ratios of 1.20-1.43, but with no evident radiosensitisation of luminal breast cancer cell lines. IQ9 upregulated protein expression of thioredoxin reductase in luminal but not in triple-negative breast cancer cells which may explain the observed differential radiosensitisation. This study provides important evidence of the roles of the thioredoxin system as an exploitable radiobiological target in breast cancer cells and highlights the potential therapeutic value of indolequinones as radiosensitisers.***This study was not part of a clinical trial. Clinical trial registration number: N/A.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Rubnawaz S, Akhtar N, Mahmood R, Khan A, Okla MK, Alamri SA, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 Aug 11;26(16).
    PMID: 34443462 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26164874
    Ajuga bracteosa Wall. ex Benth. is an endangered medicinal herb traditionally used against different ailments. The present study aimed to create new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of genetic transformation and the biological activities of this plant. We transformed the A. bracteosa plant with rol genes of Agrobacterium rhizogenes and raised the regenerants from the hairy roots. These transgenic regenerants were screened for in vitro antioxidant activities, a range of in vivo assays, elemental analysis, polyphenol content, and different phytochemicals found through HPLC. Among 18 polyphenolic standards, kaempferol was most abundant in all transgenic lines. Furthermore, transgenic line 3 (ABRL3) showed maximum phenolics and flavonoids content among all tested plant extracts. ABRL3 also demonstrated the highest total antioxidant capacity (8.16 ± 1 μg AAE/mg), total reducing power, (6.60 ± 1.17 μg AAE/mg), DPPH activity (IC50 = 59.5 ± 0.8 μg/mL), hydroxyl ion scavenging (IC50 = 122.5 ± 0.90 μg/mL), and iron-chelating power (IC50 = 154.8 ± 2 μg/mL). Moreover, transformed plant extracts produced significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, and antidepressant activities in BALB/c mice models. In conclusion, transgenic regenerants of A. bracteosa pose better antioxidant and pharmacological properties under the effect of rol genes as compared to wild-type plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Attiq A, Jalil J, Husain K, Mohamad HF, Ahmad A
    J Ethnopharmacol, 2021 Jul 15;275:114120.
    PMID: 33857595 DOI: 10.1016/j.jep.2021.114120
    ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Numerous Alphonsea species including Alphonsea elliptica (mempisang) leaves and fruits are indigenously used in inflammatory conditions such as postpartum swelling and rheumatism in southeast Asian countries. In our previous in-vitro findings, A. elliptica methanol extract exhibited platelet-activating factor inhibition, suggesting the presence of phyto-constituents with anti-inflammatory potential.

    AIM OF THE STUDY: However, so far there is no literature available on the anti-inflammatory activity of this species. Henceforth, based on the above background and our previous laboratory findings, we hypothesize that phytoconstituents of A. elliptica could possess anti-inflammatory potential against inflammatory mediators including prostaglandin-E2 (PGE2), cyclooxegenase-2 (COX-2) and cytokines (IL-1β and IL-6).

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: Vacuum and column chromatography techniques were employed for the isolation of phytoconstituents. The structure elucidation was carried out using HRESI-MS, 1H and 13C-NMR analysis and compared with the published literature. For cytotoxicity analysis, 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay was performed on peripheral blood mononuclear cells. In-vitro anti-inflammatory activities were evaluated against the levels of PGE2, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6 in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced human plasma using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and radioimmunoassay.

    RESULTS: Unprecedentedly, chromatographic purification of methanolic leaves extract afforded five flavones namely vitexin, isovitexin, orientin, isoorientin, schaftoside with three flavanols; kaempferol, myricetin and rutin from A elliptica. In cell viability analysis, isolates did not present cytotoxicity up to 50 μM. In anti-inflammatory evaluation, orientin and isoorientin exhibited strong (≥70%), while isovitexin and vitexin produced strong to moderate (50-69%) PGE2, COX-2, IL-1β and IL-6 inhibition at 25 and 50 μM. Isoorientin, orientin, isovitexin, and vitexin showed significant (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Salleh WMNHW, Anuar MZA, Khamis S, Nafiah MA, Sul'ain MD
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Jul;35(13):2279-2284.
    PMID: 31544509 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1669027
    The chemical composition of the essential oil of Knema kunstleri Warb. (Myristicaceae) was investigated for the first time. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and fully characterized by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36 components were identified in the essential oil, which made up 91.7% of the total oil. The essential oil is composed mainly of β-caryophyllene (23.2%), bicyclogermacrene (9.6%), δ-cadinene (7.3%), α-humulene (5.7%), and germacrene D (4.3%). The essential oil showed moderate activity towards DPPH free-radical scavenging and lipoxygenase inhibition. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study of the composition and bioactivities of the essential oil report concerning the genus Knema.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Muchtaridi M, Lestari D, Khairul Ikram NK, Gazzali AM, Hariono M, Wahab HA
    Molecules, 2021 Jun 04;26(11).
    PMID: 34199752 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26113402
    Coffee has been studied for its health benefits, including prevention of several chronic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer, Parkinson's, and liver diseases. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), an important component in coffee beans, was shown to possess antiviral activity against viruses. However, the presence of caffeine in coffee beans may also cause insomnia and stomach irritation, and increase heart rate and respiration rate. These unwanted effects may be reduced by decaffeination of green bean Arabica coffee (GBAC) by treatment with dichloromethane, followed by solid-phase extraction using methanol. In this study, the caffeine and chlorogenic acid (CGA) level in the coffee bean from three different areas in West Java, before and after decaffeination, was determined and validated using HPLC. The results showed that the levels of caffeine were reduced significantly, with an order as follows: Tasikmalaya (2.28% to 0.097% (97 ppm), Pangalengan (1.57% to 0.049% (495 ppm), and Garut (1.45% to 0.00002% (0.2 ppm). The CGA levels in the GBAC were also reduced as follows: Tasikmalaya (0.54% to 0.001% (118 ppm), Pangalengan (0.97% to 0.0047% (388 ppm)), and Garut (0.81% to 0.029% (282 ppm). The decaffeinated samples were then subjected to the H5N1 neuraminidase (NA) binding assay to determine its bioactivity as an anti-influenza agent. The results show that samples from Tasikmalaya, Pangalengan, and Garut possess NA inhibitory activity with IC50 of 69.70, 75.23, and 55.74 μg/mL, respectively. The low level of caffeine with a higher level of CGA correlates with their higher levels of NA inhibitory, as shown in the Garut samples. Therefore, the level of caffeine and CGA influenced the level of NA inhibitory activity. This is supported by the validation of CGA-NA binding interaction via molecular docking and pharmacophore modeling; hence, CGA could potentially serve as a bioactive compound for neuraminidase activity in GBAC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):40-47.
    PMID: 33973571 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.035
    The reduced efficacy of the mainstay antimalarial drugs due to the widespread of drugresistant Plasmodium falciparum has necessitated efforts to discover new antimalarial drugs with new targets. Quercus infectoria (Olivier) has long been used to treat various ailments including fever. The acetone extract of the plant galls has recently been reported to have a promising antimalarial activity in vitro. This study was aimed to determine the effect of the Q. infectoria gall acetone crude extract on pH of the digestive vacuole of Plasmodium falciparum. A ratiometric fluorescent probe, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran) was used to facilitate a quantitative measurement of the digestive vacuole pH by flow cytometry. Mid trophozoite stage malaria parasites grown in resealed erythrocytes containing FITC-dextran were treated with different concentrations of the acetone extract based on the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50). Saponin-permeabilized parasites were analyzed to obtain the ratio of green/yellow fluorescence intensity (Rgy) plotted as a function of pH in a pH calibration curve of FITC-dextran. Based on the pH calibration curve, the pH of the digestive vacuole of the acetone extract-treated parasites was significantly altered (pH values ranged from 6.35- 6.71) in a concentration-dependent manner compared to the untreated parasites (pH = 5.32) (p < 0.001). This study provides a valuable insight into the potential of the Q. infectoria galls as a promising antimalarial candidate with a novel mechanism of action.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Saddique FA, Aslam S, Ahmad M, Ashfaq UA, Muddassar M, Sultan S, et al.
    Molecules, 2021 May 20;26(10).
    PMID: 34065194 DOI: 10.3390/molecules26103043
    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic disorder and has affected a large number of people worldwide. Insufficient insulin production causes an increase in blood glucose level that results in DM. To lower the blood glucose level, various drugs are employed that block the activity of the α-glucosidase enzyme, which is considered responsible for the breakdown of polysaccharides into monosaccharides leading to an increase in the intestinal blood glucose level. We have synthesized novel 2-(3-(benzoyl/4-bromobenzoyl)-4-hydroxy-1,1-dioxido-2H-benzo[e][1,2]thiazin-2-yl)-N-arylacetamides and have screened them for their in silico and in vitro α-glucosidase inhibition activity. The derivatives 11c, 12a, 12d, 12e, and 12g emerged as potent inhibitors of the α-glucosidase enzyme. These compounds exhibited good docking scores and excellent binding interactions with the selected residues (Asp203, Asp542, Asp327, His600, Arg526) during in silico screening. Similarly, these compounds also showed good in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitions with IC50 values of 30.65, 18.25, 20.76, 35.14, and 24.24 μM, respectively, which were better than the standard drug, acarbose (IC50 = 58.8 μM). Furthermore, a good agreement was observed between in silico and in vitro modes of study.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Mohd Yusop AY, Xiao L, Fu S
    Drug Test Anal, 2021 May;13(5):953-964.
    PMID: 32959983 DOI: 10.1002/dta.2926
    The surge in the consumption of food products containing herbal aphrodisiacs has driven their widespread adulteration. A rapid screening strategy is, therefore, warranted to curb this problem. This study established an enzyme inhibition assay to screen phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitors as adulterants in selected food products. Fluorescein-labelled cyclic-3',5'-guanosine monophosphate was utilised as substrates for the PDE5A1 enzyme, aided by the presence of nanoparticle phosphate-binding beads on their fluorescence polarisation. The sample preparation was optimised to improve the enzyme inhibition efficiency and applied to calculate the threshold values of six blank food matrices. The assay was validated using sildenafil, producing an IC50 of 4.2 nM. The applicability of the assay procedure was demonstrated by screening 55 distinct food samples. The results were subsequently verified using confirmatory liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) analysis. Altogether, 49 samples inhibited the PDE5 enzyme above the threshold values (75.7%-105.5%) and were registered as potentially adulterated samples. The remaining six samples were marked as nonadulterated with percentage inhibition below the threshold values (-3.3%-18.2%). The LC-HRMS analysis agreed with the assay results for all food products except for the instant coffee premix (ICP) samples. False-positive results were obtained for the ICP samples at 32% (8/25), due to possible PDE5 inhibition by caffeine. Contrarily, all other food samples were found to produce 0% (0/30) false-positive or false-negative results. The broad-based assay, established via a simple mix-incubate-read format, exhibited promising potential for high-throughput screening of PDE5 inhibitors in various food products, except those with naturally occurring phosphodiesterase inhibitors such as caffeine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Haezam FN, Awang N, Kamaludin NF, Mohamad R
    Saudi J Biol Sci, 2021 May;28(5):3160-3168.
    PMID: 34025187 DOI: 10.1016/j.sjbs.2021.02.060
    Context: Diphenyltin(IV) diallyldithiocarbamate compound (Compound 1) and triphenyltin(IV) diallyldithiocarbamate compound (Compound 2) are two newly synthesised compounds of organotin(IV) with diallyldithiocarbamate ligands.

    Objective: To assess the cytotoxic effects of two synthesised compounds against HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells and human CCD-18Co normal colon cells.

    Materials and methods: Two successfully synthesised compounds were characterised using elemental (carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and sulphur) analysis, Fourier-Transform Infrared (FTIR), and 1H, 13C 119Sn Nucleus Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The single-crystal structure of both compounds was determined by X-ray single-crystal analysis. The cytotoxicity of the compounds was assessed using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazholium bromide (MTT) assay upon 24 h of treatment. While the mode of cell death was determined based on the externalisation of phosphatidylserine using a flow cytometer.

    Results: The elemental analysis data of the two compounds showed an agreement with the suggested formula of (C6H5)2Sn[S2CN(C3H5)2]2 for Compound 1 and (C6H5)3Sn[S2CN(C3H5)2] for Compound 2. The two major peaks of infrared absorbance, i.e., ν(C = N) and ν(C = S) were detected at the range of 1475-1479 cm-1 and 972-977 cm-1, respectively. The chemical shift of carbon in NCS2 group for Compound 1 and 2 were found at 200.82 and 197.79 ppm. The crystal structure of Compound 1 showed that it is six coordinated and crystallised in monoclinic, P21/c space group. While the crystal structure of Compound 2 is five coordinated and crystallised in monoclinic, P21/c space group. The cytotoxicity (IC50) of the two compounds against HT-29 cell were 2.36 μM and 0.39 μM. Meanwhile, the percentage of cell death modes between 60% and 75% for compound 1 and compound 2 were mainly due to apoptosis, suggesting that both compounds induced growth arrest.

    Conclusion: Our study concluded that the synthesised compounds showed potent cytotoxicity towards HT-29 cell, with the triphenyltin(IV) compound showing the highest effect compared to diphenyltin(IV).

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Muhammad SNH, Yaacob NS, Safuwan NAM, Fauzi AN
    PMID: 33906591 DOI: 10.2174/1871520621666210427104804
    BACKGROUND: Survival and progression of cancer cells are highly dependent on aerobic glycolysis. Strobilanthes crispus has been shown to have promising anticancer effects on breast cancer cells. The involvement of the glycolysis pathway in producing these effects is unconfirmed, thus further investigation is required to elucidate this phenomenon.

    OBJECTIVE: This study aims to determine the effect of S. crispus active fraction (F3) and its bioactive components on glycolysis in triple-negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231).

    METHODS: This study utilizes F3, lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol to be administered in MDA-MB-231 cells for measurement of antiglycolytic activities through cell poliferation, glucose uptake, and lactate concentration assays. Cell proliferation was assessed by MTT assay of MDA-MB-231 cells after treatment with F3 and its bioactive components lutein, β-sitosterol, and stigmasterol. The IC50 value in each compound was determined by MTT assay to be used in subsequent assays. The determination of glucose uptake activity and lactate concentration were quantified using fluorescence spectrophotometry.

    RESULTS: Antiproliferative activities were observed for F3 and its bioactive components, with IC50 values of 100 µg/mL (F3), 20 µM (lutein), 25 µM (β-sitosterol), and 90 μM (stigmasterol) in MDA-MB-231 cells at 48 h. The percentage of glucose uptake and lactate concentration in MDA-MB-231 cells treated with F3, lutein, or β sitosterol were significantly lower than those observed in the untreated cells in a time-dependent manner. However, treatment with stigmasterol decreased the concentration of lactate without affecting the glucose uptake in MDA-MB-231 cells.

    CONCLUSION: The antiglycolytic activities of F3 on MDA-MB-231 cells are attributed to its bioactive components.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Alam S, Rashid MA, Sarker MMR, Emon NU, Arman M, Mohamed IN, et al.
    BMC Complement Med Ther, 2021 Apr 12;21(1):119.
    PMID: 33845836 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-021-03290-6
    BACKGROUND: Colocasia gigantea, locally named as kochu is well-known due to its various healing power. This research is to investigate the antidiarrheal, antimicrobial and antioxidant possibilities of the methanol soluble extract of Colocasia gigantea.

    METHODS: The antidiarrheal investigation was performed by using in vivo castor oil-induced diarrheal method whereas in vitro antimicrobial and antioxidant investigation have been implemented by disc diffusion and DPPH scavenging method respectively. Moreover, in silico studies were followed by molecular docking analysis of several secondary metabolites that were appraised with Schrödinger-Maestro v11.1 and Biovia Discovery Studio.

    RESULTS: The induction of plant extract (200 and 400 mg/kg, b.w, p.o) has minimized the castor oil mediated diarrhea by 16.96% (p 

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Tan BH, Ahemad N, Pan Y, Palanisamy UD, Othman I, Ong CE
    Drug Metab Pers Ther, 2021 Apr 08.
    PMID: 33831979 DOI: 10.1515/dmdi-2020-0182
    OBJECTIVES: Glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein are natural compounds commonly used in treating osteoarthritis. Their concomitant intake may trigger drug-natural product interactions. Cytochrome P450 (CYP) has been implicated in such interactions. Cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) is a major hepatic CYP involved in metabolism of 25% of the clinical drugs. This study aimed to investigate the inhibitory effect of these antiarthritic compounds on CYP2D6.

    METHODS: CYP2D6 was heterologously expressed in Escherichia coli. CYP2D6-antiarthritic compound interactions were studied using in vitro enzyme kinetics assay and molecular docking.

    RESULTS: The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-based dextromethorphan O-demethylase assay was established as CYP2D6 marker. All glucosamines and chondroitins weakly inhibited CYP2D6 (IC50 values >300 µM). Diacerein exhibited moderate inhibition with IC50 and K
    values of 34.99 and 38.27 µM, respectively. Its major metabolite, rhein displayed stronger inhibition potencies (IC50=26.22 μM and K
    =32.27 μM). Both compounds exhibited mixed-mode of inhibition. In silico molecular dockings further supported data from the in vitro study. From in vitro-in vivo extrapolation, rhein presented an area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of 1.5, indicating low potential to cause in vivo inhibition.

    CONCLUSIONS: Glucosamine, chondroitin and diacerein unlikely cause clinical interaction with the drug substrates of CYP2D6. Rhein, exhibits only low potential to cause in vivo inhibition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Yap PG, Gan CY
    Foods, 2021 Mar 22;10(3).
    PMID: 33810046 DOI: 10.3390/foods10030675
    Nature-derived tyrosinase inhibitors are of great industrial interest. Three monophenolase inhibitor peptides (MIPs) and three diphenolase inhibitor peptides (DIPs) from a previous study were investigated for their in vitro tyrosinase inhibitory effects, mode of inhibition, copper-chelating activity, sun protection factor (SPF) and antioxidant activities. DIP1 was found to be the most potent tyrosinase inhibitor (IC50 = 3.04 ± 0.39 mM), which could be due to the binding interactions between its aromatic amino acid residues (Y2 and D7) with tyrosinase hotspots (H85, V248, H258, H263, F264, R268, V283 and E322) and its ability to chelate copper ion within the substrate-binding pocket. The conjugated planar rings of tyrosine and tryptophan may interact with histidine within the active site to provide stability upon enzyme-peptide binding. This postulation was later confirmed as the Lineweaver-Burk analysis had identified DIP1 as a competitive inhibitor and DIP1 also showed 36.27 ± 1.17% of copper chelating activity. In addition, DIP1 provided the highest SPF value (11.9 ± 0.04) as well as ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (5.09 ± 0.13 mM FeSO4), 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) (11.34 ± 0.90%) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (29.14 ± 1.36%) free radical scavenging activities compared to other peptides. These results demonstrated that DIP1 could be a multifunctional anti-tyrosinase agent with pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical applications.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Babatunde O, Hameed S, Salar U, Chigurupati S, Wadood A, Rehman AU, et al.
    Mol Divers, 2021 Mar 01.
    PMID: 33650031 DOI: 10.1007/s11030-021-10196-5
    A variety of dihydroquinazolin-4(1H)-one derivatives (1-37) were synthesized via "one-pot" three-component reaction scheme by treating aniline and different aromatic aldehydes with isatoic anhydride in the presence of acetic acid. Chemical structures of compounds were deduced by different spectroscopic techniques including EI-MS, HREI-MS, 1H-, and 13C-NMR. Compounds were subjected to α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities. A number of derivatives exhibited significant to moderate inhibition potential against α-amylase (IC50 = 23.33 ± 0.02-88.65 ± 0.23 μM) and α-glucosidase (IC50 = 25.01 ± 0.12-89.99 ± 0.09 μM) enzymes, respectively. Results were compared with the standard acarbose (IC50 = 17.08 ± 0.07 μM for α-amylase and IC50 = 17.67 ± 0.09 μM for α-glucosidase). Structure-activity relationship (SAR) was rationalized by analyzing the substituents effects on inhibitory potential. Kinetic studies were implemented to find the mode of inhibition by compounds which revealed competitive inhibition for α-amylase and non-competitive inhibition for α-glucosidase. However, in silico study identified several important binding interactions of ligands (synthetic analogues) with the active site of both enzymes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Jalal T, Natto HA, Wahab RA
    PMID: 33653245 DOI: 10.2174/1386207324666210302095557
    In recent biomedical research, the area of cancer and infectious diseases has a leading position in the utilization of medicinal plants as a source of drug discovery. Malaysia has a diversity and a large number of underutilized fruits that are rich in phenolic compounds. Artoarpus altilis consider an underutilized fruit that is rich in phenolic compounds. Methanol extracts of A. altilis have been previously found to contain a high content of antioxidant phytochemicals. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and toxicological effect of methanol fruit extracts against MCF-7 cells. To determine the least concentration that might kill or suppress the growth of the cancer cells was in a concentration-dependent manner approach. The variation in the cytotoxic activity among the extracts was indicated by determining the IC50 of each extract against cells at 72 h. The IC50 of the samples was measured using a trypan blue exclusion assay. The methanol extract of the pulp part showed the least inhibition concentration of 15.40±0.91 μg/mL on MCF-7 cells. In the study, the molecular mechanism of methanol extracts-induced apoptosis and cell cycle arrested in human cancer cells were investigated in a time-dependent-manners approach by using flow cytometry. The treated cells were stained with nexin to detect early and late apoptosis and with propidium iodide (PI) for cell cycle arrest associated with the DNA fragmentation, various cell arrests occurred at G1/S, S, and G2/M phases. Lastly, the gene expression analysis by (RT-qPCR) method was carried out by analyzing the expression of the gene of interest for the quantification of mRNA levels. Results after cells treated with IC50 were revealed by upregulating anti-apoptotic genes/downregulated of pro-apoptotic BCL-2 gene expressions were triggered the treated cells into CASPASE-3, intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. These findings suggest that the methanol extracts of three parts of A. altilis fruit have potential anticancer activity against MCF-7 cells mainly the pulp part of the fruit.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Murtihapsari M, Salam S, Kurnia D, Darwati D, Kadarusman K, Abdullah FF, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Mar;35(6):937-944.
    PMID: 31210054 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1611815
    A new antimalarial sterol, kaimanol (1), along with a known sterol, saringosterol (2) was isolated from the Indonesian Marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. The chemical structure of the new compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and by comparison to those related compounds previously reported. Isolated compounds, 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antiplasmodial effect against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strains. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 359 and 0.250 nM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Almajali B, Al-Jamal HAN, Wan Taib WR, Ismail I, Johan MF, Doolaanea AA, et al.
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Mar 01;22(3):879-885.
    PMID: 33773553 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.3.879
    OBJECTIVE: The natural compound, thymoquinone (TQ) has demonstrated potential anticancer properties in inhibiting cell proliferation and promoting apoptosis in myeloid leukemia cells, breast cancer cells, and others. However, the effect mechanism of TQ on AML cells still not fully understood. In this study, the authors examined the effects of TQ on the expression of JAK/STAT-negative regulator genes SOCS-1, SOCS-3, and SHP-1, and their consequences on cell proliferation and apoptosis in HL60 leukemia cells.

    METHODS: MTT and trypan blue exclusion tests were conducted to determine the 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) and cell proliferation. FITC Annexin and Guava® reagent were used to study the cell apoptosis and examine the cell cycle phases, respectively. The expression of JAK/STAT-negative regulator genes, SOCS-1, SOCS-3, and SHP-1, was investigated using reverse transcriptase- quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR).

    RESULTS: TQ demonstrated a potential inhibition of HL60 cell proliferation and a significant increase in apoptotic cells in dose and time-dependent manner. TQ significantly induced cycle arrest at G0-G1 phase (P < 0.001) and enhanced the re-expression of JAK/STAT-negative regulator genes.

    CONCLUSION: TQ potentially inhibited HL60 cell proliferation and significantly increased apoptosis with re-expression of JAK/STAT-negative regulator genes suggesting that TQ could be a new therapeutic candidate for leukemia therapy.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Soopramanien M, Khan N, Neerooa BNHM, Sagathevan K, Siddiqui R
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2021 Mar 01;22(3):733-740.
    PMID: 33773536 DOI: 10.31557/APJCP.2021.22.3.733
    OBJECTIVES: The overall aim was to determine whether gut bacteria of Columbia livia are a potential source of antitumour molecules.

    METHODS: Faecal and gut microbiota of Columbia livia were isolated, identified and conditioned media were prepared containing metabolites. Growth inhibition, lactate dehydrogenase cytotoxicity and cell survival assays were accomplished against cervical cancer cells. Next, liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry was conducted to elucidate the molecules present.

    RESULTS: A plethora of bacteria from faecal matter and gastrointestinal tract were isolated. Selected conditioned media exhibited potent anticancer effects and displayed cytotoxicity to cervical cancer cells at IC50 concentration of 10.65 and 15.19 µg/ml. Moreover, cells treated with conditioned media exhibited morphological changes, including cell shrinking and rounding; indicative of apoptosis, when compared to untreated cells. A total of 111 and 71 molecules were revealed from these gut and faecal metabolites. The identity of 60 molecules were revealed including, dihydroxymelphalan. Nonetheless, 122 molecules remain unidentified and are the subject of future studies.

    CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that gut bacteria of Columbia livia possess molecules, which may have anticancer activities. Further in silico testing and/or high throughput screening will determine potential anticancer properties of these molecules.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
Contact Us

Please provide feedback to Administrator (afdal@afpm.org.my)

External Links