Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 462 in total

  1. Hasima N, Aun LI, Azmi MN, Aziz AN, Thirthagiri E, Ibrahim H, et al.
    Phytomedicine, 2010 Oct;17(12):935-9.
    PMID: 20729047 DOI: 10.1016/j.phymed.2010.03.011
    Medicinal plants containing active natural compounds have been used as an alternative treatment for cancer patients in many parts of the world especially in Asia (Itharat et al. 2004). In this report, we describe the cytotoxic and apoptotic properties of 1'S-1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate (AEA), an analogue of 1'S-1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), isolated from the Malaysian ethno-medicinal plant Alpinia conchigera Griff (Zingiberaceae) on human breast cancer cells. Data from MTT cell viability assays indicated that AEA induced both time- and dose-dependent cytotoxicity with an IC(50) value of 14.0 μM within 36 h of treatment on MCF-7 cells, but not in HMEC normal control cells. Both annexin V-FITC/PI flow cytometric analysis and DNA fragmentation assays confirmed that AEA induced cell death via apoptosis. AEA was also found to induce cell cycle arrest in MCF-7 cells at the G(0)/G(1) phase with no adverse cell cycle arrest effects on HMEC normal control cells. It was concluded that AEA isolated from the Malaysian tropical ginger represents a potential chemotherapeutic agent against human breast cancer cells with higher cytotoxicity potency than its analogue, ACA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Zhang J, Ming C, Zhang W, Okechukwu PN, Morak-Młodawska B, Pluta K, et al.
    Drug Des Devel Ther, 2017;11:3045-3063.
    PMID: 29123378 DOI: 10.2147/DDDT.S144415
    The asymptomatic properties and high treatment resistance of ovarian cancer result in poor treatment outcomes and high mortality rates. Although the fundamental chemotherapy provides promising anticancer activities, it is associated with severe side effects. The derivative of phenothiazine, namely, 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ), was synthesized and reported with ideal anticancer effects in a previous paper. In this study, detailed anticancer properties of PTZ was examined on A2780 ovarian cancer cells by investigating the cytotoxicity profiles, mechanism of apoptosis, and cell invasion. Research outcomes revealed PTZ-induced dose-dependent inhibition on A2780 cancer cells (IC50 =0.62 µM), with significant less cytotoxicity toward HEK293 normal kidney cells and H9C2 normal heart cells. Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) suggests PTZ-induced cell death through oxidative damage. The RT2 Profiler PCR Array on apoptosis pathway demonstrated PTZ-induced apoptosis via intrinsic (mitochondria-dependent) and extrinsic (cell death receptor-dependent) pathway. Inhibition of NF-κB and subsequent inhibition of (BIRC6-XIAP) complex activities reduced the invasion rate of A2780 cancer cells penetrating through the Matrigel™ Invasion Chamber. Lastly, the cell cycle analysis hypothesizes that the compound is cytostatic and significantly arrests cell proliferation at G2/M phase. Hence, the exploration of the underlying anticancer mechanism of PTZ suggested its usage as promising chemotherapeutic agent.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Ren G, Hao X, Yang S, Chen J, Qiu G, Ang KP, et al.
    J Biochem Mol Toxicol, 2020 Jul 03.
    PMID: 32619082 DOI: 10.1002/jbt.22544
    Breast cancer is one of the leading causes of death in cancer categories, followed by lung, colorectal, and ovarian among the female gender across the world. 10H-3,6-diazaphenothiazine (PTZ) is a thiazine derivative compound that exhibits many pharmacological activities. Herein, we proceed to investigate the pharmacological activities of PTZ toward breast cancer MCF-7 cells as a representative in vitro breast cancer cell model. The PTZ exhibited a proliferation inhibition (IC50  = 0.895 µM) toward MCF-7 cells. Further, cell cycle analysis illustrated that the S-phase checkpoint was activated to achieve proliferation inhibition. In vitro cytotoxicity test on three normal cell lines (HEK293 normal kidney cells, MCF-10A normal breast cells, and H9C2 normal heart cells) demonstrated that PTZ was more potent toward cancer cells. Increase in the levels of reactive oxygen species results in polarization of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), together with suppression of mitochondrial thioredoxin reductase enzymatic activity suggested that PTZ induced oxidative damages toward mitochondria and contributed to improved drug efficacy toward treatment. The RT2 PCR Profiler Array (human apoptosis pathways) proved that PTZ induced cell death via mitochondria-dependent and cell death receptor-dependent pathways, through a series of modulation of caspases, and the respective morphology of apoptosis was observed. Mechanistic studies of apoptosis suggested that PTZ inhibited AKT1 pathways resulting in enhanced drug efficacy despite it preventing invasion of cancer cells. These results showed the effectiveness of PTZ in initiation of apoptosis, programmed cell death, toward highly chemoresistant MCF-7 cells, thus suggesting its potential as a chemotherapeutic drug.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Leong SW, Abas F, Lam KW, Shaari K, Lajis NH
    Bioorg Med Chem, 2016 08 15;24(16):3742-51.
    PMID: 27328658 DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.06.016
    In the present study, a series of 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone analogs have been synthesized and evaluated for their anti-cholinesterase activity. Among the forty-one analogs, four compounds (38, 39, 40 and 41) have been identified as lead compounds due to their highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE activities. Compounds 39 and 40 in particular exhibited highest inhibition on both AChE and BChE with IC50 values of 1.6μM and 0.6μM, respectively. Further structure-activity relationship study suggested that presence of a long-chain heterocyclic in one of the rings played a critical role in the dual enzymes' inhibition. The Lineweaver-Burk plots and docking results suggest that both compounds could simultaneously bind to the PAS and CAS regions of the enzyme. ADMET analysis further confirmed the therapeutic potential of both compounds based upon their high BBB-penetrating. Thus, 2-benzoyl-6-benzylidenecyclohexanone containing long-chain heterocyclic amine analogs represent a new class of cholinesterase inhibitor, which deserve further investigation for their development into therapeutic agents for cognitive diseases such as Alzheimer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Taha M, Ismail NH, Zaki HM, Wadood A, Anouar EH, Imran S, et al.
    Bioorg Chem, 2017 12;75:235-241.
    PMID: 29031169 DOI: 10.1016/j.bioorg.2017.10.004
    3,4-Dimethoxybenzohydrazide derivatives (1-25) have been synthesized and evaluated for their urease inhibitory potential. Among the series, compounds 2, 3, 4 and 5 with IC50 values 12.61 ± 0.07, 18.24 ± 0.14, 19.22 ± 0.21, and 8.40 ± 0.05 µM, respectively, showed excellent urease inhibitory potentials when compared with standard thiourea (IC50 value 21.40 ± 0.21 µM). Compounds 1, 6, 8, 18, 19 and 20 also showed good to moderate inhibition, while the remaining compounds were found to be completely inactive. The structures of compounds 6 and 25 were confirmed through X-ray crystallography while the structures of remaining compounds were confirmed through ESI-MS and 1H NMR. Molecular docking studies were performed understand the binding interactions with enzyme active site. The synthesized compounds were evaluated for cytotoxicity and found to be nontoxic.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Abu N, Akhtar MN, Ho WY, Yeap SK, Alitheen NB
    Molecules, 2013 Aug 27;18(9):10367-77.
    PMID: 23985955 DOI: 10.3390/molecules180910367
    Breast cancer is becoming more prominent in women today. As of now, there are no effective treatments in treating metastatic breast cancer. We have tested the cytotoxic and anti-migration effects of BHAQ, a synthesized anthraquinone, on two breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB231. Anthraquinones are an interesting class of molecules that display a wide spectrum of biological applications, including anticancer properties. Cellular inhibition was tested through a MTT assay, double acridine orange/propidium iodide staining and FACS cell cycle analysis. Inhibition of migration was tested by the wound healing method, and migration through a Boyden chamber. BHAQ was cytotoxic towards both cell lines in a dose dependent and possibly cell-dependent manner. Additionally, BHAQ also inhibited the migration of the highly metastatic MDA-MB231 cell line.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Perez-Fernandez D, Shcherbakov D, Matt T, Leong NC, Kudyba I, Duscha S, et al.
    Nat Commun, 2014;5:3112.
    PMID: 24473108 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms4112
    Clinical use of 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside antibiotics, which target the bacterial ribosome, is compromised by adverse effects related to limited drug selectivity. Here we present a series of 4',6'-O-acetal and 4'-O-ether modifications on glucopyranosyl ring I of aminoglycosides. Chemical modifications were guided by measuring interactions between the compounds synthesized and ribosomes harbouring single point mutations in the drug-binding site, resulting in aminoglycosides that interact poorly with the drug-binding pocket of eukaryotic mitochondrial or cytosolic ribosomes. Yet, these compounds largely retain their inhibitory activity for bacterial ribosomes and show antibacterial activity. Our data indicate that 4'-O-substituted aminoglycosides possess increased selectivity towards bacterial ribosomes and little activity for any of the human drug-binding pockets.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Tahlan S, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Shah SAA, Mani V, Narasimhan B
    BMC Chem, 2019 Dec;13(1):12.
    PMID: 31384761 DOI: 10.1186/s13065-019-0533-7
    Background: Dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) is an important target for antimetabolite class of antimicrobials because it participates in purine synthesis. 2-mercaptobenzimidazole (2MBI) has similar structural features as purine nucleotides. Given that benzimidazole and similar heteroaromatics have been broadly examined for their anticancer potential, so, we hereby report the design, synthesis and biological studies (i.e. antimicrobial and anticancer studies) of 2MBI derivatives.

    Methodology: The antimicrobial activity of synthesized 2MBI derivatives were evaluated against Gram positive and Gram negative bacterial species as well as fungal species by tube dilution technique whereas their anticancer activity was assessed against human colorectal carcinoma cell line (HCT116) by Sulforhodamine B (SRB) assay. They were also structurally characterized by IR, NMR, MS and elemental analyses.

    Results discussion and conclusion: The antimicrobial activity findings revealed that compound N1 (MIC
     = 1.27, 2.54, 1.27 µM), N8 (MIC
    = 1.43 µM), N22 (MIC
    = 2.60 µM), N23 and N25 (MIC
    = 2.65 µM) exhibited significant antimicrobial effects against tested strains, i.e. Gram-positive, Gram-negative (bacterial) and fungal strains. The anticancer screening results demonstrated that compounds N9, N18 (IC50 = 5.85, 4.53 µM) were the most potent compounds against cancer cell line (HCT116) even more than 5-FU, the standard drug (IC50 = 9.99 µM).

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Tan BS, Kang O, Mai CW, Tiong KH, Khoo AS, Pichika MR, et al.
    Cancer Lett, 2013 Aug 9;336(1):127-39.
    PMID: 23612072 DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2013.04.014
    6-Shogaol has been shown to possess many antitumor properties including inhibition of cancer cell growth, inhibition of cancer metastasis, induction of apoptosis in cancer cells and induction of cancer cell differentiation. Despite its prominent antitumor effects, the direct molecular target of 6-shogaol has remained elusive. To identify the direct targets of 6-shogaol, a comprehensive antitumor profile of 6-shogaol (NSC752389) was tested in the NCI-60 cell line in an in vitro screen. The results show that 6-shogaol is COMPARE negative suggesting that it functions via a mechanism of action distinct from existing classes of therapeutic agents. Further analysis using microarray gene profiling and Connectivity Map analysis showed that MCF-7 cells treated with 6-shogaol display gene expression signatures characteristic of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) agonists, suggesting that 6-shogaol may activate the PPARγ signaling pathway for its antitumor effects. Indeed, treatment of MCF-7 and HT29 cells with 6-shogaol induced PPARγ transcriptional activity, suppressed NFκB activity, and induced apoptosis in breast and colon cancer cells in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Furthermore, 6-shogaol is capable of binding to PPARγ with a binding affinity comparable to 15-delta prostaglandin J2, a natural ligand for PPARγ. Together, our findings suggest that the antitumor effects of 6-shogaol are mediated through activation of PPARγ and imply that activation of PPARγ might be beneficial for breast and colon cancer treatment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Al-Khdhairawi AAQ, Krishnan P, Mai CW, Chung FF, Leong CO, Yong KT, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2017 10 27;80(10):2734-2740.
    PMID: 28926237 DOI: 10.1021/acs.jnatprod.7b00500
    Tengerensine (1), isolated as a racemate and constituted from a pair of bis-benzopyrroloisoquinoline enantiomers, and tengechlorenine (2), purified as a scalemic mixture and constituted from a pair of chlorinated phenanthroindolizidine enantiomers, were isolated from the leaves of Ficus fistulosa var. tengerensis, along with three other known alkaloids. The structures of 1 and 2 were determined by spectroscopic data interpretation and X-ray diffraction analysis. The enantiomers of 1 were separated by chiral-phase HPLC, and the absolute configurations of (+)-1 and (-)-1 were established via experimental and calculated ECD data. Compound 1 is notable in being a rare unsymmetrical cyclobutane adduct and is the first example of a dimeric benzopyrroloisoquinoline alkaloid, while compound 2 represents the first naturally occurring halogenated phenanthroindolizidine alkaloid. Compound (+)-1 displayed a selective in vitro cytotoxic effect against MDA-MB-468 cells (IC50 7.4 μM), while compound 2 showed pronounced in vitro cytotoxic activity against all three breast cancer cell lines tested (MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, and MCF7; IC50 values of 0.038-0.91 μM).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Anasamy T, Abdul AB, Sukari MA, Abdelwahab SI, Mohan S, Kamalidehghan B, et al.
    PMID: 23710242 DOI: 10.1155/2013/939810
    The current study was designed to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity effect of a phenylbutenoid dimer, cis-3-(3',4'-dimethoxyphenyl)-4-[(E)-3 (‴) ,4 (‴) -dimethoxystyryl]cyclohex-1-ene (ZC-B11) isolated from the rhizome of Zingiber cassumunar on various cancer cell line, and normal human blood mononuclear cells, and to further investigate the involvement of apoptosis-related proteins that leads, to the probable pathway in which apoptosis is triggered. Cytotoxicity test using MTT assay showed selective inhibition of ZC-B11 towards T-acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells, CEMss, with an IC50 value of 7.11 ± 0.240  μ g/mL, which did not reveal cytotoxic effects towards normal human blood mononuclear cells (IC50 > 50  μ g/mL). Morphology assessments demonstrated distinctive morphological changes corresponding to a typical apoptosis. ZC-B11 also arrested cell cycle progression at S phase and causes DNA fragmentation in CEMss cells. Decline of mitochondrial membrane potential was also determined qualitatively. In the apoptosis-related protein determination, ZC-B11 was found to significantly upregulate Bax, caspase 3/7, caspase 9, cytochrome c, and SMAC and downregulate Bcl-2, HSP70, and XIAP, but did not affect caspase 8, p53, and BID. These results demonstrated for the first time the apoptogenic property of ZC-B11 on CEMss cell line, leading to the programmed cell death via intrinsic mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis induction.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Hamdi OA, Anouar el H, Shilpi JA, Trabolsy ZB, Zain SB, Zakaria NS, et al.
    Int J Mol Sci, 2015 Apr 27;16(5):9450-68.
    PMID: 25923077 DOI: 10.3390/ijms16059450
    A series of 21 compounds isolated from Curcuma zedoaria was subjected to cytotoxicity test against MCF7; Ca Ski; PC3 and HT-29 cancer cell lines; and a normal HUVEC cell line. To rationalize the structure-activity relationships of the isolated compounds; a set of electronic; steric and hydrophobic descriptors were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) method. Statistical analyses were carried out using simple and multiple linear regressions (SLR; MLR); principal component analysis (PCA); and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA). SLR analyses showed that the cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds against a given cell line depend on certain descriptors; and the corresponding correlation coefficients (R2) vary from 0%-55%. MLR results revealed that the best models can be achieved with a limited number of specific descriptors applicable for compounds having a similar basic skeleton. Based on PCA; HCA and MLR analyses; active compounds were classified into subgroups; which was in agreement with the cell based cytotoxicity assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Hajrezaie M, Paydar M, Moghadamtousi SZ, Hassandarvish P, Gwaram NS, Zahedifard M, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:540463.
    PMID: 24737979 DOI: 10.1155/2014/540463
    Metal-based drugs with extensive clinical applications hold great promise for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In the last few decades, Schiff bases and their complexes have become well known for their extensive biological potential. In the present study, we examined the antiproliferative effect of a copper (II) complex on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The Cu(BrHAP)2 Schiff base compound demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect in HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.87  μg/ml after 72 h of treatment. HT-29 cells treated with Cu (II) complexes underwent apoptosis death, as exhibited by a progressive elevation in the proportion of the G1 cell population. At a concentration of 6.25  μg/ml, the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound caused significant elevation in ROS production following perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, as assessed by the measurement of fluorescence intensity in stained cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 was part of the Cu (II) complex-induced apoptosis, which confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, there was no significant activation of caspase-8. Taken together, these results imply that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound is a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical colon cancer studies to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from metal-based agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Abdul Wahab K, Ahmad FB, Din LB, Cheah SH, Mock SL
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):139-44.
    PMID: 16493406 MyJurnal
    The crude methanol extracts of Gelsemium elegans leaves were assessed for their cytotoxic activity using the microculture 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability. This study utilized two different types of human cancer cell lines, CaOV-3 (human ovarian cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells), allowing for comparison of toxicity of G. elegans against these two cancer cells lines. Our results showed that the methanol extract of G. elegans exhibited high cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 with an IC50 value of 5microg/ml after 96 h incubation. However, G. elegans displayed discernibly less toxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value 40microg/ml after 96 h incubation and this effect was dose- and time-dependent, up to 72h and 20-30 microg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that G. elegans is potently cytotoxic against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 and to a lesser extend towards the human breast carcinoma cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the extract is selective towards CaOV-3 cells and may have a chemotherapeutic role for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Abas F, Lajis NH, Shaari K, Israf DA, Stanslas J, Yusuf UK, et al.
    J Nat Prod, 2005 Jul;68(7):1090-3.
    PMID: 16038556
    A new labdane diterpene glucoside, curcumanggoside (1), together with nine known compounds, including labda-8(17),12-diene-15,16-dial (2), calcaratarin A (3), zerumin B (4), scopoletin, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1,4,6-heptatrien-3-one, curcumin, and p-hydroxycinnamic acid, have been isolated from the rhizomes of Curcuma mangga. Their structures were determined using a combination of 1D (1H NMR, 13C NMR, DEPT) and 2D (COSY, HSQC, HMBC) NMR techniques. All diarylheptanoids and scopoletin showed significant antioxidant activity. Zerumin B, demethoxycurcumin, bisdemethoxycurcumin, and curcumin also exhibited cytotoxic activity against a panel of five human tumor cell lines.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Murtihapsari M, Salam S, Kurnia D, Darwati D, Kadarusman K, Abdullah FF, et al.
    Nat Prod Res, 2021 Mar;35(6):937-944.
    PMID: 31210054 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2019.1611815
    A new antimalarial sterol, kaimanol (1), along with a known sterol, saringosterol (2) was isolated from the Indonesian Marine sponge, Xestospongia sp. The chemical structure of the new compound was determined on the basis of spectroscopic evidences and by comparison to those related compounds previously reported. Isolated compounds, 1 and 2 were evaluated for their antiplasmodial effect against Plasmodium falciparum 3D7 strains. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antiplasmodial activity with IC50 values of 359 and 0.250 nM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Lim SH, Lee HB, Ho AS
    Photochem Photobiol, 2011 Sep-Oct;87(5):1152-8.
    PMID: 21534974 DOI: 10.1111/j.1751-1097.2011.00939.x
    In our screening for photosensitizers from natural resources, 15(1)-hydroxypurpurin-7-lactone ethyl methyl diester (compound 1) was isolated for the first time from an Araceae plant. To evaluate the efficacy of compound 1 as a photosensitizer for head and neck cancers, compound 1 was studied in reference to a known photosensitizer pheophorbide-a (Pha), in terms of photophysical properties, singlet oxygen generation and in in vitro experiments (intracellular uptake and phototoxicity assays) in two oral (HSC2 and HSC3) and two nasopharyngeal (HK1 and C666-1) cancer cell lines. In this study, compound 1 exhibited higher intracellular uptake over 24 h compared with Pha in both HSC3 and HK1 cells. When activated by ≥4.8 J cm(-2) of light, compound 1 was slightly more potent as a photosensitizer than Pha by consistently having marginally lower IC(50) values across different cell lines. In flow cytometry experiments to study the mechanism of photoactivated cell death in HSC3, compound 1 was observed to induce more pronounced apoptosis compared with Pha, which may have been driven by the transient G(2)/M cell cycle block which was also observed. These promising results on compound 1 warrant its further investigation as a clinically useful photodynamic therapy agent for head and neck cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Yap AC, Teoh WY, Chan KG, Sim KS, Choo YM
    Nat Prod Res, 2015;29(8):722-6.
    PMID: 25427277 DOI: 10.1080/14786419.2014.983507
    Enterobacter cloacae is a versatile bacterial species inhabiting a wide variety of niches and is capable of metabolising a wide variety of substances as energy resources. The fermentation culture of this bacterial species has successfully yielded one new compound, Rimboxa (1) and three known compounds, i.e. indole-3-carboxaldehyde (2), indole-3-acetic acid (3) and 3,4-di-t-butylaniline (4). Rimboxa (1) is shown to possess the 1,2-oxathiolane core structure. 3,4-Di-t-butylaniline (4) is isolated for the first time from a natural resource. These compounds were isolated and characterised using extensive chromatographic and spectroscopic methods, and were subjected to cytotoxicity evaluations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Taher M, Salleh WMNHW, Alkhamaiseh SI, Ahmad F, Rezali MF, Susanti D, et al.
    Z Naturforsch C J Biosci, 2021 Jan 27;76(1-2):87-91.
    PMID: 32931451 DOI: 10.1515/znc-2020-0089
    A phytochemical investigation of the stem bark of Calophyllum canum resulted in the isolation of a new xanthone dimer identified as biscaloxanthone (1), together with four compounds; trapezifoliaxanthone (2), trapezifolixanthone A (3), taraxerone (4) and taraxerol (5). The structures of these compounds were determined via spectroscopic methods of IR, UV, MS and NMR (1D and 2D). The cytotoxicity of compounds 1-3 were screened against A549, MCF-7, C33A and 3T3L1 cell lines, wherein weak cytotoxic activities were observed (IC50 > 50 μm).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Kusrini E, Hashim F, Azmi WN, Amin NM, Estuningtyas A
    PMID: 26474244 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.09.021
    The terbium trinitrate.trihydrate.18-crown ether-6, Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, photoluminescence and single X-ray diffraction. The IC50 values were determined based on MTT assay while light and fluorescence microscopy imaging were employed to evaluate the cellular morphological changes. Alkaline comet assay was performed to analyze the DNA damage. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Tb complex excited at 325 nm displayed seven luminescence peaks corresponding to the (5)D4→(7)F(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies indicated that the Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex and its salt form as well as the 18C6 molecule have excellent anti-amoebic activity with very low IC50 values are 7, 2.6 and 1.2 μg/mL, respectively, with significant decrease (p<0.05) in Acanthamoeba viability when the concentration was increased from 0 to 30 μg/mL. The mode of cell death in Acanthamoeba cells following treatment with the Tb complex was apoptosis. This is in contrast to the Tb(NO3)3.6H2O salt- and 18C6 molecule-treated Acanthamoeba, which exhibited necrotic type cells. The percentage of DNA damage following treatment with all the compounds at the IC25 values showed high percentage of type 1 with the % nuclei damage are 14.15±2.4; 46.00±4.2; 36.36±2.4; 45.16±0.6%, respectively for untreated, treated with Tb complex, Tb salt and 18C6 molecule. The work features promising potential of Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex as anti-amoebic agent, representing a therapeutic option for Acanthamoeba keratitis infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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