Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 299 in total

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  1. Nakisah MA, Ida Muryany MY, Fatimah H, Nor Fadilah R, Zalilawati MR, Khamsah S, et al.
    World J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 2012 Mar;28(3):1237-44.
    PMID: 22805843 DOI: 10.1007/s11274-011-0927-8
    Crude methanol extracts of a marine sponge, Aaptos aaptos, collected from three different localities namely Kapas, Perhentian and Redang Islands, Terengganu, Malaysia, were tested in vitro on a pathogenic Acanthamoeba castellanii (IMR isolate) to examine their anti-amoebic potential. The examination of anti-Acanthamoebic activity of the extracts was conducted in 24 well plates for 72 h at 30 °C. All extracts possessed anti-amoebic activity with their IC(50) values ranging from 0.615 to 0.876 mg/mL. The effect of the methanol extracts on the surface morphology of A. castellanii was analysed under scanning electron microscopy. The ability of the extracts to disrupt the amoeba cell membrane was indicated by extensive cell's blebbing, changes in the surface morphology, reduced in cell size and with cystic appearance of extract-treated Acanthamoeba. Number of acanthapodia and food cup was also reduced in this Acanthamoeba. Morphological criteria of apoptosis in Acanthamoeba following treatment with the sponge's extracts was determined by acridine orange-propidium iodide staining and observed by fluorescence microscopy. By this technique, apoptotic and necrotic cells can be visualized and quantified. The genotoxic potential of the methanol extracts was performed by the alkaline comet assay. All methanol extracts used were significantly induced DNA damage compared to untreated Acanthamoeba by having high percentage of scores 1, 2, and 3 of the DNA damage. Results from cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies carried out in the present study suggest that all methanol extracts of A. aaptos have anti-amoebic properties against A. castellanii.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  2. Zandi K, Teoh BT, Sam SS, Wong PF, Mustafa MR, Abubakar S
    Virol. J., 2011;8:560.
    PMID: 22201648 DOI: 10.1186/1743-422X-8-560
    Dengue is a major mosquito-borne disease currently with no effective antiviral or vaccine available. Effort to find antivirals for it has focused on bioflavonoids, a plant-derived polyphenolic compounds with many potential health benefits. In the present study, antiviral activity of four types of bioflavonoid against dengue virus type -2 (DENV-2) in Vero cell was evaluated. Anti-dengue activity of these compounds was determined at different stages of DENV-2 infection and replication cycle. DENV replication was measured by Foci Forming Unit Reduction Assay (FFURA) and quantitative RT-PCR. Selectivity Index value (SI) was determined as the ratio of cytotoxic concentration 50 (CC50) to inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) for each compound.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  3. Mansur F, Luoga W, Buttle DJ, Duce IR, Lowe A, Behnke JM
    Vet. Parasitol., 2014 Mar 17;201(1-2):48-58.
    PMID: 24462509 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2013.12.018
    Little is known about the efficacy of cysteine proteinases (CP) as anthelmintics for cestode infections. We examined the effects of CPs on two rodent cestodes, Hymenolepis diminuta and H. microstoma in vitro. Our data showed that naturally occurring mixtures of CPs, such as those found in papaya latex, and relatively pure preparations of fruit bromelain, papain and stem bromelain, were active in vitro against both juvenile, artificially excysted scoleces, as well as against adult worms of both rodent cestodes. Significant dose-dependent reduction in motility, ultimately leading to death of the worms, was observed with both species, and against both freshly excysted scoleces and 14-day old pre-adult worms. The most effective was fruit bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=63 and 74 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=199 and 260 μM, respectively). The least effective was stem bromelain (after 30 min of incubation of juvenile H. diminuta and H. microstoma IC50=2855 and 2772 μM, respectively, and for pre-adult worms=1374 and 1332 μM, respectively) and the efficacies of papaya latex supernatant and papain were between these extremes. In all cases these values are higher than those reported previously for efficacy of CPs against intestinal nematodes, and in contrast to nematodes, all CPs were effective against cestodes in the absence of exogenous cysteine in incubation media. The CPs appeared to attack the tegument resulting in generalised erosion mainly on the strobila. The scolex was more resistant to CP attack but nevertheless some damage to the tegument on the scolex was detected.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  4. Al-Rofaai A, Rahman WA, Sulaiman SF, Yahaya ZS
    Vet. Parasitol., 2012 Nov 23;190(1-2):127-35.
    PMID: 22749290 DOI: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2012.05.028
    This study aimed to represent the first report of the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of the methanolic leaf extract of Manihot esculenta (cassava) against eggs and larvae of susceptible and resistant strains of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. As well as, to determine the total tannin compounds, antioxidant activity and toxicity of the extract. The egg hatch test was used to evaluate ovicidal activity against unembryonated eggs, whereas larval feeding inhibition assay and MTT-formazan assay were used to evaluate larvicidal activity against first (L(1)) and infective (L(3)) larvae, respectively. The results showed no significant differences were detected between the sensitivities of susceptible and resistant strains of T. colubriformis to the extract. Eggs, L(1) and L(3) were significantly affected (P<0.001) compared with negative control, and L(1) were more sensitive than the eggs and L(3). The total tannin compounds were investigated using tannin quantification assay and determined by 254.44 TAE/mg. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using the DPPH radical scavenging assay and the median inhibition concentration (IC(50)) was determined by 2.638 mg/ml. Acute oral toxicity at dose of 5,000 mg/kg, and sub-chronic oral toxicity at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg of the extract were observed in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The acute oral toxicity revealed that the median lethal dose (LD(50)) of methanolic extract of cassava leaves on SD rats was greater than 5,000 mg/kg, whereas the sub-chronic oral toxicity did not show observed adverse effects at 500 and 1,000 mg/kg per day for 28 days. In conclusion, the methanolic extract of cassava leaves has direct ovicidal and larvicidal activity against T. colubriformis strains with a safety margin for animals, and it may be potentially utilized as a source of natural antioxidants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  5. Nor Hazwani Ahmad, Rohanizah Abdul Rahim, Ishak Mat
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2010;21(2):-.
    MyJurnal
    Research on natural products has been widely used as a strategy to discover new drugs with potential for applications in complementary medicines because they have fewer side effects than conventional drugs. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxic effects of crude aqueous Catharanthus roseus extract on Jurkat cells and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The aqueous extract was
    standardised to vinblastine by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and was used to determine cytotoxicity by the MTS [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-5(3-carboxymethoxyphenyl)-2-(4-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium] assay. DNA fragmentation assay was employed to determine if cell death was due to apoptosis. The results showed that the aqueous extract induced cell death of Jurkat cells at 24, 48 and 72 hours posttreatment in a time- and dose-dependent manner. However, cells treated at 48 and 72 hours produced higher cytotoxic effects with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50)values of 2.55 µg/ml and 2.38 µg/ml, respectively. In contrast, the extract induced normal PBMC proliferation, especially after 24 hours treatment with 1000 µg/ml. This result indicates that the C. roseus crude aqueous extract showed differential effects of inhibiting the proliferation of the Jurkat cell line and promoting the growth of PBMCs. These data suggest that the extract may be applicable for modulating the normal and transformed immune cells in leukaemia patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  6. Haslinda MS, Aiyub Z, Bakar NK, Tohar N, Musa Y, Abdullah NR, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2015 Mar;32(1):129-39.
    PMID: 25801263
    An antiplasmodial screening of Phyllanthus debilis and Phyllanthus urinaria was carried out. The medicinal plants were extracted and evaluated for in vitro antiplasmodial activity against D10 (chloroquine-sensitive, CQS) and Gombak A (chloroquine-resistant, CQR) strains of Plasmodium falciparum. The methanolic crudes from the soxhlet extraction were active against both strains however, P. urinaria (IC50 8.9 μg/ml with CQR strain) exhibited better anti-malarial activity compared to P. debilis (IC50 12.2 μg/ml with CQR strain). Furthermore, the methanolic crude of P. urinaria obtained by the cold extraction has good anti-malarial activity towards CQS (IC50 4.1 μg/ml). The concentration of macronutrients (calcium and magnesium) and trace metals (copper, manganese, iron and zinc) from three Phyllanthus species i.e. P. debilis Klein ex Wild., Phyllanthus niruri L., P. urinaria L. and Alpinia conchigera Griff. were determined using microwave digestion method and analyzed by Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy. Standard Reference Material 1547 (peach leaves) was used to validate the method throughout this study. The recovery values were in the range of 80% to 120% which were in very good agreement with the certified values. The three Phyllanthus species and leaves of A. conchigera showed the highest concentration of calcium compared to other metals and macronutrients studied. The significant presence of all the important macronutrients and trace metals which are essential for human health and well-being substantiate their use medicinally in traditional practices.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  7. Dyary HO, Arifah AK, Sharma RS, Rasedee A, Mohd-Aspollah MS, Zakaria ZA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Mar;31(1):89-96.
    PMID: 24862048 MyJurnal
    Trypanosoma evansi, the causative agent of "surra", infects many species of wild and domestic animals worldwide. In the current study, the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of six medicinal plants, namely, Aquilaria malaccensis, Derris elliptica, Garcinia hombroniana, Goniothalamus umbrosus, Nigella sativa, and Strobilanthes crispus were screened in vitro for activity against T. evansi. The cytotoxic activity of the extracts was evaluated on green monkey kidney (Vero) cells using MTT-cell proliferation assay. The median inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of the extracts ranged between 2.30 and 800.97 μg/ml and the median cytotoxic concentrations (CC50) ranged between 29.10 μg/ml and 14.53 mg/ml. The aqueous extract of G. hombroniana exhibited the highest selectivity index (SI) value of 616.36, followed by A. malaccensis aqueous extract (47.38). Phytochemical screening of the G. hombroniana aqueous extract revealed the presence of flavonoids, phenols, tannins, and saponins. It is demonstrated here that the aqueous extract of G. hombroniana has potential antitrypanosomal activity with a high SI, and may be considered as a potential source for the development of new antitrypanosomal compounds.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  8. Muhd Haffiz J, Norhayati I, Getha K, Nor Azah MA, Mohd Ilham A, Lili Sahira H, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2013 Mar;30(1):9-14.
    PMID: 23665703 MyJurnal
    Essential oil from Cymbopogon nardus was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei BS221 (IC50 = 0.31 ± 0.03 μg/mL) and cytotoxic effect on normal kidney (Vero) cells (IC50 = >100 μg/mL). The crude essential oil was subjected to various chromatography techniques afforded active sub fractions with antitrypanosomal activity; F4 (IC50 = 0.61 ± 0.06 μg/mL), F6 (IC50= 0.73 ± 0.33 μg/mL), F7 (IC50 = 1.15 ± 0 μg/mL) and F8 (IC50 = 1.11 ± 0.01 μg/mL). These active fractions did not exhibit any toxic effects against Vero cell lines and the chemical profiles investigation indicated presence of α-and γ-eudesmol, elemol, α-cadinol and eugenol by GC/MS analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  9. Abdul Wahab K, Ahmad FB, Din LB, Cheah SH, Mock SL
    Trop Biomed, 2004 Dec;21(2):139-44.
    PMID: 16493406 MyJurnal
    The crude methanol extracts of Gelsemium elegans leaves were assessed for their cytotoxic activity using the microculture 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay for cellular viability. This study utilized two different types of human cancer cell lines, CaOV-3 (human ovarian cancer cells) and MDA-MB-231 (human estrogen receptor negative breast cancer cells), allowing for comparison of toxicity of G. elegans against these two cancer cells lines. Our results showed that the methanol extract of G. elegans exhibited high cytotoxicity against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 with an IC50 value of 5microg/ml after 96 h incubation. However, G. elegans displayed discernibly less toxicity against the MDA-MB-231 cells with an IC50 value 40microg/ml after 96 h incubation and this effect was dose- and time-dependent, up to 72h and 20-30 microg/ml. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that G. elegans is potently cytotoxic against the human ovarian cancer cell line CaOV-3 and to a lesser extend towards the human breast carcinoma cancer MDA-MB-231 cells, suggesting that the extract is selective towards CaOV-3 cells and may have a chemotherapeutic role for ovarian cancer treatment in the future.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  10. Ng WK, Yazan LS, Ismail M
    Toxicol In Vitro, 2011 Oct;25(7):1392-8.
    PMID: 21609759 DOI: 10.1016/j.tiv.2011.04.030
    Thymoquinone (TQ), the active constituent of Nigella sativa or black cumin exhibited cytotoxic effects in several cancer cell lines. In this study, the cytotoxicity of TQ in human cervical squamous carcinoma cells (SiHa) was investigated. TQ was cytotoxic towards SiHa cells with IC50 values of 10.67 ± 0.12 and 9.33 ± 0.19 μg/mL as determined by MTT assay and trypan blue dye exclusion test, respectively, after 72 h of incubation. TQ was more cytotoxic towards SiHa cells compared to cisplatin. Interestingly, TQ was less cytotoxic towards the normal cells (3T3-L1 and Vero). Cell cycle analysis performed by flowcytometer showed a significant increase in the accumulation of TQ-treated cells at sub-G1 phase, indicating induction of apoptosis by the compound. Apoptosis induction by TQ was further confirmed by Annexin V/PI and AO/PI staining. Significant elevation of p53 and down-regulation of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 protein was found in the treated cells, without any changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic Bax protein. In conclusion, thymoquinone from N. sativa was more potent than cisplatin in elimination of SiHa cells via apoptosis with down-regulation of Bcl-2 protein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  11. Faraj FL, Zahedifard M, Paydar M, Looi CY, Abdul Majid N, Ali HM, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:212096.
    PMID: 25548779 DOI: 10.1155/2014/212096
    Two new synthesized and characterized quinazoline Schiff bases 1 and 2 were investigated for anticancer activity against MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line. Compounds 1 and 2 demonstrated a remarkable antiproliferative effect, with an IC50 value of 6.246×10(-6) mol/L and 5.910×10(-6) mol/L, respectively, after 72 hours of treatment. Most apoptosis morphological features in treated MCF-7 cells were observed by AO/PI staining. The results of cell cycle analysis indicate that compounds did not induce S and M phase arrest in cell after 24 hours of treatment. Furthermore, MCF-7 cells treated with 1 and 2 subjected to apoptosis death, as exhibited by perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release as well as increase in ROS formation. We also found activation of caspases-3/7, -8, and -9 in compounds 1 and 2. Moreover, inhibition of NF-κB translocation in MCF-7 cells treated by compound 1 significantly exhibited the association of extrinsic apoptosis pathway. Acute toxicity results demonstrated the nontoxic nature of the compounds in mice. Our results showed significant activity towards MCF-7 cells via either intrinsic or extrinsic mitochondrial pathway and are potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical breast cancer studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  12. Majid MZ, Zaini ZM, Razak FA
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:125353.
    PMID: 25147833 DOI: 10.1155/2014/125353
    Brucea javanica, Azadirachta indica, and Typhonium flagelliforme are medicinal plants commonly used to treat conditions associated with tumour formation. This study aimed to determine the antiproliferative activity of these plants extracts on KB and ORL-48 oral cancer cell lines and to suggest their mode of cell death. The concentration producing 50% cell inhibition (IC50) was determined and the activity was examined under an inverted microscope. Immunohistochemistry fluorescent staining method (TUNEL) was performed to indicate the mechanism of cell death and the fragmented DNA band pattern produced was obtained for verification. Compared to Azadirachta sp. and Typhonium sp., the antiproliferative activity of Brucea sp. extract was the most potent on both KB and ORL-48 cells with IC50 of 24.37 ± 1.75 and 6.67 ± 1.15 µg/mL, respectively. Signs of cell attrition were observed 24 hr after treatment. Green fluorescent spots indicating cell death by apoptosis were observed in images of both cells following treatment with all the three extracts. DNA fragments harvested from Brucea-treated cells produced bands in a ladder pattern suggesting the apoptotic effect of the extract. It is thus concluded that Brucea sp. extract exhibited cytotoxic activity on ORL-48 cells and their action mechanism is via apoptosis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  13. Hajrezaie M, Paydar M, Moghadamtousi SZ, Hassandarvish P, Gwaram NS, Zahedifard M, et al.
    ScientificWorldJournal, 2014;2014:540463.
    PMID: 24737979 DOI: 10.1155/2014/540463
    Metal-based drugs with extensive clinical applications hold great promise for the development of cancer chemotherapeutic agents. In the last few decades, Schiff bases and their complexes have become well known for their extensive biological potential. In the present study, we examined the antiproliferative effect of a copper (II) complex on HT-29 colon cancer cells. The Cu(BrHAP)2 Schiff base compound demonstrated a potent antiproliferative effect in HT-29 cells, with an IC50 value of 2.87  μg/ml after 72 h of treatment. HT-29 cells treated with Cu (II) complexes underwent apoptosis death, as exhibited by a progressive elevation in the proportion of the G1 cell population. At a concentration of 6.25  μg/ml, the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound caused significant elevation in ROS production following perturbation of mitochondrial membrane potential and cytochrome c release, as assessed by the measurement of fluorescence intensity in stained cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspases 3/7 and 9 was part of the Cu (II) complex-induced apoptosis, which confirmed the involvement of mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis. Meanwhile, there was no significant activation of caspase-8. Taken together, these results imply that the Cu(BrHAP)2 compound is a potential candidate for further in vivo and clinical colon cancer studies to develop novel chemotherapeutic agents derived from metal-based agents.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  14. Ahmad F, Seerangan P, Mustafa MZ, Osman ZF, Abdullah JM, Idris Z
    Malays J Med Sci, 2019 Mar;26(2):30-39.
    PMID: 31447606 DOI: 10.21315/mjms2019.26.2.4
    Background: There has been increasing evidence showing that stingless bee honey exhibits anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Pharmacologically-active components in honey such as flavonoids and phenolic constituents are known to contribute to its medicinal benefits. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on evaluating anti-cancer effects of locally-produced Malaysian stingless bee honey from Heterotrigona itama sp. on malignant glioma cells.

    Methods: Proliferation and apoptosis studies of U-87 MG cells following stingless bee honey treatment were carried out using MTS assay and acridine orange/propidium iodide dual staining, respectively.

    Results: Results demonstrated time and dose-dependent cytotoxicity using 0.625%, 1.25% and 10% stingless bee honey (P < 0.05). IC50 values were calculated using cells treated with 10% stingless bee honey. It was also observed that 10% stingless bee honey induced nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and nucleus fragmentation, indicating that cellular changes were consistent with the apoptotic characteristics of the cells.

    Conclusion: These data provide a good basis for further evaluation of the medicinal properties of stingless bee honey from Heterotrigona itama sp. This source of honey may serve as a potential therapy for malignant glioma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  15. Muthiah YD, Ong CE, Sulaiman SA, Tan SC, Ismail R
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2012 Dec;64(12):1761-9.
    PMID: 23146039 DOI: 10.1111/j.2042-7158.2012.01551.x
    To investigate the effect of Tualang honey on cytochrome P450 2C8 (CYP2C8) activity in vitro using an amodiaquine N-desethylase assay.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  16. Manikam SD, Manikam ST, Stanslas J
    J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 2009 Jan;61(1):69-78.
    PMID: 19126299 DOI: 10.1211/jpp/61.01.0010
    The growth inhibiting potential of andrographolide was evaluated in three acute promyelocytic leukaemia cell line models (HL-60, NB4 and all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA)-resistant NB4-R2).
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  17. Lim CL, Nogawa T, Uramoto M, Okano A, Hongo Y, Nakamura T, et al.
    J. Antibiot., 2014 Apr;67(4):323-9.
    PMID: 24496142 DOI: 10.1038/ja.2013.144
    Two novel quinomycin derivatives, RK-1355A (1) and B (2), and one known quinomycin derivative, UK-63,598 (3), were isolated from a microbial metabolites fraction library of Streptomyces sp. RK88-1355 based on Natural Products Plot screening. The structural elucidation of 1 and 2 was established through two-dimensional NMR and mass spectrometric measurements. They belong to a class of quinomycin antibiotics family having 3-hydroxyquinaldic acid and a sulfoxide moiety. They are the first examples for natural products as a quinoline type quinomycin having a sulfoxide on the intramolecular cross-linkage. They showed potent antiproliferative activities against various cancer cell lines and they were also found to exhibit moderate antibacterial activity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  18. Saidin S, Othman N, Noordin R
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2017 Oct;97(4):1204-1213.
    PMID: 28820699 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.17-0132
    Adverse effects and resistance to metronidazole have motivated the search for new antiamoebic agents against Entamoeba histolytica. Control of amoeba growth may be achieved by inhibiting the function of the glycolytic enzyme and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK). In this study, we screened 10 compounds using an in vitro PPDK enzyme assay. These compounds were selected from a virtual screening of compounds in the National Cancer Institute database. The antiamoebic activity of the selected compounds was also evaluated by determining minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and IC50 values using the nitro-blue tetrazolium reduction assay. Seven of the 10 compounds showed inhibitory activities against the adenosine triphosphate (ATP)/inorganic phosphate binding site of the ATP-grasp domain. Two compounds, NSC349156 (pancratistatin) and NSC228137 (7-ethoxy-4-[4-methylphenyl] sulfonyl-3-oxido-2, 1, 3-benzoxadiazol-3-ium), exhibited inhibitory effects on the growth of E. histolytica trophozoites with MIC values of 25 and 50 μM, and IC50 values of 14 and 20.7 μM, respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  19. Mungthin M, Watanatanasup E, Sitthichot N, Suwandittakul N, Khositnithikul R, Ward SA
    Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg., 2017 03;96(3):624-629.
    PMID: 28044042 DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.16-0668
    Piperaquine combined with dihydroartemisinin is one of the artemisinin derivative combination therapies, which can replace artesunate-mefloquine in treating uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Thailand. The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro sensitivity of Thai Plasmodium falciparum isolates against piperaquine and the influence of the pfmdr1 gene on in vitro response. One hundred and thirty-seven standard laboratory and adapted Thai isolates of P. falciparum were assessed for in vitro piperaquine sensitivity. Polymorphisms of the pfmdr1 gene were determined by polymerase chain reaction methods. The mean and standard deviation of the piperaquine IC50 in Thai isolates of P. falciparum were 16.7 ± 6.3 nM. The parasites exhibiting chloroquine IC50 of ≥ 100 nM were significantly less sensitive to piperaquine compared with the parasite with chloroquine IC50 of < 100 nM. No significant association between the pfmdr1 copy number and piperaquine IC50 values was found. In contrast, the parasites containing the pfmdr1 86Y allele exhibited significantly reduced piperaquine sensitivity. Before nationwide implementation of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine as the first-line treatment in Thailand, in vitro and in vivo evaluations of this combination should be performed especially in areas where parasites containing the pfmdr1 86Y allele are predominant such as the Thai-Malaysian border.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
  20. Kusrini E, Hashim F, Azmi WN, Amin NM, Estuningtyas A
    PMID: 26474244 DOI: 10.1016/j.saa.2015.09.021
    The terbium trinitrate.trihydrate.18-crown ether-6, Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex has been characterized by elemental analysis, photoluminescence and single X-ray diffraction. The IC50 values were determined based on MTT assay while light and fluorescence microscopy imaging were employed to evaluate the cellular morphological changes. Alkaline comet assay was performed to analyze the DNA damage. The photoluminescence spectrum of the Tb complex excited at 325 nm displayed seven luminescence peaks corresponding to the (5)D4→(7)F(0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6) transitions. The cytotoxicity and genotoxicity studies indicated that the Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex and its salt form as well as the 18C6 molecule have excellent anti-amoebic activity with very low IC50 values are 7, 2.6 and 1.2 μg/mL, respectively, with significant decrease (p<0.05) in Acanthamoeba viability when the concentration was increased from 0 to 30 μg/mL. The mode of cell death in Acanthamoeba cells following treatment with the Tb complex was apoptosis. This is in contrast to the Tb(NO3)3.6H2O salt- and 18C6 molecule-treated Acanthamoeba, which exhibited necrotic type cells. The percentage of DNA damage following treatment with all the compounds at the IC25 values showed high percentage of type 1 with the % nuclei damage are 14.15±2.4; 46.00±4.2; 36.36±2.4; 45.16±0.6%, respectively for untreated, treated with Tb complex, Tb salt and 18C6 molecule. The work features promising potential of Tb(NO3)3(OH2)3.(18C6) complex as anti-amoebic agent, representing a therapeutic option for Acanthamoeba keratitis infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Inhibitory Concentration 50
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