Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 69 in total

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  1. Shepherd ARH, Hoh IMY, Goh EH, Cohen PA, Steele D
    ANZ J Surg, 2017 Dec;87(12):1054-1056.
    PMID: 25962888 DOI: 10.1111/ans.13155
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  2. Yap NY, Ng KL, Ong TA, Pailoor J, Gobe GC, Ooi CC, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2013;14(12):7497-500.
    PMID: 24460324
    BACKGROUND: This study concerns clinical characteristics and survival of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients in University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), as well as the prognostic significance of presenting symptoms.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: The clinical characteristics, presenting symptoms and survival of RCC patients (n=151) treated at UMMC from 2003-2012 were analysed. Symptoms evaluated were macrohaematuria, flank pain, palpable abdominal mass, fever, lethargy, loss of weight, anaemia, elevated ALP, hypoalbuminemia and thrombocytosis. Univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses were performed to determine the prognostic significance of these presenting symptoms. Kaplan Meier and log rank tests were employed for survival analysis.

    RESULTS: The 2002 TNM staging was a prognostic factor (p<0.001) but Fuhrman grading was not significantly correlated with survival (p=0.088). At presentation, 76.8% of the patients were symptomatic. Generally, symptomatic tumours had a worse survival prognosis compared to asymptomatic cases (p=0.009; HR 4.74). All symptoms significantly affect disease specific survival except frank haematuria and loin pain on univariate Cox regression analysis. On multivariate analysis adjusted for stage, only clinically palpable abdominal mass remained statistically significant (p=0.027). The mean tumour size of palpable abdominal masses, 9.5±4.3cm, was larger than non palpable masses, 5.3±2.7cm (p<0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: This is the first report which includes survival information of RCC patients from Malaysia. Here the TNM stage and a palpable abdominal mass were independent predictors for survival. Further investigations using a multicentre cohort to analyse mortality and survival rates may aid in improving management of these patients.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications; Kidney Neoplasms/mortality*; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/therapy
  3. Singam P, Ho C, Hong GE, Mohd A, Tamil AM, Cheok LB, et al.
    Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev., 2010;11(2):503-6.
    PMID: 20843141
    Renal cancer is rare and its incidence is 1.9 per 100,000 in the Malaysian population, which consists of three major ethnic groups (Malay, Chinese and Indians). A retrospective study was her conducted to identify clinical characteristics and ethnic background influences on presentation. The study included all renal cancer patients from a single medical institution over ten years, with a total of 75 cases. Seventy-three patients underwent surgery while 2 received only radiotherapy or chemotherapy. The male to female ratio was 2.75:1. Incidence was equal among the Malay (49.3%) and Chinese ethnic groups (45.3%). Mean age of patients were 57.1 (18-93) years old. There were 26 (37.4%) patients with Stage I disease, 14 (18.7%) at Stage II, 23 (30.7%) at Stage III and 12 (16%) at Stage IV. The Chinese race presented at mean older age (p= 0.02) and later stage of disease (p= 0.046). Patients above 40 years old had more advanced stage disease (p= 0.023). Tumour histology were clear cell (72%), urothelial cell (13.3%), sarcomatoid cell and nephroblastoma each contributed 2.7%. The mean tumour size was 8.1 (2-20) cm. There was substantial agreement between the pre and post operative staging (kappa 0.691). In conclusion we observed significant influences of age and race in the clinical presentation of renal cancer in our institution based population. There was larger male to female ratio and mean tumour size as compared to previous epidemiology studies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/therapy*
  4. Wong KW
    BMJ Case Rep, 2015 Jan 16;2015.
    PMID: 25596289 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2014-208060
    We report a case of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed after a patient was treated successfully with intravenous cyclophosphamide for her active proliferative lupus nephritis (classes III and V). After the intravenous cyclophosphamide regimen, the patient was asymptomatic with persistent microscopic haematuria, and no proteinuria. The renal cell carcinoma was located on the left kidney; incidentally, this was where the initial renal biopsy was done to diagnose lupus nephritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis
  5. Gobe GC, Ng KL, Small DM, Vesey DA, Johnson DW, Samaratunga H, et al.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun., 2016 Apr 22;473(1):47-53.
    PMID: 26995091 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2016.03.048
    Apoptosis repressor with caspase recruitment domain (ARC), an endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis, is upregulated in a number of human cancers, thereby conferring drug resistance and giving a rationale for the inhibition of ARC to overcome drug resistance. Our hypothesis was that ARC would be similarly upregulated and targetable for therapy in renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Expression of ARC was assessed in 85 human RCC samples and paired non-neoplastic kidney by qPCR and immunohistochemistry, as well as in four RCC cell lines by qPCR, Western immunoblot and confocal microscopy. Contrary to expectations, ARC was significantly decreased in the majority of clear cell RCC and in three (ACHN, Caki-1 and 786-0) of the four RCC cell lines compared with the HK-2 non-cancerous human proximal tubular epithelial cell line. Inhibition of ARC with shRNA in the RCC cell line (SN12K1) that had shown increased ARC expression conferred resistance to Sunitinib, and upregulated interleukin-6 (IL-6) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). We therefore propose that decreased ARC, particularly in clear cell RCC, confers resistance to targeted therapy through restoration of tyrosine kinase-independent alternate angiogenesis pathways. Although the results are contrary to expectations from other cancer studies, they were confirmed here with multiple analytical methods. We believe the highly heterogeneous nature of cancers like RCC predicate that expression patterns of molecules must be interpreted in relation to respective matched non-neoplastic regions. In the current study, this procedure indicated that ARC is decreased in RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism*
  6. Yap NY, Yap FN, Perumal K, Rajandram R
    Biomarkers, 2019 Sep;24(6):607-614.
    PMID: 31215811 DOI: 10.1080/1354750X.2019.1634763
    Context: Metabolic imbalance in renal cell carcinoma (RCC) can lead to abnormal adiponectin levels. Objective: To evaluate circulating adiponectin as a detection or predictive marker for RCC. Methods: A comprehensive literature search and meta-analysis was performed on studies reporting circulating adiponectin levels and RCC. The meta-analysis was performed using RevMan. Results: Seven studies compared the circulating adiponection levels between RCC cases and controls. Adiponectin level was significantly lower in RCC cases compared to controls at pre-diagnosis and pre-operative time-points. RCC stage, grade and subtype did not affect adiponectin levels. Conclusion: Low circulating adiponectin could be a predictive or risk factor for RCC.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  7. Mathew A, Cheng HM, Sam CK, Joab I, Prasad U, Cochet C
    Cancer Immunol. Immunother., 1994 Jan;38(1):68-70.
    PMID: 8299121
    The BamHI Z EBV replication activator (ZEBRA) protein is involved in the switch from latency to productive cycle of Epstein-Barr virus. A recombinant ZEBRA protein was synthesized and assessed in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for serum IgG response in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients. In 100 NPC serum samples that were positive for IgA to the EBV viral capsid antigen (VCA), 75% had IgG anti-ZEBRA antibodies. In contrast, only 3/83 (3.6%) serum samples from healthy donors and 2/50 (4%) from other cancers were positive for IgG to ZEBRA. Interestingly, in a selected group of 100 NPC sera negative for IgA to VCA, 25% contained IgG anti-ZEBRA antibodies. This suggests that the ELISA for IgG anti-ZEBRA may also identify earlier cases of NPC not detected by the conventional immunofluorescence test for IgA to VCA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/immunology
  8. Yap YH, Say YH
    Cell Biol. Int., 2012 Mar 1;36(3):273-7.
    PMID: 21980981 DOI: 10.1042/CBI20110088
    Since the discovery of PrPC (cellular prion protein), most studies have focused on its role in neurodegenerative diseases, whereas its function outside the nervous system remains obscure. We investigated the ability of PrPC in resisting TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) apoptosis in three PrPC-transiently transfected cancer cell lines, renal adenocarcinoma ACHN, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 and colon adenocarcinoma LS174T. PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells had higher viabilities compared with the mock-transfected cells, while the transient overexpression of PrPC had minimal overall effect on HSC-2 cells due to its high endogenous PrPC expression. Cell cycles were also analysed, with both PrPC expressing ACHN and LS174T cells having a significantly higher proliferative index than mock-transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a G1/S-phase cell cycle transition in both PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells. PrPC resists TNFα apoptosis due to a modest, but statistically significant, cell-specific cytoprotection compared with mock-transfected cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism*
  9. Ch'ng WC, Abd-Aziz N, Ong MH, Stanbridge EJ, Shafee N
    Cell Oncol (Dordr), 2015 Aug;38(4):279-88.
    PMID: 25930675 DOI: 10.1007/s13402-015-0229-5
    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is an oncolytic virus that is known to have a higher preference to cancer cells than to normal cells. It has been proposed that this higher preference may be due to defects in the interferon (IFN) responses of cancer cells. The exact mechanism underlying this process, however, remains to be resolved. In the present study, we examined the antiviral response towards NDV infection of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) cells. ccRCC is associated with mutations of the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor gene VHL, whose protein product is important for eliciting cellular responses to changes in oxygen levels. The most common first line treatment strategy of ccRCC includes IFN. Unfortunately, most ccRCC cases are diagnosed at a late stage and often are resistant to IFN-based therapies. Alternative treatment approaches, including virotherapy using oncolytic viruses, are currently being investigated. The present study was designed to investigate the mechanistic pathways underlying the response of ccRCC cells to oncolytic NDV infection.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/genetics; Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism; Kidney Neoplasms/virology
  10. Songib NA, Nazri M, Yaakup NA, Nor HM, Sun Z
    Clin Imaging, 2013 Nov-Dec;37(6):1037-42.
    PMID: 24035803 DOI: 10.1016/j.clinimag.2013.08.005
    The aim of this study is to investigate the feasibility of eliminating the nephrographic phase from the four-phase renal computed tomography (CT) imaging to a three-phase protocol without affecting its diagnostic value. Thirty patients undergoing four-phase renal CT scans for assessment of renal lesions (>10 mm) were included in the study. A three-phase renal CT, without nephrographic phase, had similar diagnostic ability to a four-phase renal CT in the detection and characterization of renal lesions. A three-phase CT (plain, corticomedullary, and excretory phase) is therefore adequate in the clinical diagnosis of renal lesions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology; Kidney Neoplasms/radiography*
  11. Machiela MJ, Hofmann JN, Carreras-Torres R, Brown KM, Johansson M, Wang Z, et al.
    Eur. Urol., 2017 11;72(5):747-754.
    PMID: 28797570 DOI: 10.1016/j.eururo.2017.07.015
    BACKGROUND: Relative telomere length in peripheral blood leukocytes has been evaluated as a potential biomarker for renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in several studies, with conflicting findings.

    OBJECTIVE: We performed an analysis of genetic variants associated with leukocyte telomere length to assess the relationship between telomere length and RCC risk using Mendelian randomization, an approach unaffected by biases from temporal variability and reverse causation that might have affected earlier investigations.

    DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: Genotypes from nine telomere length-associated variants for 10 784 cases and 20 406 cancer-free controls from six genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of RCC were aggregated into a weighted genetic risk score (GRS) predictive of leukocyte telomere length.

    OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS AND STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: Odds ratios (ORs) relating the GRS and RCC risk were computed in individual GWAS datasets and combined by meta-analysis.

    RESULTS AND LIMITATIONS: Longer genetically inferred telomere length was associated with an increased risk of RCC (OR=2.07 per predicted kilobase increase, 95% confidence interval [CI]:=1.70-2.53, p<0.0001). As a sensitivity analysis, we excluded two telomere length variants in linkage disequilibrium (R2>0.5) with GWAS-identified RCC risk variants (rs10936599 and rs9420907) from the telomere length GRS; despite this exclusion, a statistically significant association between the GRS and RCC risk persisted (OR=1.73, 95% CI=1.36-2.21, p<0.0001). Exploratory analyses for individual histologic subtypes suggested comparable associations with the telomere length GRS for clear cell (N=5573, OR=1.93, 95% CI=1.50-2.49, p<0.0001), papillary (N=573, OR=1.96, 95% CI=1.01-3.81, p=0.046), and chromophobe RCC (N=203, OR=2.37, 95% CI=0.78-7.17, p=0.13).

    CONCLUSIONS: Our investigation adds to the growing body of evidence indicating some aspect of longer telomere length is important for RCC risk.

    PATIENT SUMMARY: Telomeres are segments of DNA at chromosome ends that maintain chromosomal stability. Our study investigated the relationship between genetic variants associated with telomere length and renal cell carcinoma risk. We found evidence suggesting individuals with inherited predisposition to longer telomere length are at increased risk of developing renal cell carcinoma.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/blood; Kidney Neoplasms/genetics*; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  12. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Chan LL
    Histopathology, 1996 Jan;28(1):49-54.
    PMID: 8838120
    Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) has been associated with chromosomal abnormalities at the 11p13, 11p15 and 16q regions. A study into the possibility of mutations occurring within p53, the ubiquitous adult tumour suppressor gene, in Wilms' tumour was carried out. Thirty-eight cases were studied. Of these 36 were categorised into the favourable histology group and two into the unfavourable histology group based on the National Wilms' Tumour Study criteria. Archival formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue sections from each case were stained with a polyclonal (AB565:Chemicon) and a monoclonal (DO7:Dako) antibody raised against p53 protein using a peroxidase-labelled streptavidin biotin kit (Dako). 'Cure' (disease-free survival of 60 months or longer) was documented in 39% of cases with favourable histology tumours. Eleven percent in this group succumbed to the disease. Both cases with unfavourable histology died. Four out of 36 (11%) tumours with favourable histology demonstrated weak to moderate staining with both AB565 and DO7 in more than 75% of tumour cells. In contrast, p53 protein expression in unfavourable histology tumours was significantly increased compared with the favourable histology group (P = 0.021) with both cases demonstrating immunopositivity in > 75% of tumour cells when stained with AB565 and DO7. The intensity of staining ranged from moderate to strong in both cases. It appears from this preliminary study that the immunohistochemical expression of p53 protein in Wilms' tumour, presumably a result of mutation in the p53 tumour suppressor gene, correlates with histological classification, histological categorisation being one of the useful features in the prognostic assessment of Wilms' tumours.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/genetics; Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*
  13. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP
    Histopathology, 1992 Oct;21(4):365-9.
    PMID: 1328018
    Eight cases of clear cell sarcoma of kidney were seen in the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia over the 16-year period from 1973 to 1989. Five of the patients were males. Six patients were Malay, one Chinese and one Indian. The patients' ages ranged from 8 months to 3 years. Clear cell sarcoma was the original diagnosis in two patients while six were diagnosed as blastemal-predominant Wilms' tumours at presentation. Metastases developed in five patients. Metastatic sites included the thoracic vertebra, skull, orbit, humerus, radius, ulna, shoulder, lung and liver. The prolonged survival, of 9 years and 9 months, seen in one patient despite omission of Adriamycin (doxorubicin) from the chemotherapeutic protocol is highlighted. We also emphasise the histological factors which are of help in differentiating clear cell sarcoma from Wilms' tumour.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*; Kidney Neoplasms/therapy
  14. Lim CT
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 May-Jun;48(3):327-8.
    PMID: 27298508 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.182875
    Oral sodium phosphate (OSP), an effective bowel purgative, is available over the counter (OTC) and requires a substantially lower volume than polyethylene glycol-based preparative agents. Rarely, OSP consumption has been associated with acute hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. We describe a case of chronic kidney disease patient developing symptomatic hypocalcemia following OTC OSP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*
  15. Hui Min Chong, Shien Yee Ng
    MyJurnal
    The case report describes the presentation of a 19-year old female with tuberous sclerosis who presented with progressive dyspnoea over 2 days.
    Chest radiograph revealed bilateral pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed features of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and bilateral renal angiomyolipomas. The coexistence of both conditions may cause devastating morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  16. Christakoudi S, Kakourou A, Markozannes G, Tzoulaki I, Weiderpass E, Brennan P, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2019 Jul 18.
    PMID: 31319002 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.32576
    Several studies have reported associations of hypertension with cancer, but not all results were conclusive. We examined the association of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure with the development of incident cancer at all anatomical sites in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC). Hazard ratios (HRs) (95% confidence intervals) were estimated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, stratified by EPIC-participating center and age at recruitment, and adjusted for sex, education, smoking, body mass index, physical activity, diabetes and dietary (in women also reproductive) factors. The study included 307,318 men and women, with an average follow-up of 13.7 (standard deviation 4.4) years and 39,298 incident cancers. We confirmed the expected positive association with renal cell carcinoma: HR = 1.12 (1.08-1.17) per 10 mm Hg higher SBP and HR = 1.23 (1.14-1.32) for DBP. We additionally found positive associations for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC): HR = 1.16 (1.07-1.26) (SBP), HR = 1.31 (1.13-1.51) (DBP), weaker for head and neck cancers: HR = 1.08 (1.04-1.12) (SBP), HR = 1.09 (1.01-1.17) (DBP) and, similarly, for skin SCC, colon cancer, postmenopausal breast cancer and uterine adenocarcinoma (AC), but not for esophageal AC, lung SCC, lung AC or uterine endometroid cancer. We observed weak inverse associations of SBP with cervical SCC: HR = 0.91 (0.82-1.00) and lymphomas: HR = 0.97 (0.93-1.00). There were no consistent associations with cancers in other locations. Our results are largely compatible with published studies and support weak associations of blood pressure with cancers in specific locations and morphologies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  17. Wozniak MB, Brennan P, Brenner DR, Overvad K, Olsen A, Tjønneland A, et al.
    Int. J. Cancer, 2015 Oct 15;137(8):1953-66.
    PMID: 25866035 DOI: 10.1002/ijc.29559
    Epidemiologic studies have reported that moderate alcohol consumption is inversely associated with the risk of renal cancer. However, there is no information available on the associations in renal cancer subsites. From 1992 through to 2010, 477,325 men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition cohort were followed for incident renal cancers (n = 931). Baseline and lifetime alcohol consumption was assessed by country-specific, validated dietary questionnaires. Information on past alcohol consumption was collected by lifestyle questionnaires. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated from Cox proportional hazard models. In multivariate analysis, total alcohol consumption at baseline was inversely associated with renal cancer; the HR and 95% CI for the increasing categories of total alcohol consumption at recruitment versus the light drinkers category were 0.78 (0.62-0.99), 0.82 (0.64-1.04), 0.70 (0.55-0.90), 0.91 (0.63-1.30), respectively, (ptrend  = 0.001). A similar relationship was observed for average lifetime alcohol consumption and for all renal cancer subsites combined or for renal parenchyma subsite. The trend was not observed in hypertensive individuals and not significant in smokers. In conclusion, moderate alcohol consumption was associated with a decreased risk of renal cancer.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/etiology*; Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology*
  18. Tan GC, Prasad V
    Int. J. Surg. Pathol., 2018 Feb;26(1):34.
    PMID: 28508688 DOI: 10.1177/1066896917709946
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*
  19. Koh, P.S., Muhilan, P., Dublin, N., Razack, A.H.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(1):39-43.
    MyJurnal
    Renal angiomyolipoma, once considered a rare benign renal tumour, is relatively common these days. They account for 0.3-3.0% of all renal masses. Histologically, it is composed of adipose tissue, smooth muscles and blood vessels. Here, we wish to highlight five cases of renal angiomyolipomas which were presented to the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a two-year period between June 2005 and June 2007. This study wish to illustrate its varied clinical presentation and the management undertaken for each underlying condition. These cases were presented in the form of spontaneous perirenal haemorrhage, a large asymptomatic renal mass, a small asymptomatic renal mass, a symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma and a case of renal angiomyolipoma mimicking a renal tumour. Each of these cases varied in its clinical presentation; thus, management has become very challenging to clinicians ranging from conservative management to active intervention, be it operatively or non-operatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  20. Ng, Christina
    JUMMEC, 2010;13(1):19-23.
    MyJurnal
    The clinical experience of the novel drug temsirolimus on eight patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma and who were refractory to other forms of treatment is reported. Although none of the patients showed complete or partial response, three patients had stable disease. One patient was prematurely withdrawn due to pneumonitis. Five patients died during the period of observation of twenty months and the median survival time from start of treatment was ten months. Three patients showed no evidence of adverse events (AE). Five patients showed dyslipidemia and two had pneumonitis for which, the drug had to be withdrawn in one of them. None had significant leucopenia. We conclude that temsirolimus has activity even in heavily pretreated patients in advanced renal cell carcinoma and in addition, has the benefits of ease of administration and good tolerability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
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