Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 74 in total

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  1. Cheah PL, Looi LM, Lin HP
    Malays J Pathol, 1992 Dec;14(2):111-5.
    PMID: 1338998
    Formerly thought to have a constant incidence rate throughout the world, Wilms' tumour (nephroblastoma) has been shown to be less common among Asian children. A retrospective demographic and morphological study of Wilms' tumour histologically diagnosed over a 22-year period at the Department of Pathology, University Hospital, Kuala Lumpur was conducted to assess for inherent demographic and morphological differences between tumours in Malaysian children and those of Western populations. Thirty-seven cases of histologically proven Wilms' tumour qualified for inclusion in this study. 19 patients were Chinese, 13 Malay, 4 Indian and 1 Anglo-asian. 21 were male and 16 were female (M:F ratio = 1.3:1). Their ages ranged from 1 month to 4 years. 70.3% of the patients were below 2 years of age. 36 cases had unilateral and 1 bilateral tumours. Of unilateral tumours, 19 involved the left kidney and 17 the right. Histological assessment, based on criteria of the National Wilms' Tumor Study Group, revealed 20 (52.6%) tumours with a mixed pattern while 8 (21.1%) showed epithelial, 7 (18.4%) blastemal and 3 (7.8%) stromal-predominant patterns. Anaplasia was observed in only 2 tumours (5.3%). There was no obvious difference in age range and sex distribution, laterality of tumours and incidence of anaplasia between this and Western studies. No ethnic predilection was observed. A notably larger percentage of cases were below 2 years of age. Also, a larger proportion of epithelial-predominant and a lower proportion of blastemal-predominant tumours was observed compared with patterns reported from Western populations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/epidemiology; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*
  2. Son HJ, Lee H, Kim JH, Yu IK, Han HY
    Malays J Pathol, 2018 Apr;40(1):73-78.
    PMID: 29704388
    Progressively transformed germinal centers (PTGC) is a benign process characterised by a morphological variant of reactive follicular hyperplasia in lymph nodes. It was recently shown that some cases of PTGC are associated with IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) or increased IgG4 plasma cells. Five years ago, a 57-year-old woman presented with enlargement of multiple lymph nodes in the left parotid, submandibular, and neck areas, pathologically diagnosed as PTGC after excisional biopsy. Since then, she has experienced numbness in her extremities, especially the left shoulder and arm, pruritus on the left side of the face and intermittent facial palsy, for which she has been receiving regular symptomatic treatment. Recently the patient developed diabetes mellitus (approximately seven months ago). In routine follow-up scans, a mass was detected in left kidney and magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen prior to surgery revealed a slightly enhanced bulky mass replacing the pancreatic tail and uncinate process. The mass in left kidney was diagnosed as clear cell renal cell carcinoma, and the pathological features of the pancreatic lesion were those of IgG4-related chronic fibrosing pancreatitis. Retrograde examination of the neck lymph node diagnosed as PTGC showed increased deposition of IgG4-positive plasma cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
  3. Rajandram R, Yap NY, Pailoor J, Razack AH, Ng KL, Ong TA, et al.
    Pathology, 2014 Oct;46(6):518-22.
    PMID: 25158810 DOI: 10.1097/PAT.0000000000000145
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) generally has a poor prognosis because of late diagnosis and metastasis. We have previously described decreased tumour necrosis factor receptor-associated factor-1 (TRAF-1) in RCC compared with paired normal kidney in a patient cohort in Australia. In the present study, TRAF-1 expression in clear cell RCC (ccRCC) and normal kidney was again compared, but in a cohort from University Malaya Medical Centre. Serum TRAF-1 was also evaluated in RCC and normal samples.Immunohistochemistry with automated batch staining and Aperio ImageScope morphometry was used to compare TRAF-1 in 61 ccRCC with paired normal kidney tissue. Serum from 15 newly diagnosed and untreated ccRCC and 15 healthy people was tested for TRAF-1 using ELISA.In this cohort, TRAF-1 was highly expressed in proximal tubular epithelium of normal kidney, and significantly decreased in ccRCC tissue (p 
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  4. Hui Min Chong, Shien Yee Ng
    MyJurnal
    The case report describes the presentation of a 19-year old female with tuberous sclerosis who presented with progressive dyspnoea over 2 days.
    Chest radiograph revealed bilateral pneumothorax. Computed tomography showed features of pulmonary lymphangioleiomyomatosis and bilateral renal angiomyolipomas. The coexistence of both conditions may cause devastating morbidity and mortality.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  5. Segasothy M, Yi AA, Mohamed S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1983 Jun;38(2):94-7.
    PMID: 6621453
    Tuberous sclerosis is a disease with a well known association with renal masses, both cysts and angiomyolipomas. Reported here is a case of a 26 year old woman who had, in addition to angiomyolipomas of the kidneys, adenoma sebaceum, paraungual fibromas, shagreen patches and cerebral tubers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/radiography
  6. Lim NK, Aik OT, Meng LL, Htun TH, Razack AH
    J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 2014 Mar;24 Suppl 1:S68-70.
    PMID: 24718014 DOI: 03.2014/JCPSP.S68S70
    Superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS) is a debilitating condition attributed to malignancy in more than 70% of cases. However, solitary head and neck metastases arising from renal cell carcinomas without evidence of disease elsewhere are rare. We report a case of renal cell carcinoma presenting as a rapidly growing right cervical lymph node with compression on the subclavian vein causing superior vena caval syndrome (SVCS). There was pulmonary embolism as well. Biopsy of the neck mass confirmed metastatic clear cell carcinoma with primary found in the (L) kidney. The patient had partial response to focussed radiotherapy to neck mass and Sunitinib (tyrosine kinase inhibitor) before succumbing to the disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  7. Priyanka G, Poh EY, Yeong SS
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2013 Dec;68(6):473-4.
    PMID: 24632917
    Angiomyolipomas (AML) are the most common mesenchymal renal neoplasms arising in the cortex or medulla. Intra-renal and retroperitoneal hemorrhages have been frequently reported. AML can exceptionally involve the renal vein and inferior vena cava. We report a case with extension into the inferior vena cava.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  8. Koh KB, Wightman JA, George J
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1996 Mar;51(1):148-50.
    PMID: 10967998
    Five cases of renal angiomyolipoma which underwent spontaneous rupture are described. These patients presented as an "acute abdomen" for which the diagnosis was not initially apparent. A high index of suspicion is required to make the diagnosis even with modern imaging techniques. The treatment of these tumours is discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis*
  9. Davoudi ET, bin-Noordin MI, Javar HA, Kadivar A, Sabeti B
    Pak J Pharm Sci, 2014 Jan;27(1):203-8.
    PMID: 24374450
    Cancer is among most important causes of death in recent decades. Whoever the renal cell carcinoma incidence is low but it seems it is more complicated than the other cancers in terms of pathophysiology and treatments. The purpose of this work is to provide an overview and also deeper insight to renal cell carcinoma and the steps which have been taken to reach more specific treatment and target therapy, in this type of cancer by developing most effective agents such as Sorafenib. To achieve this goal hundreds of research paper and published work has been overviewed and due to limitation of space in a paper just focus in most important points on renal cell carcinoma, treatment of RCC and clinical development of Sorafenib. The information presented this paper shows the advanced of human knowledge to provide more efficient drug in treatment of some complicated cancer such as RCC in promising much better future to fight killing disease.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy*
  10. Lim CT
    Indian J Pharmacol, 2016 May-Jun;48(3):327-8.
    PMID: 27298508 DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.182875
    Oral sodium phosphate (OSP), an effective bowel purgative, is available over the counter (OTC) and requires a substantially lower volume than polyethylene glycol-based preparative agents. Rarely, OSP consumption has been associated with acute hypocalcemia and hyperphosphatemia. We describe a case of chronic kidney disease patient developing symptomatic hypocalcemia following OTC OSP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*
  11. Ariffin H, Muthukkumaran T, Stanslas J, Sabariah AR, Veerasekaran N, Lin HP
    Leuk. Lymphoma, 2005 Aug;46(8):1233-7.
    PMID: 16085568
    We report the clinical features and in vitro chemosensitivity assay findings of a 13-year-old girl who developed secondary B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) 7 years after a diagnosis of Wilms' tumor. The patient was treated using the Berlin - Frankfurt - Muenster (BFM) ALL chemotherapy protocol with poor response to initial therapy before succumbing to sepsis. An in vitro chemosensitivity assay on her peripheral blood lymphoblasts was performed while she was undergoing induction therapy and showed a high level of resistance to drugs commonly used for ALL therapy, e.g. steroids, anthracyclines, vincristine and L-asparaginase. The mechanism of chemoresistance was not elicited, but was probably not related to P-glycoprotein (P-gp) over-expression. We believe that the in vitro chemosensitivity assay is a good indicator of cellular response to chemotherapy and may provide reliable information for the basis of the selection of drugs to be used for the treatment of similarly rare patients rather than relying on "standard" protocols.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis; Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy
  12. Perumal K, Huin WK, Yap NY, Ong TA, Gobe GC, Rajandram R
    Med. Hypotheses, 2019 Aug;129:109239.
    PMID: 31371068 DOI: 10.1016/j.mehy.2019.109239
    Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is the commonest from of renal neoplasm. Although surgery is a successful curative treatment for localized RCC, most patients are diagnosed with advanced or metastatic RCC, which has poor prognosis. RCC is classified by stage and grade using tissue samples. Whilst these provide good prognostic information, they are not very useful for early detection. Proteins that are dysregulated in patient's serum can be a valuable alternative and less invasive biomarker for early detection of the disease. For this reason, a hypothesis was formed that leptin is a possible biomarker for early detection and prognostication of RCC. The literature has disparate results on the usefulness of leptin as a biomarker for the early detection of RCC. Hence, a systematic review and a meta-analysis was carried out to investigate whether serum leptin could be a reliable diagnostic and prognostic factor in RCC patients. Literature on the available cohort and case-control studies on serum leptin in RCC was searched in electronic databases and included to evaluate this adipokine in the progression of RCC. The relevant studies were evaluated for the diagnostic and prognostic value of leptin in RCC patients. Overall, only 6 original research studies matched selection criteria and were included for meta-analysis. This study was hypothesised that; leptin might be a useful biomarker for early detection and prognostication of RCC. However, the data were presented in this study did not support our hypothesis. Serum leptin levels in RCC patients do not strongly associate with the development or progression of RCC, thus cannot act as a biomarker for early detection in RCC in patients. Extending our hypothesis further to include levels of obesity and RCC development may be worthwhile, but studies are currently limited.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  13. Yap YH, Say YH
    Cell Biol. Int., 2012 Mar 1;36(3):273-7.
    PMID: 21980981 DOI: 10.1042/CBI20110088
    Since the discovery of PrPC (cellular prion protein), most studies have focused on its role in neurodegenerative diseases, whereas its function outside the nervous system remains obscure. We investigated the ability of PrPC in resisting TNFα (tumour necrosis factor α) apoptosis in three PrPC-transiently transfected cancer cell lines, renal adenocarcinoma ACHN, oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-2 and colon adenocarcinoma LS174T. PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells had higher viabilities compared with the mock-transfected cells, while the transient overexpression of PrPC had minimal overall effect on HSC-2 cells due to its high endogenous PrPC expression. Cell cycles were also analysed, with both PrPC expressing ACHN and LS174T cells having a significantly higher proliferative index than mock-transfected cells. Flow cytometry analysis indicated a G1/S-phase cell cycle transition in both PrPC-expressing ACHN and LS174T cells. PrPC resists TNFα apoptosis due to a modest, but statistically significant, cell-specific cytoprotection compared with mock-transfected cells.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/metabolism*
  14. Wong KW
    BMJ Case Rep, 2015 Jan 16;2015.
    PMID: 25596289 DOI: 10.1136/bcr-2014-208060
    We report a case of renal cell carcinoma diagnosed after a patient was treated successfully with intravenous cyclophosphamide for her active proliferative lupus nephritis (classes III and V). After the intravenous cyclophosphamide regimen, the patient was asymptomatic with persistent microscopic haematuria, and no proteinuria. The renal cell carcinoma was located on the left kidney; incidentally, this was where the initial renal biopsy was done to diagnose lupus nephritis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/diagnosis
  15. Azarisman SM, Nor Azmi K
    Singapore Med J, 2007 Aug;48(8):779-82.
    PMID: 17657389
    A 39-year-old man was diagnosed with von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, which was associated with retinal haemangioblastoma, cervical cord haemangioblastoma and bilateral renal cell carcinoma. He subsequently underwent an arterial embolisation and cervical laminectomy, following a spinal angiogram of the cervical lesion. He also had a right radical nephrectomy, with no perioperative complications. However, on admission for the left radical nephrectomy, he was noted to have preoperative hypertension. Further investigation revealed an enlarged left adrenal gland on abdominal computed tomography scan and raised urinary catecholamines. We discuss the risk of renal cell carcinoma and phaeochromocytoma arising concomitantly in von Hippel-Lindau syndrome, and how best to investigate and manage them.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/complications*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  16. Koh, P.S., Muhilan, P., Dublin, N., Razack, A.H.
    JUMMEC, 2009;12(1):39-43.
    MyJurnal
    Renal angiomyolipoma, once considered a rare benign renal tumour, is relatively common these days. They account for 0.3-3.0% of all renal masses. Histologically, it is composed of adipose tissue, smooth muscles and blood vessels. Here, we wish to highlight five cases of renal angiomyolipomas which were presented to the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, over a two-year period between June 2005 and June 2007. This study wish to illustrate its varied clinical presentation and the management undertaken for each underlying condition. These cases were presented in the form of spontaneous perirenal haemorrhage, a large asymptomatic renal mass, a small asymptomatic renal mass, a symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma and a case of renal angiomyolipoma mimicking a renal tumour. Each of these cases varied in its clinical presentation; thus, management has become very challenging to clinicians ranging from conservative management to active intervention, be it operatively or non-operatively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  17. Haritharan T, Sritharan S, Bhimji S
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2006 Oct;61(4):493-5.
    PMID: 17243531 MyJurnal
    Renal angiomyolipomas are innocuous benign tumours which rarely behave aggressively. This is a case of a 48 year old Malay lady presenting with right sided abdominal pain associated with a large right sided abdominal mass. She was diagnosed with renal angiomyolipoma of the right kidney complicated by inferior vena caval tumour thrombosis. She successfully underwent a radical nephrectomy and inferior vena caval thrombectomy using cardiopulmonary bypass and deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/pathology*; Kidney Neoplasms/surgery
  18. Lim, Pei Shan, Ng, BK, Rozman, Z, Nirmala K, Shuhaila A, Omar MH
    MyJurnal
    Renal angiomyolipoma is a rare disease seen during pregnancy. Rupture of renal angiomyolipoma could be catastrophic and might result in maternal and even perinatal mortality. Management includes conservative vs surgical approach. A 29-year-old woman Para 2 with history of bleeding renal angiomyolipoma in her first pregnancy at 11 weeks treated with selective arterial embolisation. The pregnancy was terminated. Even though having small residual tumour, her subsequent pregnancy progressed well with conservative management. Intervention is advisable in the presence of large or symptomatic renal angiomyolipoma prior to pregnancy in order to minimise potential life-threatening haemorrhage during pregnancy. For those with small tumour of less than 4cm, perhaps conservative approaches i.e. frequent follow-up and close monitoring would assist in early identification of any rupture or bleeding.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  19. Tiang KW, Ng KL, Vega-Vega A, Wood S
    J Kidney Cancer VHL, 2014;1(1):12-16.
    PMID: 28326245 DOI: 10.15586/jkcvhl.2014.6
    Urological tumors diagnosed during pregnancy are rare. However, the incidence seems to be increasing largely due to advancements in modern imaging techniques and improved antenatal care. The diagnosis and management of renal tumors during pregnancy poses a dilemma to clinicians. This case report highlights the challenges in managing a large chromophobe renal cell carcinoma in a young primigravida patient. Proper antenatal assessment, a multidisciplinary team approach and appropriate discussion with patient are important determinants to achieve the best clinical outcomes for both the mother and the baby.
    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms
  20. Sasongko TH, Ismail NF, Zabidi-Hussin Z
    Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2016 Jul 13;7:CD011272.
    PMID: 27409709 DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011272.pub2
    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown potential benefits of rapamycin or rapalogs for treating people with tuberous sclerosis complex. Although everolimus (a rapalog) is currently approved by the FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) and the EMA (European Medicines Agency) for tuberous sclerosis complex-associated renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma, applications for other manifestations of tuberous sclerosis complex have not yet been established. A systematic review is necessary to establish the clinical value of rapamycin or rapalogs for various manifestations in tuberous sclerosis complex.

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex for decreasing tumour size and other manifestations and to assess the safety of rapamycin or rapalogs in relation to their adverse effects.

    SEARCH METHODS: Relevant studies were identified by authors from the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE, and clinicaltrials.gov. Relevant resources were also searched by the authors, such as conference proceedings and abstract books of conferences, from e.g. the Tuberous Sclerosis Complex International Research Conferences, other tuberous sclerosis complex-related conferences and the Human Genome Meeting. We did not restrict the searches by language as long as English translations were available for non-English reports.Date of the last searches: 14 March 2016.

    SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomized or quasi-randomized studies of rapamycin or rapalogs in people with tuberous sclerosis complex.

    DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Data were independently extracted by two authors using standard acquisition forms. The data collection was verified by one author. The risk of bias of each study was independently assessed by two authors and verified by one author.

    MAIN RESULTS: Three placebo-controlled studies with a total of 263 participants (age range 0.8 to 61 years old, 122 males and 141 females, with variable lengths of study duration) were included in the review. We found high-quality evidence except for response to skin lesions which was judged to be low quality due to the risk of attrition bias. Overall, there are 175 participants in the treatment arm (rapamycin or everolimus) and 88 in the placebo arm. Participants all had tuberous sclerosis complex as proven by consensus diagnostic criteria as a minimum. The quality in the description of the study methods was mixed, although we assessed most domains as having a low risk of bias. Blinding of treatment arms was successfully carried out in all of the studies. However, two studies did not report allocation concealment. Two of the included studies were funded by Novartis Pharmaceuticals.Two studies (235 participants) used oral (systemic) administration of everolimus (rapalog). These studies reported response to tumour size in terms of the number of individuals with a reduction in the total volume of tumours to 50% or more relative to baseline. Significantly more participants in the treatment arm (two studies, 162 participants, high quality evidence) achieved a 50% reduction in renal angiomyolipoma size, risk ratio 24.69 (95% confidence interval 3.51 to 173.41) (P = 0.001). For the sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma, our analysis of one study (117 participants, high quality evidence) showed significantly more participants in the treatment arm achieved a 50% reduction in tumour size, risk ratio 27.85 (95% confidence interval 1.74 to 444.82) (P = 0.02). The proportion of participants who showed a skin response from the two included studies analysed was significantly increased in the treatment arms, risk ratio 5.78 (95% confidence interval 2.30 to 14.52) (P = 0.0002) (two studies, 224 participants, high quality evidence). In one study (117 participants), the median change of seizure frequency was -2.9 in 24 hours (95% confidence interval -4.0 to -1.0) in the treatment group versus -4.1 in 24 hour (95% confidence interval -10.9 to 5.8) in the placebo group. In one study, one out of 79 participants in the treatment group versus three of 39 in placebo group had increased blood creatinine levels, while the median percentage change of forced expiratory volume at one second in the treatment arm was -1% compared to -4% in the placebo arm. In one study (117 participants, high quality evidence), we found that those participants who received treatment had a similar risk of experiencing adverse events compared to those who did not, risk ratio 1.07 (95% confidence interval 0.96 - 1.20) (P = 0.24). However, as seen from two studies (235 participants, high quality evidence), the treatment itself led to significantly more adverse events resulting in withdrawal, interruption of treatment, or reduction in dose level, risk ratio 3.14 (95% confidence interval 1.82 to 5.42) (P < 0.0001).One study (28 participants) used topical (skin) administration of rapamycin. This study reported response to skin lesions in terms of participants' perception towards their skin appearance following the treatment. There was a tendency of an improvement in the participants' perception of their skin appearance, although not significant, risk ratio 1.81 (95% confidence interval 0.80 to 4.06, low quality evidence) (P = 0.15). This study reported that there were no serious adverse events related to the study product and there was no detectable systemic absorption of the rapamycin during the study period.

    AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: We found evidence that oral everolimus significantly increased the proportion of people who achieved a 50% reduction in the size of sub-ependymal giant cell astrocytoma and renal angiomyolipoma. Although we were unable to ascertain the relationship between the reported adverse events and the treatment, participants who received treatment had a similar risk of experiencing adverse events as compared to those who did not receive treatment. Nevertheless, the treatment itself significantly increased the risk of having dose reduction, interruption or withdrawal. This supports ongoing clinical applications of oral everolimus for renal angiomyolipoma and subependymal giant cell astrocytoma. Although oral everolimus showed beneficial effect on skin lesions, topical rapamycin only showed a non-significant tendency of improvement. Efficacy on skin lesions should be further established in future research. The beneficial effects of rapamycin or rapalogs on tuberous sclerosis complex should be further studied on other manifestations of the condition.

    Matched MeSH terms: Kidney Neoplasms/drug therapy*; Kidney Neoplasms/pathology
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