Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 613 in total

  1. de Barjac H, Sebald M, Charles JF, Cheong WH, Lee HL
    C. R. Acad. Sci. III, Sci. Vie, 1990;310(9):383-7.
    PMID: 1972899
    A strain of Clostridium bifermentans individualized as serovar malaysia (C.b.m.) according to its specific H antigen is toxic to mosquito and blackfly larvae when given orally. The toxicity occurs in sporulated cells which contain, in addition to spores, proteinic parasporal inclusion bodies and feather-like appendages; the amino acid content of the inclusion bodies is similar to that of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B.t.i.) and B. sphaericus crystals. The toxicity to Anopheles stephensi is as high as that of B.t.i. and the best strains of B. sphaericus. Culex pipiens is somewhat less susceptible, and Aedes aegypti much less. Pure parasporal inclusion bodies, isolated by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients, are highly toxic to mosquito larvae. The larvicidal power is destroyed by heating at 80 degrees C or by treatment with 50 mM NaOH. It is preserved by freeze-drying. The innocuity to mice of the sporulated cells is shown by different routes of administration: force-feeding, percutaneous, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. The potential for the biological control of mosquito and blackfly larvae is suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/microbiology
  2. Zurina M, Idris A, Mohamad Roff M
    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) merupakan spesies lalat putih utama dan berbahaya kepada pertanian. Kajian telah dijalankan di Stesen MARDI Jalan Kebun, Klang, Selangor dari 9 September 2006 hingga 11 November 2007. Objektif kajian ini adalah untuk menilai kesan populasi lalat putih terhadap tanaman cili yang diberi kadar nitrogen yang berbeza (0, 33, 43, 53 g/pokok). Keputusan kajian menunjukkan pokok cili yang dibaja dengan kadar nitrogen yang tinggi menyebabkan peningkatan yang bererti (P<0.05) kepada populasi B. tabaci peringkat belum matang berbanding pada pokok cili yang dibajakan nitrogen pada kadar rendah. Min bilangan B. tabaci pada peringkat belum matang per aras kanopi adalah berbeza secara signifikan (P<0.05) antara aras kanopi dan antara perlakuan. Secara amnya, min bilangan telur dan larva B. tabaci adalah lebih tinggi secara bererti (P<0.05) pada aras kanopi atas berbanding tengah dan bawah. Walau bagaimanapun, min bilangan pupa B. tabaci adalah tinggi secara signifikan (P<0.05) pada aras kanopi bawah berbanding aras kanopi atas dan tengah. Min bilangan B. tabaci pada peringkat belum matang adalah berbeza secara bererti (P<0,05) mengikut minggu selepas pokok cili ditanam pada semua perlakuan. Secara amnya, populasi B. tabaci lebih tinggi semasa awal musim penanaman dan menurun selepasnya hingga ke akhir musim kecuali pada minggu ketiga dan ketujuh selepas pokok cili di tanam.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  3. Zulkifli AN, Zakeri HA, Azmi WA
    J Insect Sci, 2018 Sep 01;18(5).
    PMID: 30285257 DOI: 10.1093/jisesa/iey093
    The red palm weevil (RPW), Rhynchophorus ferrugineus Olivier (Coleoptera: Dryophthoridae) is one of the most dangerous pests of major cultivated palms including coconut, oil palm, and sago. The larval stage of the weevil causes the most destruction of the palms as it completely destroys the palm cabbage. In this study, the larvae were given three different diets-coconut cabbage, oil palm cabbage, and sago stem, under laboratory conditions for food consumption and developmental time experiment. The protein profiles of the digestive systems of the larvae fed on these three diets were also determined. Although the coconut diet was the most consumed by RPW larvae compared to oil palm and sago diets, the growth rate of RPW larvae on oil palm diet was however significantly shorter than those on the coconut and sago diets: the RPW only need 1 mo and 9 d to complete the larval duration. Proteins profiling of eight 2-DE gel protein spots that range 50-20 kDa were identified by mass spectrometry sequence analysis. Based on the Matrix Science Software, the most dominant protein was cationic trypsin. However, based on the NCBI BLAST tool, aminopeptidase N was the most dominant enzyme. This finding can lead to the development of pest control strategies based on the antinutritional protease inhibitors as potential biocontrol agents. Urgent action to find effective control methods should be taken seriously as this weevil is presumed to be one of the serious pests of oil palm industry in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Larva/metabolism; Larva/physiology
  4. Zuharah WF, Fadzly N, Lester PJ
    J Med Entomol, 2013 Sep;50(5):1014-24.
    PMID: 24180106
    The presence of predators can have dramatic consequences on prey communities, not only by the direct effects of consumption but also through sublethal effects. We investigated the survival rate and subsequent life history of the mosquito Culex pervigilans Bergroth under the influence of its major predator, the backswimmer Anisops wakefieldi White. We established a field experiment with various treatments: 1) control without predators, 2) free-roaming A. wakefieldi (with one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi per container), 3) caged A. wakefieldi (empty cage without predators, with one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi in each cage, and 4) A. wakefieldi cues (with cues concentrations of one, three, or nine A. wakefieldi). Cx. pervigilans eggs were then taken from these four experimental treatments and reared in two different laboratory conditions: 1) in clean water without any traces of predators, or 2) in water with the same treatments as in field. The survival rate of Cx. pervigilans was significantly reduced by the presence of predators or their cues. Even after a brief exposure to waters containing predators or residual cues, the subsequent progeny and the ontogeny of the remaining survivors were still affected. The percentage of eggs that hatched, and the resulting mosquito population, was influenced by the presence of predators or their cues. Our results suggest that sublethal effects may be carried by surviving individuals primarily through the effects of stress, perhaps by epigenetic mechanisms. We may expect to observe similar plasticity in species or populations with high temporal or spatial variability in predation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Larva/physiology
  5. Zuharah WF, Ahbirami R, Dieng H, Thiagaletchumi M, Fadzly N
    PMID: 27253746 DOI: 10.1590/S1678-9946201658044
    Plant derived insecticides have considerable potential for mosquito control because these products are safer than conventional insecticides. This study aimed to investigate sublethal activities of Ipomoea carica or railway creeper crude acethonilic extract against life history trait of dengue vectors, Aedes albopictus and Aedes aegypti. The late third instar larvae of Ae. albopictus and Ae. aegypti were exposed to a sublethal dose at LC50 and larvae that survived were further cultured. Overall, Ipomea cairica crude extracts affected the whole life history of both Aedes species. The study demonstrated significantly lower egg production (fecundity) and eggs hatchability (fertility) in Ae. albopictus. The sublethal dose of crude extracts reduced significantly the width of larval head capsule and the wing length of both sexes in both Aedes species. The significance of sublethal effects of I. cairica against Aedes mosquitoes was an additional hallmark to demonstrate further activity of this plant despite its direct toxicity to the larvae. The reduced reproductive capacity as well as morphological and physiological anomalies are some of the effects that make I. cairica a potential candidate to be used as a new plant-based insecticide to control dengue vectors.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  6. Zuharah WF, Fadzly N, Ali Y, Zakaria R, Juperi S, Asyraf M, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2014 Jun;31(2):297-304.
    PMID: 25134898 MyJurnal
    Vector-borne diseases are still rife because of the re-emergence of diseases transmitted by mosquitoes. The objective of this paper is to evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of crude leaf extract of Mangifera indica, Gluta renghas, and Melanochyla fasciculiflora against vector of dengue hemorrhagic fever, Aedes aegypti. These plant species are endemic species and widely distributed in Malaysian forests. Leaves of Ma. indica, G. renghas and M. fascculiflora were collected from Teluk Bahang National Park, Penang Malaysia. Fractions of leaves were segregated, air-dried, powdered and extracted using Soxhlet with methanol. The solvent was removed by using rotary evaporator to obtain the crude extract. Using WHO standard larval bioassay test method, third instar larvae of Aedes aegypti were exposed to concentration ranging from 200- 4500 ppm of methanol extract for all plant species. Larval mortality was observed after 24 hours exposure. The highest susceptibility and toxicity was recorded by Mangifera indica with the lowest concentration at 800 ppm followed by M. fasciculiflora and G. renghas. This indicates that crude plant extract is very effective in killing Ae. aegypti mosquitoes. This finding may lead to new low cost alternative, environmentally friendly method for mosquito control programs. To our knowledge, this is the first report on larvicidal bioefficacy from endemic Malaysian plants.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects
  7. Zuhainy Ahmad Zhaki, Nazri Che Dom, Ibrahim Ahmed Alhothily
    Vector surveillance in high-rise buildings is important to predict and monitor the presence of vectors regarding their abundance and distribution. In this study, the infestation profile of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus species in different environmental settings were investigated. Methods: Four high-rise apartments in four different localities were selected for ovitrap surveillance. Fifty ovitraps were placed in semi indoor and outdoor settings. Results: A total of 507 (42.8%) from ovitraps showed the presence of the Aedes species larvae. Out of these, 170 (33.5%) of the positive ovitraps were those placed in semi indoor and 337 (66.5%) in outdoor. Of the total 16,613 Aedes larvae found, 4,130 (24.9%) were from semi indoor, and 12,483 (75.1%) from outdoor. In terms of distribution, Ae. albopictus was predominantly found in outdoor environments (POI=87.5%; MLT=36.45 larvae). Ae. aegypti was also found in outdoor environments (POI=14.89%; MLT=8.26 larvae). There was a significant difference in POI for both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in the two different environments but no significant difference was observed in MLT, indicating that the density of the Aedes species in both environments was well distributed. Conclusion: In this study, the patterns of Aedes habitat in high-rise apartments were observed. This study has shown an invasion and adaptation of Aedes mosquitoes into the ecosystems of high-rise buildings. It can be concluded that housing designs and the condition of the surrounding environment affects the infestation profile and the distribution of Aedes mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  8. Zuha RM, Omar B
    Parasitol Res, 2014 Jun;113(6):2285-94.
    PMID: 24728523 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-014-3883-z
    Cosmopolitan scuttle fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) (Diptera: Phoridae) is one of the commonest forensic species recorded colonizing human corpse indoors and in concealed environment. The occurrence of this species in such environments provides a higher evidential value to assist estimation of postmortem interval (PMI) compared to other forensically important dipterans. However, developmental and size data of M. scalaris are still lacking and they are derived from a limited range of thermal values. The objective of this study is to develop the growth model of M. scalaris by emphasizing the size range of larvae and puparia at different constant temperatures. This species was reared in six replicates at eight varying constant temperatures ranging from 23 to 36 °C and cow's liver was provided as food source. Larvae and puparia were sampled at set time intervals and measured by their length and weight. Because interpretation of forensic entomological evidence is subject to application of different techniques, development of M. scalaris is expressed herein by using developmental table, length/morphological stage diagrams and linear/nonlinear estimation methods. From the findings, it is very important to highlight that sexual dimorphism of M. scalaris during post feeding larva and pupa stage could be observed based on size and developmental periods. Mean length and weight ratios of male to female puparia are approximately 0.8 and 0.3-0.5, respectively, indicating sexual dimorphism of this species. Developmental period in female are 4.0-11.4 h (post feeding larval stage), 3.7-24.0 h (pupal stage), and 3.0-20.1 h (total developmental period) longer in male. Due to this dimorphism, PMI estimation using M. scalaris post feeding larva or puparium specimens must be carried out carefully by to avoid inaccuracy and misinterpretation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Larva/physiology
  9. Zuha RM, Razak TA, Ahmad NW, Omar B
    Parasitol Res, 2012 Nov;111(5):2179-87.
    PMID: 22886544 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-012-3070-z
    In forensic entomology, breeding of fly larvae in a controlled laboratory environment using animal tissue is a common technique to obtain insect developmental time for the estimation of postmortem interval. Previous studies on growth media are mostly on the effect of different diets on fly development. However, the interaction effects between temperature and food type used have not been explored. The objective of this study was to compare the use of cow's liver agar and raw liver on the development of a forensically important fly, Megaselia scalaris (Loew). This study also determined the interaction between different temperatures and different food types on the growth of this species. A total of 100 M. scalaris eggs were transferred into each of the two media mentioned above. Liver agar was prepared by adding dried ground liver into nutrient agar, whilst raw liver was naturally prepared from the same animal source. This experiment was conducted at 27, 30 and 33 °C in an incubator in a continuously dark condition. Length and weight of larvae, puparia and adult samples were determined. Total developmental times for larvae feeding on liver agar at each temperature were approximately 7-15 h slower than those feeding on raw liver. Survival rates were almost equal in both diets but were lower at 33 °C. Mean larva length in both diets did not differ significantly at all temperatures, but larvae feeding on liver agar had lower mean weight values than those in raw liver at 30 and 33 °C. The effect of temperature was significant in female puparia weight and male adult weight whereas the effect of diet types was significant in both male and female puparia size and weight. Interaction effects of temperature and food type on M. scalaris puparium size and adult weight were significant, indicating that puparium size and adult weight depended on both food type and temperature. This experiment highlighted the use of cow's liver agar as an alternative diet to breed M. scalaris in the laboratory and the importance of considering the interaction effect between temperatures and food types when deciding the most suitable medium in fly larva rearing.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development
  10. Zuha RM, Huong-Wen S, Disney RH, Omar B
    Trop Life Sci Res, 2017 Jan;28(1):131-143.
    PMID: 28228921 MyJurnal DOI: 10.21315/tlsr2017.28.1.9
    Scuttle flies (Diptera: Phoridae) are small-sized insects of forensic importance. They are well known for diversified species and habitats, but in the context of forensic entomology, scuttle flies' inhabitance of corpses remains inadequately explored. With recent reports indicating the existence of more scuttle fly species possibly inhabiting these environments, a decomposition study using animal carcasses in enclosed environments was conducted. The aim was to record the occurrence of scuttle flies on rabbit carcasses placed in sealed plastic waste bins for a 40-day period. The study was conducted as two replicates in Bangi, Selangor. Sampling was carried out at different time intervals inside a modified mosquito net as a trap. Inside the trap, adult scuttle flies were aspirated and preserved in 70% ethanol. The fly larvae and pupae were reared until their adult stage to facilitate identification. From this study, six scuttle fly species were collected, i.e., Dahliphora sigmoides (Schmitz) ♂, Gymnoptera simplex (Brues) ♀, Megaselia scalaris (Loew) ♂♀, Puliciphora borinquenensis (Wheeler) ♂, Puliciphora obtecta Meijere ♀ and Spiniphora sp. ♀. Both D. sigmoides and P. obtecta were newly recorded in Malaysia, whilst the Spiniphora sp. was considered an unknown species until it was linked to its male counterpart. The sealed waste bins were found to be accessible for the scuttle flies with delayed arrival (day 4-5). Megaselia scalaris was the primary scuttle fly species attracted to the carcass, and its occurrence could be observed between days 4-7 (replicate 1) and days 5-33 (replicate 2). This study also revealed Sarcophaga spp. (Diptera: Sarcophagidae) as the earliest species to colonize the remains and the longest to inhabit them (days 2-40). The larvae of Hermetia illucens (Linneaus) (Diptera: Stratiomyidae) and Fannia sp. (Diptera: Fanniidae) were found on the carcasses during the mid-advanced decay period. These findings expand the knowledge on the diversity of forensically important scuttle flies and coexisting dipterans in enclosed environments in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  11. Zuha RM, Kurahashi H, Chin HC, Osman K, Rashid RA, Hassan RA, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2009 Aug;26(2):216-8.
    PMID: 19901908
    Myospila pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) (Diptera: Muscidae) was recorded for the first time in Malaysia during a forensic entomological study conducted at a forested area of Forensic Science Simulation Site, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor. This species can be differentiated from other species of its genus by having R1 setulose on dorsal surface and R4+5 more or less setulose dorsally and ventrally. The legs, including tarsi, are testaceous yellow and palpi blackish. Lateral and ventral surface of scutellum bare below the level of bristles and the third antennal segment is brownish yellow. Other features including the diverging of inner margin of lower squama from scutellum margin. This is also the first report on the occurence of M. pudica pudica (Stein, 1915) on animal carcass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  12. Yusoff N, Abd Ghani I, Othman NW, Aizat WM, Hassan M
    Insects, 2021 Jan 27;12(2).
    PMID: 33513706 DOI: 10.3390/insects12020109
    The diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae), is the most important pest of cruciferous vegetables worldwide. In this study, we evaluated the properties of selected farnesyl derivative compounds against P. xylostella. The toxicity and sublethal concentration (LC50) of farnesyl acetate, farnesyl acetone, farnesyl bromide, farnesyl chloride, and hexahydrofarnesyl acetone were investigated for 96 h. The leaf-dip bioassays showed that farnesyl acetate had a high level of toxicity against P. xylostella compared to other tested farnesyl derivatives. The LC50 value was 56.41 mg/L on the second-instar larvae of P. xylostella. Then, the sublethal effects of farnesyl acetate on biological parameters of P. xylostella were assessed. Compared to the control group, the sublethal concentration of farnesyl acetate decreased pupation and emergence rates, pupal weight, fecundity, egg hatching rate, female ratio, and oviposition period. Furthermore, the developmental time of P. xylostella was extended after being exposed to farnesyl acetate. Moreover, the application of farnesyl acetate on P. xylostella induced morphogenetic abnormalities in larval-pupal intermediates, adults that emerged with twisted wings, or complete adults that could not emerge from the cocoon. These results suggested that farnesyl acetate was highly effective against P. xylostella. The sublethal concentration of farnesyl acetate could reduce the population of P. xylostella by increasing abnormal pupal and adults, and by delaying its development period.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  13. Yusof, F., Chowdhury, S., Faruck, M. O., Sulaiman, N.
    Cancer still presents enormous challenges in the medical world. Currently, the search for
    anticancer compounds has garnered a lot of interest, especially in finding them from the natural
    sources. In this study, by using Sulforhodamine B (SRB) colorimetric assay, compounds,
    extracted from supermeal worm (Zophobas morio) larvae using two types of acidified organic
    solvent (ethanol and isopropanol), were shown to inhibit the growth of a breast cancer line,
    MCF-7. A comparative study of the effect was carried out on a normal cell line, Vero. Results
    showed that, the two types of extracts inhibits growth of MCF-7 cell at varying degrees, on
    the other hand, have much less effect on Vero cell. Extracts analysed by UV-vis spectroscopy,
    showed peaks in the range of 260 to 280 nm, inferring the presence of aromatic amino acids,
    whereas the highest peak of 3.608 AU at 230 nm indicates the presence of peptide bonds. By
    Raman spectroscopy, peaks are observed at 1349 cm-1, 944 cm-1 and 841 cm-1 indicating the
    presence of Tyr, Try and Gly, confirming the UV-vis analyses. All results of analyses implied
    that the anticancer compounds contain peptides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  14. Yusof S, Ismail A, Alias MS
    Mar Pollut Bull, 2014 Aug 30;85(2):494-8.
    PMID: 24731878 DOI: 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2014.03.022
    Glyphosate is globally a widely used herbicide, yet there is little information on their toxicity to marine fishes. Java medaka, a small tropical fish native to coastal areas in several Southeast Asian countries, is viewed as a suitable candidate for toxicity test and thus was used for this study. Java medaka adults were cultured in the laboratory and the fertilized eggs of the F2 generation were exposed to different concentrations of glyphosate-based herbicide (100, 200, 300, 400 and 500 ppm) until they hatched. The survival and hatching rates of the embryos, changes in the heart rate and morphological impairments were recorded. Generally, survival and hatching percentage decreased as glyphosate concentration increased. Absence of pectoral fin(s) and cornea, permanently bent tail, irregular shaped abdomen, and cell disruption in the fin, head and abdomen are among the common teratogenic effects observed. Furthermore, risk factor also increased with the increased in glyphosate concentrations.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects
  15. Yu KX, Wong CL, Ahmad R, Jantan I
    Molecules, 2015;20(8):14082-102.
    PMID: 26247928 DOI: 10.3390/molecules200814082
    The ever-increasing threat from infectious diseases and the development of insecticide resistance in mosquito populations drive the global search for new natural insecticides. The aims of this study were to evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of the extracts of seaweed Bryopsis pennata against dengue vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus, and determine the seaweed's toxic effect on brine shrimp nauplii (as a non-target organism). In addition, the chemical compositions of the active larvicidal extract and fraction were analyzed by using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Chloroform extract exhibited strong ovicidal activity (with LC50 values of 229.3 and 250.5 µg/mL) and larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. The larvicidal potential of chloroform extract was further ascertained when its A7 fraction exhibited strong toxic effect against Ae. aegypti (LC50 = 4.7 µg/mL) and Ae. albopictus (LC50 = 5.3 µg/mL). LC-MS analysis of the chloroform extract gave a tentative identification of 13 compounds; Bis-(3-oxoundecyl) tetrasulfide was identified as the major compound in A7 fraction. Methanol extract showed strong repellent effect against female oviposition, along with weak adulticidal activity against mosquito and weak toxicity against brine shrimp nauplii. The mosquitocidal results of B. pennata suggest further investigation for the development of effective insecticide.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects
  16. Young KI, Mundis S, Widen SG, Wood TG, Tesh RB, Cardosa J, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2017 Aug 31;10(1):406.
    PMID: 28859676 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-017-2341-z
    BACKGROUND: Mosquito-borne dengue virus (DENV) is maintained in a sylvatic, enzootic cycle of transmission between canopy-dwelling non-human primates and Aedes mosquitoes in Borneo. Sylvatic DENV can spill over into humans living in proximity to forest foci of transmission, in some cases resulting in severe dengue disease. The most likely vectors of such spillover (bridge vectors) in Borneo are Ae. albopictus and Ae. niveus. Borneo is currently experiencing extensive forest clearance. To gauge the effect of this change in forest cover on the likelihood of sylvatic DENV spillover, it is first necessary to characterize the distribution of bridge vectors in different land cover types. In the current study, we hypothesized that Ae. niveus and Ae. albopictus would show significantly different distributions in different land cover types; specifically, we predicted that Ae. niveus would be most abundant in forests whereas Ae. albopictus would have a more even distribution in the landscape.

    RESULTS: Mosquitoes were collected from a total of 15 sites using gravid traps and a backpack aspirator around Kampong Puruh Karu, Sarawak, Malaysian Borneo, where sylvatic DENV spillover has been documented. A total of 2447 mosquitoes comprising 10 genera and 4 species of Aedes, were collected over the three years, 2013, 2014 and 2016, in the three major land cover types in the area, homestead, agriculture and forest. Mosquitoes were identified morphologically, pooled by species and gender, homogenized, and subject to DNA barcoding of each Aedes species and to arbovirus screening. As predicted, Ae. niveus was found almost exclusively in forests whereas Ae. albopictus was collected in all land cover types. Aedes albopictus was significantly (P = 0.04) more abundant in agricultural fields than forests. Sylvatic DENV was not detected in any Aedes mosquito pools, however genomes of 14 viruses were detected using next generation sequencing.

    CONCLUSIONS: Land cover type affects the abundance and distribution of the most likely bridge vectors of sylvatic DENV in Malaysia Borneo. Conversion of forests to agriculture will likely decrease the range and abundance of Ae. niveus but enhance the abundance of Ae. albopictus.

    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/virology
  17. Yong HS, Song SL, Chua KO, Lim PE
    Curr Microbiol, 2017 Sep;74(9):1076-1082.
    PMID: 28642971 DOI: 10.1007/s00284-017-1287-x
    Bactrocera carambolae is a highly polyphagous fruit pest of agricultural importance. This study reports the bacterial communities associated with the developmental stages of B. carambolae. The microbiota of the developmental stages were investigated by targeted 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region) sequencing using the Illumina MiSeq. At 97% similarity, there were 19 bacterial phyla and unassigned bacteria, comprising 39 classes, 86 orders, 159 families and 311 genera. The bacterial composition varied among the specimens of developmental stage and across developmental stages as well as exuviae. Four phyla of bacteria (with relative abundance of ≥1% in at least one specimen)-Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria-were recovered from the larva, pupa, adult stages and exuviae. Proteobacteria was the predominant phylum in all the developmental stages as well as the exuviae. Enterobacteriaceae (Proteobacteria) was the predominant family in the adult flies while the family [Weeksellaceae] (Bacteroidetes) was predominant in the larval and pupal stages. Among the genera occurring in more than one developmental stage of B. carambolae, Erwinia was more abundant in the larval stage, Halomonas more abundant in adult female, Stenotrophomonas more abundant in adult male, and Chryseobacterium more abundant in the larval and pupal stages. The results indicate transmission of bacteria OTUs from immatures to the newly emerged adults, and from exuviae to the environment.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Larva/microbiology
  18. Yoke OP, Sudderuddin KI
    PMID: 818717
    Toxicological studies of four insecticides (malathion, carbaryl, bioresmethrin, and GH 74) against Musca domestica vicinia (Ampang strain) were undertaken with particular reference to age, sex and posttreatment temperature. It was found that bioresmethrin and GH 74, both with a negative temperature coefficient, have great potential for use against houseflies. In vitro inhibitory studies of head and body esterases showed that unlike malathion and carbaryl, bioresmethrin had only negligible effect on these enzymes. The possibilities of using bioresmethrin and GH 74 for controlling the housefly problem in the Cameron Highlands, West Malaysia are discussed.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  19. Yiallouros M, Storch V, Thiery I, Becker N
    J Am Mosq Control Assoc, 1994 Mar;10(1):51-5.
    PMID: 7912261
    Clostridium bifermentans serovar malaysia (C.b.m.) is highly toxic to mosquito larvae. In this study, the following aquatic nontarget invertebrates were treated with high C.b.m. concentrations (up to 1,600-fold the toxic concentration for Anopheles stephensi) to study their susceptibility towards the bacterial toxin: Planorbis planorbis (Pulmonata); Asellus aquaticus (Isopoda); Daphnia pulex (Cladocera); Cloeon dipterum (Ephemeroptera); Plea leachi (Heteroptera); and Eristalis sp., Chaoborus crystallinus, Chironomus thummi, and Psychoda alternata (Diptera). In addition, bioassays were performed with mosquito larvae (Aedes aegypti, Anopheles stephensi, and Culex pipiens). Psychoda alternata larvae were very susceptible, with LC50/LC90 values comparable to those of mosquito larvae (about 10(3)-10(5) spores/ml). The tests with Chaoborus crystallinus larvae showed significant mortality rates at high concentrations, but generally not before 4 or 5 days after treatment. The remaining nontarget organisms did not show any susceptibility. The investigation confirms the specificity of C.b.m. to nematocerous Diptera.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  20. Yeong YS, Nazni WA, Santana RL, Mohd Noor I, Lee HL, Mohd Sofian A
    Trop Biomed, 2011 Aug;28(2):325-32.
    PMID: 22041752
    In Malaysia, maggot debridement therapy (MDT) utilizes maggots of Lucilia cuprina (Wiedemann) to debride necrotic tissue from wound surface, reduce bacterial infection and therefore, enhance wound healing process. To evaluate the sterility of the sterile maggots produced after sterilization process before delivering onto patient wounds. Sterility of sterile maggots is crucial in ensuring the safe usage of MDT and patient's health. Eggs of L. cuprina collected from a laboratory colony were divided into treated group (sterilized) and control group (non-sterilized). Treated group underwent sterilization while eggs from control group were allowed to hatch without sterilization. Sodium hypochlorite and formaldehyde were the main disinfectants used in this sterilization process. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine and ascertain the sterility of sterile maggots. SEM results showed that all sterilized L. cuprina eggs and maggots achieved sterility and all were cleared from bacterial contamination. In contrast, all non-sterilized eggs and maggots were found to be colonized by microorganisms. Sterilization method employed to sterilize eggs and maggots used in Malaysia MDT was proven successful and MDT is safe to be used as wound management tools.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/physiology; Larva/ultrastructure
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