Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 613 in total

  1. Azlinda Abu Bakar, Sallehudin Sulaiman, Baharudin Omar, Rasadah Mat Ali
    ASM Science Journal, 2018;11(2):103-116.
    The adverse effects of prolonged and rampant usage of chemical insecticides in controlling the population of vector arthropod have caused the development of resistance among vector populations as well as non-target organism. Application of plant extracts could be alternative sources for mosquito control. The present study assessed larvicidal activities of methanol extracts of leaf and stem of Jacaranda mimosifolia Don (Family: Bignoniaceae), Melaleuca cajuputi Powell (Family: Myrtaceae), Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nicholson (Family: Bignoniaceae), Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) Miers (Family: Bignoniaceae) and Tabebuia rosea Toll (Family: Bignoniaceae) against dengue vectors, Aedes (Diptera: Culicidae) sp. Among plants tested, M. cajuputi exhibited the most effective with the highest mortality against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Leaf extracts showed significantly higher larvicidal effects in relative to stem extracts. The findings also revealed that Ae. aegypti is the most susceptible compared to Ae. albopictus. LC50 values of M. cajuputi leaf extracts were 183.35mg/L and 191.82mg/L against Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus respectively. These studies suggest leaf extracts of M. cajuputi have moderate potential as larvicidal against vector larvae of Aedes mosquitoes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  2. Azmiera N, Low VL, Heo CC
    Acta Parasitol, 2021 Jun;66(2):706-709.
    PMID: 33389626 DOI: 10.1007/s11686-020-00313-z
    INTRODUCTION: Psychoda sp. is often collected from patchy habitats such as sewers, drains and decomposing organic matters. The discovery of Psychoda sp. in forensic studies indicated that it might have noteworthy value in assisting death investigations.

    PURPOSE: This study reports on the first finding of Psychoda larvae collected from decomposing rabbit carcasses placed in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: The larvae were first observed on rabbit carcasses and were collected using tweezers and carefully preserved in 70% ethanol. They were subsequently mounted on microscopy slides using Hoyer's medium and identified as Psychoda sp. morphologically. The identification was also confirmed through a DNA barcoding analysis.

    RESULTS: Psychoda sp. larvae were collected on day-10 post-mortem where the rabbit carcasses were at the advanced decay stage of decomposition. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences of the larvae had 90% similarity with the Psychoda spp. in the database.

    CONCLUSION: The finding of these larvae on carrion may provide additional valuable insights into forensic entomology and may assist in death investigations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  3. Dieng H, Hassan RB, Hassan AA, Ghani IA, Abang FB, Satho T, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2015 May;145:68-78.
    PMID: 25617636 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.01.004
    Even with continuous vector control, dengue is still a growing threat to public health in Southeast Asia. Main causes comprise difficulties in identifying productive breeding sites and inappropriate targeted chemical interventions. In this region, rural families keep live birds in backyards and dengue mosquitoes have been reported in containers in the cages. To focus on this particular breeding site, we examined the capacity of bird fecal matter (BFM) from the spotted dove, to support Aedes albopictus larval growth. The impact of BFM larval uptake on some adult fitness traits influencing vectorial capacity was also investigated. In serial bioassays involving a high and low larval density (HD and LD), BFM and larval standard food (LSF) affected differently larval development. At HD, development was longer in the BFM environment. There were no appreciable mortality differences between the two treatments, which resulted in similar pupation and adult emergence successes. BFM treatment produced a better gender balance. There were comparable levels of blood uptake and egg production in BFM and LSF females at LD; that was not the case for the HD one, which resulted in bigger adults. BFM and LSF females displayed equivalent lifespans; in males, this parameter was shorter in those derived from the BFM/LD treatment. Taken together these results suggest that bird defecations successfully support the development of Ae. albopictus. Due to their cryptic aspects, containers used to supply water to encaged birds may not have been targeted by chemical interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development
  4. Dieng H, Rajasaygar S, Ahmad AH, Rawi CS, Ahmad H, Satho T, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2014 Feb;130:123-30.
    PMID: 24239749 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.11.001
    Despite major insecticide-based vector control programs, dengue continues to be a major threat to public health in urban areas. The reasons for this failure include the emergence of insecticide resistance and the narrowing of the spectrum of efficient products. Cigarette butts (CBs), the most commonly discarded piece of waste, also represent a major health hazard to human and animal life. CBs are impregnated with thousands of chemical compounds, many of which are highly toxic and none of which has history of resistance in mosquitoes. This study was performed to examine whether exposure to CB alters various biological parameters of parents and their progeny. We examined whether the mosquito changes its ovipositional behaviors, egg hatching, reproductive capacity, longevity and fecundity in response to CB exposure at three different concentrations. Females tended to prefer microcosms containing CBs for egg deposition than those with water only. There were equivalent rates of eclosion success among larvae from eggs that matured in CB and water environments. We also observed decreased life span among adults that survived CB exposure. Extracts of CB waste have detrimental effects on the fecundity and longevity of its offspring, while being attractive to its gravid females. These results altogether indicate that CB waste indirectly affect key adult life traits of Aedes aegypti and could conceivably be developed as a novel dengue vector control strategy, referring to previously documented direct toxicity on the larval stage. But this will require further research on CB waste effects on non-target organisms including humans.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  5. Dieng H, Rajasaygar S, Ahmad AH, Ahmad H, Rawi CS, Zuharah WF, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2013 Dec;128(3):584-90.
    PMID: 23999373 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.08.013
    Annually, 4.5 trillion cigarette butts (CBs) are flicked into our environment. Evidence exists that CB waste is deadly to aquatic life, but their lethality to the aquatic life of the main dengue vector is unknown. CBs are full of toxicants that occur naturally, during planting and manufacturing, which may act as larvicidal agents. We assessed Aedes aegypti vulnerability to Marlboro butts during its development. Overall, CBs showed insecticidal activities against larvae. At early phases of development, mortality rates were much higher in two CBs solution (2CBSol) and 3CBSol microcosms (MICRs). Larval survival gradually decreased with development in 1CBSol-MICRs. However, in great presence of CBs, mortality was high even for the late developmental stages. These results suggest that A. aegypti larvae are vulnerable to CB presence in their habitats, but this effect was seen most during the early developmental phases and in the presence of increased amounts of cigarette remnants. CB filters are being used as raw material in many sectors, i.e., brick, art, fashion, plastic industries, as a practical solution to the pollution problem, the observed butt waste toxicity to mosquito larvae open new avenues for the identification of novel insecticide products.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects
  6. Hassan M, Sulaiman MH, Lian CJ
    Acta Trop, 2013 May;126(2):142-5.
    PMID: 23416121 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2013.02.001
    A parasitological survey of 16 pangolins, confiscated from the Department of Wildlife and Nature Park Peninsular Malaysia (DWNP) at Kelantan and Pulau Pinang, Malaysia was conducted in 2011. Amblyomma javanense (family: Ixodidae) was the only ectoparasite found on the pangolins. The prevalence, intensity and life cycle of A. javanense were observed together with the respective pangolins' age and sex. It was found that 68.8% of the pangolins were infected, and significant difference, χ(2)(1, N=16)=4.02, p=0.05 were observed with males higher in infestation (88.9%) as compared to the females (42.9%). However, the mean intensity was higher on females (72) as compared to males (31.6). In addition, significant difference, χ(2) (2, N=16)=6.73, p=0.05 was recorded between adults and juveniles with juveniles found to be 100% infected as compared to adult (63.6%). Nevertheless, the mean intensity was slightly higher on adults (47) than juveniles (35). Adult ticks were found in higher numbers as compared to the nymph and larvae with number of male ticks higher (236) as compared to the females (53). Similarly, a high significant difference χ(2)(2, N=469)=203.47, p=0.05 was recorded in the composition of the tick's life stages with a higher number of adult ticks (61.6%) followed by nymph (30.3%) and larvae (8.1%). As such, the results of this study revealed a picture of the A. javanense life cycle which is related to the age and gender of the Malayan Pangolin.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  7. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Pramual P, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Acta Trop, 2016 Jan;153:57-63.
    PMID: 26476394 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.10.007
    To investigate the breeding habitat preference of black flies, a comprehensive black fly survey was conducted for the first time in Peninsular Malaysia. Preimaginal black flies (pupae and larvae) were collected manually from 180 stream points encompassing northern, southern, central and east coast of the Peninsular Malaysia. A total of 47 black fly species were recorded in this study. The predominant species were Simulium trangense (36.7%) and Simulium angulistylum (33.3%). Relatively common species were Simulium cheongi (29.4%), Simulium tani (25.6%), Simulium nobile (16.2%), Simulium sheilae (14.5%) and Simulium bishopi (10.6%). Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of all stream variables revealed four PCs that accounted for 69.3% of the total intersite variance. Regression analysis revealed that high species richness is associated with larger, deeper, faster and higher discharge streams with larger streambed particles, more riparian vegetation and low pH (F=22.7, d.f.=1, 173; P<0.001). Relationship between species occurrence of seven common species (present in >10% of the sampling sites) was assessed. Forward logistic regression analysis indicated that four species were significantly related to the stream variables. S. nobile and S. tani prefer large, fast flowing streams with higher pH, large streambed particles and riparian trees. S. bishopi was commonly found at high elevation with cooler stream, low conductivity, higher conductivity and more riparian trees. In contrast, S. sheilae was negatively correlated with PC-2, thus, this species commonly found at low elevation, warmer stream with low conductivity and less riparian trees. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies from other geographic regions, which indicated that both physical and chemical stream conditions are the key factors for black fly ecology.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  8. Srisuka W, Takaoka H, Otsuka Y, Fukuda M, Thongsahuan S, Taai K, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2015 Sep;149:212-9.
    PMID: 26028177 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2015.05.024
    This is the first study on the seasonal biodiversity of black flies and evaluation of ecological factors influencing their distribution at Doi Pha Hom Pok National Park, northern Thailand. Larvae were collected from six fixed-stream sites in relation to altitude gradients from May 2011 to April 2013. The water temperature, water pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), salt, water velocity, stream width and depth, streambed particle sizes, riparian vegetation, and canopy cover were recorded from each site. Monthly collections from the six sites yielded 5475 last-instar larvae, belonging to 29 black fly species. The most frequently found species from all sites were Simulium asakoae (100%) followed by Simulium yuphae (83.3%), and Simulium chiangdaoense, Simulium gombakense, Simulium phahompokense, Simulium fruticosum, Simulium maeaiense and Simulium fenestratum (66.6%). Of the 5475 last-instar larvae, S. maeaiense (19.3%), S. chiangdaoense (15.8%) and S. asakoae (14.8%), were the three most abundant species. The Shannon diversity index (H) at the six sites with different altitudes of 2100m, 2000m, 1500m, 1400m, 700m, and 500m above mean sea level, were 2.042, 1.832, 2.158, 2.123, 1.821 and 1.822, respectively. The Shannon index and number of taxa in the cold season were higher than those in the rainy and hot seasons. Principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that at least three principal components have eigen values >1.0 and accounted for 93.5% of the total variability of ecological factors among sampling sites. The Canonical correspondence analyses (CCA) showed that most species had a trend towards altitude, canopy cover, riparian vegetation and water velocity.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  9. Sulaiman S, Jeffery J, Sohadi AR, Yunus H, Busparani V, Majid R
    Acta Trop, 1990 May;47(4):189-95.
    PMID: 1973019
    There was high mortality in late larval instars of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) from laboratory and field populations in the 24 h after application of three Bactimos formulations of Bacillus thuringiensis H-14. Mortalities were higher and residual effects longer in field populations than in laboratory ones. Briquets were the most effective formulation (mortality 96-100% after five weeks; 76-92% after eight weeks). Culex quinquefasciatus Say larvae were tested only against the briquet formulation. In the laboratory, 100% mortality of late instars persisted for six weeks and dropped to 48-88% after eight weeks. In the field, late instars were reduced by 62-87% after 24 h and 69-72% after one week compared to increases in an untreated population of 160% and 176% respectively.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  10. Saeung A, Srisuka W, Low VL, Maleewong W, Takaoka H
    Acta Trop, 2017 Aug;172:14-19.
    PMID: 28433572 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.04.014
    The female and larva of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) udomi Takaoka & Choochote from Thailand are described for the first time. The female of this species is similar to those of S. (G.) asakoae Takaoka & Davies from Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Hong Kong and Vietnam, and S. (G.) chiangdaoense Takaoka & Srisuka from Thailand. The larva of this species is similar to S. (G.) curtatum Jitklang et al. and S. (G.) nr. asakoae 2 from Thailand in having a medium-long postgenal cleft. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this species from these related species. The COI gene sequence of S. (G.) udomi is compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. This species is transferred from the S. ceylonicum species-group to the S. asakoae species-group based on the adult female and male morphological characters, comparisons of the genetic distances and phylogenetic relationships inferred from the COI gene sequences.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology
  11. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Acta Trop, 2018 Sep;185:110-114.
    PMID: 29709632 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.04.029
    Simulium (Simulium) hackeri Edwards, 1928 of the Simulium variegatum species-group from Malaysia was described initially based on the female specimen from Cameron Highlands, Pahang. In the present study, the pupa and larva of this species are described for the first time. Their morphological characters resemble those of the Simulium variegatum species-group by having six gill filaments per side, abdomen with dorsal spine-combs at least on segments 7 and 8, cocoon with wall-pocket shaped and with or without an anterodorsal projection. Postgenal cleft of the larva medium-sized, rarely small, ventral papillae small or absent. The DNA barcode of this species is also reported herein.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology*
  12. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Low VL, Saeung A
    Acta Trop, 2018 Sep;185:156-166.
    PMID: 29772215 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.05.011
    Larvae and adults reared from pupae of Simulium (Gomphostilbia) gombakense Takaoka & Davies from eight streams in five provinces of Thailand were genetically analyzed by using cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequences. The material was composed of four lineages, of which lineages 2, 3 and 4 are genetically closely related to one another, but more distantly related to lineage 1, which is equivalent to typical S. (G.) gombakense from Peninsular Malaysia. Lineages 2, 3 and 4, which are morphologically indistinguishable, are designated as genoforms A, B and C within a species complex of S. (G.) paiense sp. nov., which is described based on specimens of lineage 2 (=genoform A). Simulium (G.) paiense sp. nov. is similar to S. (G.) gombakense from Peninsular Malaysia but appears to be barely distinguished by the relative length of the female fore basitarsus. Simulium (G.) thuathienense Takaoka & Sofian-Azirun is newly recorded from Thailand and its male is described for the first time. The female of S. (G.) gombakense is briefly described based on females reared from pupae collected from Peninsular Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology
  13. Leong CS, Vythilingam I, Wong ML, Wan Sulaiman WY, Lau YL
    Acta Trop, 2018 Sep;185:115-126.
    PMID: 29758171 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.05.008
    The resistance status of Selangor Aedes aegypti (Linnaeus) larvae against four major groups of insecticides (i.e., organochlorines, carbamates, organophosphates and pyrethroids) was investigated. Aedes aegypti were susceptible against temephos (organophosphate), although resistance (RR50 = 0.21-2.64) may be developing. The insecticides susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti larvae were found heterogeneous among the different study sites. Results showed that Ae. aegypti larvae from Klang, Sabak Bernam and Sepang were susceptible against all insecticides tested. However, other study sites exhibited low to high resistance against all pyrethroids (RR50 = 1.19-32.16). Overall, the application of synergists ethacrynic acid, S.S.S.- tributylphosphorotrithioate and piperonyl butoxide increased the toxicity of insecticides investigated. However, the application failed to increase the mortality to susceptible level (>97%) for certain populations, therefore there are chances of alteration of target site resistance involved. Biochemical assays revealed that α-esterase, (Gombak, Kuala Langat, Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains) β-esterase (Klang and Sabak Bernam strains), acetylcholinesterase (Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains), glutathione-S-transferase (Kuala Selangor and Sabak Bernam strains) and mono-oxygenases (Gombak, Hulu Langat, Hulu Selangor and Kuala Langat strains) were elevated. Spearman rank-order correlation indicated a significant correlation between resistance ratios of: DDT and deltamethrin (r = 0.683, P = 0.042), cyfluthrin and deltamethrin (r = 0.867, P =0.002), cyflyuthrin and lambdacyhalothrin (r = 0.800, P =0.010), cyfluthrin and permethrin (r = 0.770, P =0.015) deltamethrin and permethrin (r = 0.803, P =0.088), propoxur and malathion (r = 0.867, P = 0.002), malathion and temephos (r = 0.800, P = 0.010), etofenprox and MFO enzyme (r = 0.667, P =0.050). The current study provides baseline information for vector control programs conducted by local authorities. The susceptibility status of Ae. aegypti should be monitored sporadically to ensure the effectiveness of current vector control strategy in Selangor.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects*; Larva/enzymology
  14. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Low VL, Maleewong W, Saeung A
    Acta Trop, 2017 Dec;176:39-50.
    PMID: 28746824 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.07.024
    Two new species of Simulium (Gomphostilbia), S. (G.) myanmarense and S. (G.) monglaense, are described from females, males, pupae and larvae from Myanmar. The two new species are placed in the S. asakoae species-group, and are similar to each other in the female and male but distinguished in the pupa by the presence or absence of an anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, and in the larva by a unique pattern of colored markings on the abdomen. Taxonomic notes are given to separate these species from related species. The COI gene sequences of both species are compared with those of eight species of the S. asakoae species-group and three species of the S. ceylonicum species-group. Both new species are most closely related to each other, further supporting their morphological classification in the S. asakoae species-group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology
  15. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Acta Trop, 2017 May;169:133-141.
    PMID: 28185824 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.02.005
    A black fly species of the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia) from Cameron Highland, Peninsular Malaysia, previously regarded as S. feuerborni Edwards, originally described from East Java, is described as Simulium pairoti sp. nov. based on complete life stages. High intraspecific variations in the arrangement of the six pupal gill filaments, length of the stalk of the ventral paired filaments, and length of the anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, are noted in this species. This new species is readily distinguished from its congeners by having the characters of male genitalia with simple lamellate ventral plate, short inwardly-twisted styles, several parameral hooks, and a simple narrow median sclerite. Morphological data reported herein plus the chromosomal and molecular data presented elsewhere support S. pairoti as a novel pseudocryptic species.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology
  16. Ya'cob Z, Takaoka H, Low VL, Sofian-Azirun M
    Acta Trop, 2017 Mar;167:31-39.
    PMID: 27986545 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2016.12.009
    In recent decades, the numbers of cryptic taxa have increased significantly with current progress in DNA barcoding, yet, most of these cryptic taxa have not been formally named and recognized as valid species. To address this issue, we provide a guide for applying the procedure of describing new cryptic species in the family Simuliidae. Simulium (Simulium) vanluni from Pahang, Peninsular Malaysia, previously treated as S. nobile De Meijere, is described as a new species by using an integrated morpho-taxonomical and genetic approach. This new species is morphologically identical to S. nobile from Java and S. kiuliense Smart & Clifford from Borneo, but their distinctiveness is supported by an expanded multigene phylogeny analysis.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/genetics
  17. Dieng H, Satho T, Suradi NFB, Hakim H, Abang F, Aliasan NE, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2017 Dec;176:446-454.
    PMID: 28865898 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.08.033
    In dengue vector control, attempts to minimize or replace the use of pesticides have mostly involved use of predators, but success has been severely impeded by difficulties associated with financial and environmental costs, predator mass production, and persistence in target habitats. Visual deterrents have been used successfully to control animal pests, in some cases in an effort to replace pesticide use. Despite evidence that visual signals are crucial in site choice for egg deposition by dengue vectors, and that female mosquitoes respond to artificial predation, the role of predator intimidation as it affects the oviposition behavior of dengue vectors remains largely unexplored. Here, we examined the oviposition responses of Aedes aegypti exposed to various mosquito predator pictures. Gravid females were presented with equal opportunities to oviposit in two cups with predator images [Toxorhynchites splendens-TXI, Goldfish (Carassius auratus)-small (SFI) and large (LFI) and Tx. splendens+Goldfish-TXFI] and two others without pictures. Differences in egg deposition were examined between sites with and without these images. When given a chance to oviposit in cups with and without TXI, Ae. aegypti females were similarly attracted to both sites. When provided an opportunity to oviposit in cups displaying pictures of fish (SFI or LFI) and blank cups, egg deposition rates were much lower in the fish picture sites. Females showed a preference for blank cups over TXFI for egg deposition. They also equally avoided cups with pictures of fish, regardless of the size of the picture. Our results indicate that the presence of images of goldfish and their association with Tx. larvae significantly reduced egg deposition by Ae. aegypti, and this was not the case with the predatory larvae alone. The observations that the images of natural predators can repel gravid females of a dengue vector provide novel possibilities to develop effective and inexpensive alternative tools to harmful insecticides.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  18. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Maleewong W, Saeung A
    Acta Trop, 2018 Feb;178:281-289.
    PMID: 29217382 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.12.009
    A faunistic survey of black flies in Shan State, central Myanmar, was carried out in 2013. A total of 16 species were collected, of which 13 species are newly recorded from Myanmar. Among 13 newly recorded species, S. (S.) chiangmaiense Takaoka & Suzuki varied in the number of pupal gill filaments from eight to 10. This survey increases the number of species of black flies from Myanmar from 8 to 23. They are classified in five subgenera of the genus Simulium: one in Asiosimulium, seven in Gomphostilbia, one in Montisimulium, two in Nevermannia and 12 in Simulium.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/classification
  19. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Low VL, Saeung A
    Acta Trop, 2017 Dec;176:373-379.
    PMID: 28919444 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2017.09.006
    A new species of black fly, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) isanense, is described based on females, males, pupae and mature larvae from Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium epistum species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein. It is characterized by the pupal gill with eight filaments arranged as 3+3+2 from dorsal to ventral, of which an inner filament of the ventral pair is slightly longer than its counter filament. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from S. (G.) angulistylum Takaoka & Davies from Peninsular Malaysia, and three other related species. The difference between this new species and S. (G.) angulistylum is supported by genetic distances using the mitochondrial COI gene.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology
  20. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Van Lun Low, Saeung A
    Acta Trop, 2018 Jun;182:271-284.
    PMID: 29551392 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2018.03.019
    Five new species of black flies, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) chiangraiense, S. (G.) huaikaeoense, S. (G.) khaokhoense, S. (G.) maeklangense, and S. (G.) pamiangense, are described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Thailand. These five species are similar to one another and are placed in the S. decuplum subgroup of the S. batoense species-group by having the male fore coxae darkened, ventral plate flat and transverse; pupal gill with 10 short filaments; and larval postgenal cleft deep approaching or reaching the posterior margin of the hypostoma. Simulium (G.) chiangraiense sp. nov. and S. (G.) pamiangense sp. nov. differ from the three other new species by the much longer pupal gill filaments and darkened dorsal surface of abdominal segments 1 and 2. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish these five new species from five other related species. The phylogenetic positions of these new species in the S. decuplum subgroup are presented based on the mitochondrial COI gene. Simulium (G.) pamiangense sp. nov. and S. (G.) huaikaeoense sp. nov. are highly similar to each other genetically, showing a sister relationship, though they are clearly different morphologically. On the contrary, S. (G.) khaokhoense sp. nov. is distantly positioned from S. (G.) huaikaeoense nov., though it is almost indistinguishable morphologically from the latter.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/genetics
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