Three persons were experimentally inoculated with malaria by means of Anopheles ludlowi reared from larvae and infected with a pure strain of subtertian plasmodium (Plasmodium falciparum), thus proving that there exists no mechanical impediment or obstacle to the free exit of sporozoites from the salivary ducts or proboscis. In the dissection of infected mosquitoes there were no evidences of degenerated zygotes. Sporozoites appeared promptly in the salivary glands (9 to 12 days). Inoculation occurred with ease either in an interrupted feeding or after mosquitoes had been fed twice previously. The period of incubation was 14 and 18 days. The clinical manifestations were more severe in the subject that had never been infected with malaria previously, while the splenic enlargement was most pronounced in the subject infected after a long interval of freedom from malaria. In a third subject already suffering from tertian malaria there was only the slightest evidence of physical illness elicited by the superimposed subtertian infection; his temperature, however, became duly elevated. The type of febrile reaction in the two uncomplicated cases was at first tertian, becoming quotidian later, and this phenomenon in a pure strain leads strongly to the supposition that Plasmodium falciparum possesses inherently both tertian (or subtertian) and quotidian tendencies, as well as its well known tendencies to cause fever of the irregularly remittent or continued type. The creation of a specific plasmodium to account for clinical forms of aestivo-autumnal or subtertian malaria having a quotidian periodidty is probably unwarranted. In consideration of the facility with which this species can be infected and man inoculated experimentally, the occurrence of naturally infected wild specimens, and the positive epidemiological evidence, there should no longer exist in the minds of sanitarians any doubt as to its being a malarial carrier. Operations against this species can therefore be recommended without reservation and should be carried out without delay.
An account of two cases seen in Sarawak, both being Europeans and in bothAncylostoma caninum being responsible. Infection was acquired in a swampy part of the golf course which is frequented by pariah dogs heavily infected with this parasite. Many treatments proved unavailing, cure at length being obtained by rubbing oil of chenopodium into the track for ten minutes. Subsequently 1 part of this oil was mixed with 3 parts of castor oil, the mixture being applied in the same way. Whilst the one application to one area was sufficient, it took 10 to 14 days to work over both feet in each case
After two years' use of hexachlorocyclohexane (BHC) as a larvicide in Georgetown, on Penang Island, control of Culex fatigans breeding became unsatisfactory. Two laboratory colonies of fatigans were established, one from Georgetown, and one from Kuala Lumpur where no insecticides had been used; tests were then made to determine the median lethal concentrations (MLC) of BHC, dieldrin, and DDT for the larvae of the two strains. The Georgetown strain was found to have acquired a tenfold resistance to BHC, and also to dieldrin to which it had not been exposed, but it showed no significant increase of resistance to DDT, to which it had also not been exposed. A year later, when both strains had passed through some ten generations in the laboratory without exposure to insecticides, the Georgetown strain was found to have lost much of its resistance to BHC, although the MLC was still twice that of the non-resistant Kuala Lumpur strain.
The levels of susceptibility of C. p. fatigans larvae from four different localities in Malaya to DDT, dieldrin, malathion, fenthion, diazinon and Sevin have been studied; their toxicity was: diazinon > fenthion > malathion > dieldrin > DDT > Sevin.Larvae from different localities showed a wide range of susceptibility to the chlorinated hydrocarbon insecticides, dieldrin (40x) and DDT (10x), but the organophosphorus compounds and the carbamate compound, Sevin, gave consistent results from all localities. One strain from a rural area (Lamir) was the most susceptible to all insecticides and has been used as a reference strain for related studies on the development of resistance.