Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 613 in total

  1. Takaoka H, Fukuda M, Otsuka Y, Low VL, Ya'cob Z
    Acta Trop, 2022 Jan;225:106207.
    PMID: 34687650 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106207
    Simulium (Gomphostilbia) omutaense Ogata & Sasa, 1954 is the only named species in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein recorded from Honshu and Kyushu, Japan. It represents the northernmost distribution of this species-group, of which most members are distributed in the Oriental region. This species, the only member of the Simulium omutaense subgroup, is unique among the seven subgroups of the S. batoense species-group by having the pupal gill with one long filament and seven short filaments, similar to the arrangement of the pupal gill filaments in the S. zonatum subgroup of the S. epistum species-group in the same subgenus. This species is fully redescribed based on adults, pupal exuviae and mature larvae, and is most similar to species of the S. decuplum subgroup, based on adult morphological characteristics, although the pupal gill of the latter subgroup is markedly different by having 10 or 12 short filaments. Its close relationship to the S. decuplum subgroup is supported by a DNA analysis using COI gene sequences, with genetic distances of 9.30-11.02%. On the other hand, genetic distances between S. (G.) omutaense and species of the S. zonatum subgroup were 16.32-16.93%. Our study shows that a similar arrangement of the pupal gills in two different species-groups, which is rarely seen, has evolved independently and its occurrence does not necessarily reflect phylogenetic relationships.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  2. Velayutham M, Guru A, Arasu MV, Al-Dhabi NA, Choi KC, Elumalai P, et al.
    J Biotechnol, 2021 Dec 10;342:79-91.
    PMID: 34751134 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbiotec.2021.10.010
    GR15 is a short molecule or peptide composed of aliphatic amino acids and possesses to have antioxidant properties. The GR15, 1GGGAFSGKDPTKVDR15 was identified from the protein S-adenosylmethionine synthase (SAMe) expressed during the sulfur departed state of Arthrospira platensis (spirulina or cyanobacteria). The in-silico assessment and the structural features of GR15 showed its antioxidant potency. Real-time PCR analysis found the up-regulation of ApSAMe expression on day 15 against oxidative stress due to 10 mM H2O2 treatment in A. platensis (Ap). The antioxidant activity of GR15 was accessed by the cell-free antioxidant assays such as ABTS, SARS, HRAS and NO; the results showed dose-dependent antioxidant activity. The toxicity assay was performed in both in vitro and in vivo models, in which peptide does not exhibit any toxicity in MDCK cell and zebrafish embryos. The intercellular ROS reduction potential of GR15 peptide was also investigated in both in vitro and in vivo models including LDH assay, antioxidant enzymes (SOD and CAT), and fluorescent staining assay (DCFDA, Hochest and Acridine orange sting) was performed; the results showed that the GR15 peptide was effectively reduced the ROS level. Further, RT-PCR demonstrated that GR15 enhanced the antioxidant property and also up-regulated the antioxidant gene, thus reduced the ROS level in both in vitro and in vivo models. Based on the results obtained from this study, we propose that GR15 has the potential antioxidant ability; hence further research can be directed towards the therapeutic product or drug development against disease caused by oxidative stress.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/metabolism
  3. Ivorra T, García-Martínez B, Martínez-Sánchez A
    J Med Entomol, 2021 11 09;58(6):2247-2254.
    PMID: 34279664 DOI: 10.1093/jme/tjab129
    To better understand the population dynamics and dispersal ability of insect species, it is often helpful to derive a life table containing fundamental demographic data. The aim of this study was to determine a life table for the predatory necrophagous species Synthesiomyia nudiseta (van der Wulp, 1883) on a pig liver diet and under controlled laboratory conditions (29.5 ± 2. 5°C, RH 50 ± 15%, and a photoperiod of 12:12). This species has medical and veterinary importance and its distribution extends in tropical and subtropical areas and now it has been established in the southwestern of Europe. The mean adult longevity was 36. 18 ± 2. 06 d and the net reproduction rate, R, was 27.65 offspring/female, the mean generation time, T, was 22. 09 d, the finite rate of increase, λ, was 1. 16 d-1, and the intrinsic rate of increase, r, was 0. 15 d-1. These results indicate that S. nudiseta cannot be considered an r-strategist as the most common synanthropic necrophagous blowflies due to its predatory behavior; however, its invasive and colonist abilities are discussed. This is the first life table study of this species from Palearctic region to analyze the effect of its dispersal ability.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Larva/physiology
  4. Takaoka H, Low VL, Huang YT, Fukuda M, Ya'cob Z
    Acta Trop, 2021 Oct;222:106023.
    PMID: 34161814 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106023
    Two new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) kaohsiungense and S. (G.) shoufengense, are described from females, males and pupae in Taiwan. These new species are placed in the S. asakoae species-group. Simulium (G.) kaohsiungense sp. nov. is characterized by a combination of the elongate female sensory vesicle, male upper-eye (large) facets in 15 vertical columns and 15 or 16 horizontal rows, male hind basitarsus 1.02-1.15 times the width of the hind femur, and widened pupal terminal hooks. These characteristics distinguish this new species from most species of the S. asakoae species-group. Simulium (G.) shoufengense sp. nov. is similar in the female and male to S. (G.) asakoae Takaoka & Davies originally described from Peninsular Malaysia but is distinguished from the latter species in the pupa by the combined length of the primary and secondary stalks of the dorsal triplet of gill filaments as long as or longer than the common basal stalk of the gill, and dorsum of abdominal segments 1 and 2 not darkened. The species previously regarded in Taiwan as S. (G.) metatarsale Brunetti, originally described from India, is morphologically and molecularly identified as S. (G.) asakoae.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  5. Kropachev II, Vassilieva AB, Orlov NL, Rybaltovsky EM, Nguyen TT
    Zootaxa, 2021 Sep 14;5039(1):144-148.
    PMID: 34811091 DOI: 10.11646/zootaxa.5039.1.9
    To date, 20 species of Kurixalus Ye, Fei, and Dubois have been described, and all of these species are distributed throughout South and Southeast Asia, from eastern India, throughout Myanmar and the mountainous regions of southern China, to Indochina, western and northern peninsular Thailand, Malaysia, Sumatra, Borneo, and the Philippines (Frost 2021). Descriptions of the tadpoles of only 6 species have been published: K. berylliniris and K. wangi Wu, Huang, Tsai, Li, Jhang, Wu (Wu et al. 2016); K. eiffingeri (Boettger) (Kuramoto Wang 1987); K. idiootocus (Kuramoto Wang) (Kuramoto Wang 1987); K. cf. verrucosus (Boulenger) (Ziegler Vences 2002), and Kurixalus yangi Yu, Hui, Rao, Yang (Humtsoe et al. 2020). A description of the tadpoles of K. baliogaster (Inger, Orlov, Darevsky) is also given in the species description (Inger et al. 1999), but described larvae are assigned tentatively to this species in the published text. Additional studies on the identification of the conspecificity of the described tadpoles with K. baliogaster have not been conducted. Based on the much larger size of the tadpole body (TL up to 40.3 mm), as well as the labial tooth row formula 6(26)/5(1) given by Inger et al. (1999), we concluded that these described tadpoles cannot be larval K. baliogaster and most likely belong to some other species of rhacophorid frogs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  6. Nair HKR, Wasi Ahmad N, Teh CH, Lee HL, Chong SSY
    Int J Low Extrem Wounds, 2021 Sep;20(3):208-216.
    PMID: 32524879 DOI: 10.1177/1534734620932397
    Maggot therapy, also known as maggot debridement therapy, larval therapy, biodebridement, or biosurgery, is a type of biotherapy involving the intentional application of live, disinfected fly larvae or maggots into the nonhealing wound of a human or animal to debride the necrotic wound, reduce bacterial contamination of the wound as well as enhance the formation of healthy granulation tissue and stimulate healing in nonhealing wounds. In addition, van der Plas et al reported that the use of the medicinal larvae as natural remover of necrotic and infected tissue had prevented amputation in 11 selected patients. In Malaysia, Aaron et al had demonstrated prevention of amputation in 25 patients.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  7. Lee HY, Loong SK, Ya'cob Z, Low VL, Teoh BT, Ahmad-Nasrah SN, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2021 Jul;219:105923.
    PMID: 33878305 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105923
    Although the microbiome of blood-feeding insects serves an integral role in host physiology, both beneficial and pathogenic, little is known of the microbial community of black flies. An investigation, therefore, was undertaken to identify culturable bacteria from one of Malaysia's most common black flies, Simulium tani Takaoka and Davies, using 16S rDNA sequencing, and then evaluate the isolates for antibiotic resistance and virulence genes. A total of 20 isolates representing 11 bacterial species in four genera were found. Five isolates showed β-hemolysis on Columbia agar, and virulence genes were found in three of these isolates. Some degree of resistance to six of the 12 tested antibiotics was found among the isolates. The baseline data from this study suggest rich opportunities for comparative studies exploring the diversity and roles of the microbiome of S. tani and other Southeast Asian black flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/classification; Larva/microbiology*
  8. Gan SJ, Leong YQ, Bin Barhanuddin MFH, Wong ST, Wong SF, Mak JW, et al.
    Parasit Vectors, 2021 Jun 10;14(1):315.
    PMID: 34112220 DOI: 10.1186/s13071-021-04785-4
    Dengue fever is the most important mosquito-borne viral disease in Southeast Asia. Insecticides remain the most effective vector control approach for Aedes mosquitoes. Four main classes of insecticides are widely used for mosquito control: organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and carbamates. Here, we review the distribution of dengue fever from 2000 to 2020 and its associated mortality in Southeast Asian countries, and we gather evidence on the trend of insecticide resistance and its distribution in these countries since 2000, summarising the mechanisms involved. The prevalence of resistance to these insecticides is increasing in Southeast Asia, and the mechanisms of resistance are reported to be associated with target site mutations, metabolic detoxification, reduced penetration of insecticides via the mosquito cuticle and behavioural changes of mosquitoes. Continuous monitoring of the status of resistance and searching for alternative control measures will be critical for minimising any unpredicted outbreaks and improving public health. This review also provides improved insights into the specific use of insecticides for effective control of mosquitoes in these dengue endemic countries.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects*; Larva/virology
  9. Byrne I, Aure W, Manin BO, Vythilingam I, Ferguson HM, Drakeley CJ, et al.
    Sci Rep, 2021 06 03;11(1):11810.
    PMID: 34083582 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-021-90893-1
    Land-use changes, such as deforestation and agriculture, can influence mosquito vector populations and malaria transmission. These land-use changes have been linked to increased incidence in human cases of the zoonotic malaria Plasmodium knowlesi in Sabah, Malaysian Borneo. This study investigates whether these associations are partially driven by fine-scale land-use changes creating more favourable aquatic breeding habitats for P. knowlesi anopheline vectors. Using aerial remote sensing data, we developed a sampling frame representative of all land use types within a major focus of P. knowlesi transmission. From 2015 to 2016 monthly longitudinal surveys of larval habitats were collected in randomly selected areas stratified by land use type. Additional remote sensing data on environmental variables, land cover and landscape configuration were assembled for the study site. Risk factor analyses were performed over multiple spatial scales to determine associations between environmental and spatial variables and anopheline larval presence. Habitat fragmentation (300 m), aspect (350 m), distance to rubber plantations (100 m) and Culex larval presence were identified as risk factors for Anopheles breeding. Additionally, models were fit to determine the presence of potential larval habitats within the areas surveyed and used to generate a time-series of monthly predictive maps. These results indicate that land-use change and topography influence the suitability of larval habitats, and may partially explain the link between P. knowlesi incidence and deforestation. The predictive maps, and identification of the spatial scales at which risk factors are most influential may aid spatio-temporally targeted vector control interventions.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  10. Azmiera N, Low VL, Heo CC
    Acta Parasitol, 2021 Jun;66(2):706-709.
    PMID: 33389626 DOI: 10.1007/s11686-020-00313-z
    INTRODUCTION: Psychoda sp. is often collected from patchy habitats such as sewers, drains and decomposing organic matters. The discovery of Psychoda sp. in forensic studies indicated that it might have noteworthy value in assisting death investigations.

    PURPOSE: This study reports on the first finding of Psychoda larvae collected from decomposing rabbit carcasses placed in Cameron Highlands, Pahang, Malaysia.

    METHODS: The larvae were first observed on rabbit carcasses and were collected using tweezers and carefully preserved in 70% ethanol. They were subsequently mounted on microscopy slides using Hoyer's medium and identified as Psychoda sp. morphologically. The identification was also confirmed through a DNA barcoding analysis.

    RESULTS: Psychoda sp. larvae were collected on day-10 post-mortem where the rabbit carcasses were at the advanced decay stage of decomposition. The cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene sequences of the larvae had 90% similarity with the Psychoda spp. in the database.

    CONCLUSION: The finding of these larvae on carrion may provide additional valuable insights into forensic entomology and may assist in death investigations.

    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  11. Srisuka W, Aupalee K, Low VL, Yácob Z, Fukuda M, Saeung A, et al.
    Acta Trop, 2021 Jun;218:105889.
    PMID: 33722581 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105889
    A new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) kiewlomense, is described from females, males, pupae and mature larvae in Thailand. This new species is placed in the S. asakoae species-group and is characterized by having a combination of the elongate female sensory vesicle, widened male hind basitarsus, which is much wider than the hind femur, small pupal terminal hooks, and light greenish larval abdominal segments 1-3. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from other related species. A DNA analysis using the COI gene shows that this new species has two genoforms with 1.21% difference. This is the 28th species of the S. asakoae species-group in Thailand, strengthening the evidence for high species diversity of this species-group.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology
  12. Liaquat S, Qayyum M, Ahmed H, Arfeen RZU, Celik F, Simsek S
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):1-8.
    PMID: 33973567 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.031
    Goat Warble Fly Infestation (GWFI) is also known as subcutaneous myiasis caused by Przhevalskiana silenus (Diptera: Oestridae). It is widely distributed in tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world. In goats, WFI is usually detected through conventional procedure which underestimated the infestation. The current study was designed to determine the serodiagonsis of GWFI (through IDEXX Hypodermosis serum antibody test) and also aimed to investigate its seroepizootiological profile in Pothwar region, Pakistan from 2013-14. The results showed that average seropositivity (ELISA kit) of GWFI was 18.5% whereas, it was 11% by using conventional procedure (Palpation method) depicting a significant difference (p<0.05). Higher seropositivity (30.8%) was observed in Jhelum district as compared to e Attock district (6%). The L1 larvae were found in September, while nodules start appearing in October to December and last until the end of February. The month wise peaks of optical density (OD) was higher in December which gradually decrease along with the end of winter season. The prevalence of GWFI revealed no significant difference among three host breeds (Jattal, Beetal and Tedy). According to the results, high infestation rate (28%) was observed in young animals of age group < 1 year as compared to old animals (> 2 years). Topographically, hilly areas (33%) provide favourable climatic conditions for the propagating of larval stages. Sex difference showed no significant difference. The seroprevalence varied significantly with respect to age, month, districts and topographical location. The current study proved that serologic diagnosis (commercial ELISA kit) as more sensitive and accurate for timely diagnosis of GWFI than traditional method. The information on the epizootiology of P. silenus in goats of Pothwar region would help in devising effective control strategies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  13. Boyko OO, Brygadyrenko VV
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):85-93.
    PMID: 33973578 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.046
    This research was undertaken to evaluate the nematicidal activity of various concentrations of aqueous tinctures of 80 plant species towards L1-2 of S. papillosus. For the experiment with larvae of S. papillosus, there were used 0.19%, 0.75% and 3.00% aqueous tinctures of plants. Out of 80 tested species, nematicidal activity against L1-2 of S. papillosus was displayed by 20 plants. The greatest activity (LC50 = 0.060-0.069%) towards larvae of S. papillosus was exerted by Teucrium polium, Achillea millefolium, Genista tinctoria and Ulmus laevis. Less expressed nematicidal activity (LC50 = 0.070-0.079%) was recorded for Thalictrum minus, Stachys recta, Falcaria vulgaris, Lavatera thuringiaca. Even lower effect (LC50 = 0.080-0.089%) was shown by aqueous tinctures of Mentha × piperita, Achillea millefolium, Salvia nutans, Eryngium campestre and Cerasus fruticosa. The following plants could be arranged in declining order of effectiveness of nematicidal activity (LC50 = 0.090-0.165%) Malus sylvestris, Tragopogon orientalis, Erigeron annuus, Grindelia squarrosa, Urtica dioica, Daucus carota, Medicago sativa, Carduus acanthoides, Ulmus minor and Hieracium umbellatum. A far weaker effect on the nematodes was displayed by Bromopsis inermis and Tragopogon podolicus. Aqueous tinctures of 60 other studied species of plants exhibited low nematicidal activity in 3.00% aqueous tincture, while in 0.19% and 0.75% aqueous tinctures, no nematicidal activity was seen. The results of the research suggest that in the conditions of natural ecosystems, some species of plants of the Apiaceae, Asteraceae, Fabaceae, Lamiaceae, Malvaceae, Rosaceae, Ulmaceae and Urticaceae families could reduce vitality of free-living L1-2 larvae of S. papillosus.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  14. Elia-Amira NMR, Chen CD, Low VL, Lau KW, Haziqah-Rashid A, Amelia-Yap ZH, et al.
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):196-204.
    PMID: 34172711 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.058
    Susceptibility status of Aedes albopictus (Skuse) sampled from residential areas in Interior, Sandakan and Tawau divisions of Sabah, Malaysia, was evaluated based on the WHOrecommended doses of organochlorine and organophosphate larvicides. To determine susceptibility status, larval bioassays were carried out and post 24-hour mortalities based on WHO resistance classifications were adopted. The results demonstrated that Ae. albopictus larvae were resistant toward 5 out of the 8 larvicides tested. Larvae from all populations were resistant against bromophos, fenitrothion, malathion, temephos and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), with mortalities ranging from 0.00 to 89.33%. Dieldrin, on the other hand, could induce 100.00% mortalities in all populations, followed by fenthion and chlorpyrifos, with mortalities ranging from 97.33 to 100.00% and 81.33 to 100.00% respectively. Despite most populations exhibiting similitude in their resistance status, larvae from Sandakan exhibited the highest resistance level whereas the lowest level was observed in Keningau. In view of the inadequacy of some larvicides in controlling Ae. albopictus in this study, integrated management such as insecticide rotation or combination of interventions is warranted.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  15. Avicor SW, Wajidi MFF, Achoribo ES, Ong MT, Hamzah SN
    Trop Biomed, 2021 Jun 01;38(2):186-191.
    PMID: 34172709 DOI: 10.47665/tb.38.2.056
    Plants contain bioactive compounds and are constantly explored as safer alternatives to conventional insecticides. Despite numerous studies on many plants, information on the insecticidal potential of underutilised plants like tiger nut, Cyperus esculentus L., are scant, although their pharmacological potentials are well known. Hence, this study investigated the larvicidal potential of crude aqueous extracts of two C. esculentus varieties (black and yellow) on the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Mosquito larvae were exposed to C. esculentus crude extracts using the larval bioassay technique of the World Health Organization. Differential larvicidal responses were observed in the test mosquitoes and extracts of Black Dried Tiger nuts (BDT) were more larvicidal than Yellow Dried Tiger nuts (YDT). Acute larval toxicity of the extracts was more pronounced on Cx. quinquefasciatus than Ae. aegypti. The results indicate the potential of C. esculentus (particularly BDT) as a source of mosquito bioinsecticide and merits further studies as a safer alternative to conventional insecticide-based vector control.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  16. Takaoka H, Srisuka W, Ya'cob Z, Low VL, Saeung A
    Acta Trop, 2021 May;217:105865.
    PMID: 33607063 DOI: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.105865
    A new black fly species, Simulium (Gomphostilbia) pangsidaense, is described on the basis of adult female, male, pupal exuviae and mature larvae from Pang Sida National Park, Sa Kaew Province, Eastern Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium ceylonicum species-group. It is distinguished from three Thai members of the S. ceylonicum species-group by the following characteristics: from S. (G.) curtatum Jitklang et al. and S. (G.) sheilae Takaoka & Davies by the wide pupal terminal hooks (triangular terminal hooks in the latter two species), and from S. (G.) sheilae and S. (G.) trangense Jitklang et al. by the number of male upper-eye facets in 13 vertical columns and 14 or 15 horizontal rows (10 or 11 vertical columns and 12 or 13 horizontal rows in the latter two species). This is the fourth member of the S. ceylonicum species-group recorded from Thailand.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
  17. Ya'cob Z, Low VL, Tan TK, Noor-Izwan A, Lourdes EY, Ramli R, et al.
    Parasitol Res, 2021 May;120(5):1555-1561.
    PMID: 33655351 DOI: 10.1007/s00436-021-07087-x
    Sexually anomalous individuals, typically intersexes or gynandromorphs, bear a mixture of male and female traits. Twelve sexually anomalous individuals of the black fly Simulium (Gomphostilbia) trangense Jitklang, Kuvangkadilok, Baimai, Takaoka & Adler were discovered among 49 adults reared from pupae. All 12 sexually anomalous adults were parasitized by mermithid nematodes, although five additional parasitized adults had no overt external anomalies. Sequence analysis of the 18S rRNA gene revealed that the mermithids, possibly representing a new species, are related to Mesomermis spp., with genetic distances of 5.09-6.87%. All 12 anomalous individuals had female phenotypical traits on the head, thorax, forelegs, midlegs, and claws, but male features on the left and right hind basitarsi. One individual had mixed male and female genitalia. The findings are in accord with the trend that mermithid infections are associated with sexually anomalous adult black flies.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development
  18. Wong KC, Sankaran S, Jayapalan JJ, Subramanian P, Abdul-Rahman PS
    Arch Insect Biochem Physiol, 2021 May;107(1):e21785.
    PMID: 33818826 DOI: 10.1002/arch.21785
    Mutant lethal giant larvae (lgl) flies (Drosophila melanogaster) are known to develop epithelial tumors with invasive characteristics. The present study has been conducted to investigate the influence of melatonin (0.025 mM) on behavioral responses of lgl mutant flies as well as on biochemical indices (redox homeostasis, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, transaminases, and minerals) in hemolymph, and head and intestinal tissues. Behavioral abnormalities were quantitatively observed in lgl flies but were found normalized among melatonin-treated lgl flies. Significantly decreased levels of lipid peroxidation products and antioxidants involved in redox homeostasis were observed in hemolymph and tissues of lgl flies, but had restored close to normalcy in melatonin-treated flies. Carbohydrates including glucose, trehalose, and glycogen were decreased and increased in the hemolymph and tissues of lgl and melatonin-treated lgl flies, respectively. Key enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism showed a significant increment in their levels in lgl mutants but had restored close to wild-type baseline levels in melatonin-treated flies. Variables of lipid metabolism showed significantly inverse levels in hemolymph and tissues of lgl flies, while normalization of most of these variables was observed in melatonin-treated mutants. Lipase, chitinase, transaminases, and alkaline phosphatase showed an increment in their activities and minerals exhibited decrement in lgl flies; reversal of changes was observed under melatonin treatment. The impairment of cognition, disturbance of redox homeostasis and metabolic reprogramming in lgl flies, and restoration of normalcy in all these cellular and behavioral processes indicate that melatonin could act as oncostatic and cytoprotective agents in Drosophila.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/drug effects; Larva/genetics; Larva/metabolism
  19. Ola-Fadunsin SD, Sharma RSK, Abdullah DA, Gimba FI, Abdullah FFJ, Sani RA
    Ticks Tick Borne Dis, 2021 05;12(3):101653.
    PMID: 33465661 DOI: 10.1016/j.ttbdis.2021.101653
    Babesia bigemina is a tick-borne protozoan that affects cattle in almost all regions of the world. Despite its importance, there is no report of its prevalence in cattle using molecular detection methods in Peninsular Malaysia. This study describes the prevalence, distribution, and risk factors associated with B. bigemina infection using molecular diagnostic methods. Also, the species of ticks infesting cattle and the attitude of cattle farmers towards tick control in Peninsular Malaysia were studied. Blood samples were collected from 1045 cattle from 43 herds throughout the country, and were subjected to molecular studies to detect B. bigemina. Tick samples for entomological studies were also collected and identified. Epidemiological information of each cattle and farm were obtained using a well-structured questionnaire containing open-ended and closed-ended questions. Data were statistically analyzed using Univariate and Multivariate models. The 211-base pair of AMA-1 gene of B. bigemina was amplified and confirmed in 30.5 % (319/1045; 95 % CI = 27.8-33.4) of the sampled population, with the haemoprotozoan detected in all the sampled herds. Breed, age, physiological status, management type, rate of de-ticking, and closeness to human settlement were the risk factors significantly (p < 0.05) associated with the prevalence of B. bigemina in cattle. Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Haemaphysalis bispinosa were the species of ticks collected from cattle, with the former been more prevalent. A large number of cattle farmers (12/43; 28 %) do not control ticks in their herds. The findings of this study will create baseline data on the epidemiology of the haemoprotozoan and control patterns of its tick vectors that will guide the government in enacting policies that will improve food security and the economy of the nation.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva/growth & development; Larva/physiology
  20. Issac PK, Lite C, Guru A, Velayutham M, Kuppusamy G, Saraswathi NT, et al.
    Fish Physiol Biochem, 2021 Apr;47(2):293-311.
    PMID: 33394283 DOI: 10.1007/s10695-020-00912-7
    This study reports the antioxidant property and molecular mechanism of a tryptophan-tagged peptide derived from a teleost fish Channa striatus of serine threonine-protein kinase (STPK). The peptide was tagged with tryptophan to enhance the antioxidant property of STPK and named as IW13. The antioxidant activity of IW13 peptide was investigated using in vitro methods such as DPPH, ABTS, superoxide anion radical scavenging and hydrogen peroxide scavenging assay. Furthermore, to investigate the toxicity and dose response of IW13 peptide on antioxidant defence in vitro, L6 myotubes were induced with generic oxidative stress due to exposure of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). IW13 peptide exposure was found to be non-cytotoxic to L6 cells in the tested concentration (10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 μM). Also, the pre-treatment of IW13 peptide decreased the lipid peroxidation level and increased glutathione enzyme activity. IW13 peptide treatment upregulated the antioxidant enzyme genes: GPx (glutathione peroxidase), GST (glutathione S transferase) and GCS (glutamine cysteine synthase), in vitro in L6 myotubes and in vivo in zebrafish larvae against the H2O2-induced oxidative stress. The results demonstrated that IW13 renders protection against the H2O2-induced oxidative stress through a cellular antioxidant defence mechanism by upregulating the gene expression, thus enhancing the antioxidant activity in the cellular or organismal level. The findings exhibited that the tryptophan-tagged IW13 peptide from STPK of C. striatus could be a promising candidate for the treatment of oxidative stress-associated diseases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Larva
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