Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Medical Microbiology and Parasitology, University Putra Malaysia in 2014-2017. Saline extract protein from the infective larvae of S. ratti was used to immunize BALB/c mice and subsequent fusion of the B-cells with myeloma cells (SP2/0) using 50% PEG. The hybridomas were cultured in HAT medium and cloned by limiting dilutions. Positive hybrids were screened by indirect ELISA. The ascites fluid from the antibody-secreting hybridoma was purified and the MAb was characterized by western-blots and evaluated in sandwich ELISA for reactivity against the homologous and heterologous antigens.
Results: An IgG1 that recognizes a 30 and 34 kDa protein bands was obtained. The MAb was recognized by all S. ratti-related antigens and cross-reacted with only Toxocara canis antigens in both assays. The minimum antigen detection limit was found to be 5 ng/ml. All antibody-positive rat and dog sera evaluated have shown antigen-positive reactions in Sandwich-ELISA.
Conclusion: The MAb produced, was able to detect antigens in strongyloidiasis and toxocariasis in animal models and may also be useful for the serological detection of active strongyloidiasis and visceral toxocariasis in human sera.
OBJECTIVES: To describe the treatment of cutaneous myiasis in three dogs caused by the larvae of Ch. bezziana in Malaysia and their treatment with spinosad plus milbemycin.
RESULTS: In all dogs, a single oral dose of spinosad plus milbemycin at the recommended dosage of 31-62 mg/kg and 0.5-1.0 mg/kg, respectively, was able to kill all larvae within 8 h. Most dead larvae fell off the host and those remaining on the host were dead and easily removed with simple saline flushing and gentle debridement. Neither general anaesthesia nor aggressive mechanical debridement were needed in any patient.
CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL IMPORTANCE: Oral spinosad plus milbemycin is a safe, licensed and effective treatment at the recommended dose for the rapid elimination of Ch. bezziana myiasis, with no need for sedation or anaesthesia.
RESULTS: The resazurin-based TB assay demonstrated that the L. cuprina larval extract was inhibitory against all tested bacteria, whilst the larval extract of S. peregrina and M. domestica were only inhibitory against the MRSA, with a MIC of 100 mg ml(-1). Subsequent sub-culture of aliquots revealed that the larval extract of L. cuprina was bactericidal against MRSA whilst the larval extracts of S. peregrina and M. domestica were bacteriostatic against MRSA. The GC-MS analysis had quantitatively identified 20 organic compounds (fatty acids or their derivatives, aromatic acid esters, glycosides and phenol) from the larval extract of L. cuprina; and 5 fatty acid derivatives with known antimicrobial activities from S. peregrina and M. domestica.
CONCLUSION: The resazurin-based turbidometric assay is a simple, reliable and feasible screening assay which evidently demonstrated the antibacterial activity of all fly larval extracts, primarily against the MRSA. The larval extract of L. cuprina exerted a broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria. The present study revealed probable development and use of novel and effective natural disinfectant(s) and antibacterial agent(s) from flies and efforts to screen more fly species for antibacterial activity using resazurin-based TB assay should be undertaken for initial screening for subsequent discovery and isolation of potential novel antimicrobial substances, particularly against the multi-drug resistant strains.