In zebrafish, fast muscle-specific myosin heavy chain genes have their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted region of the skeletal muscle. However, the transcriptional regulatory mechanisms involved have remained unclear. Here, we examined the regulation of spatio-temporal expression patterns of myhz1 (myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3) and myhz2 during their development by using transient gene and stable transgenic techniques. Embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 conjugated with the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) gene showed EGFP expression in the anterior and medial subsections of somites, but not in the tail somite region. In contrast, embryos microinjected with different length 5'-flanking sequences of myhz2 showed EGFP expression exclusively at the posterior tail somite domain. Promoter deletion analyses demonstrated that reduced EGFP fluorescence typically is correlated with smaller 5'-flanking sequences. The immunohistochemical observation revealed that zebrafish larvae provided with the transient gene and those from stable transgenic lines consistently expressed EGFP in the fast muscle fibers. r-VISTA plot identified one common conserved region of about 140°bp among myhz1.1, myhz1.2 and myhz1.3. Deletion of this conserved region from the 5'-flanking sequence of each myhz1 markedly reduced EGFP expression in its unique spatial somite region. Deletion mutation analysis demonstrated that myhz2 expression in the tail somite region might be mediated by Tbx (family of transcription factors having a common DNA-binding sequence known as T-box) binding elements. In summary, 5'-flanking sequences of myhz1 and myhz2 regulate their unique expression patterns in a well-defined and restricted somite region of the skeletal muscle in zebrafish.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) lemborense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae and mature larvae from Flores, in the eastern part of the Sunda Archipelago, Indonesia. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein, representing the most eastern distribution record for the group. This new species is characterized by a narrow female frons and pupal gill with eight filaments, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are three to four times as long as the six other filaments. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from related species.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) laosense sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Laos. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein. It is characterized by the pupal gill with eight filaments arranged as 3 + 3 + 2 from dorsal to ventral, of which an inner filament of the ventral pair is slightly longer than its counter filament, and is 1.7-1.8 times as long as filaments of the middle triplet. Taxonomic notes are provided to distinguish this new species from Simulium (G.) johorense Takaoka, Sofian-Azirun & Ya'cob from Peninsular Malaysia and four other related species. The phylogenetic position of this new species in the S. batoense species-group is also presented based on the mitochondrial COI gene. This new species represents the second species known from Laos.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) fukudae sp. nov. is described based on females, males, pupae, and larvae from Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium batoense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). It is characterized by the female frons almost bare, male paramere covered with minute setae, pupal gill composed of six slender filaments, pupal terminal hooks cone-shaped, and cocoon with an anterodorsal projection. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from the most similar species, Simulium (G.) sextuplum Takaoka & Davies and Simulium (G.) paukatense Takaoka, both from Malaysia.
Simulium (Gomphostilbia) yvonneae sp. nov. is described based on adults, pupae, and mature larvae from Vietnam. This new species belongs to the Simulium duolongum subgroup in the S. batoense species-group of the subgenus Gomphostilbia Enderlein. It is distinguished by having a relatively larger number of male upper-eye facets in 16 vertical columns and 16 horizontal rows and a pupal gill with eight filaments arranged as 3+(1+2)+2 from dorsal to ventral, of which two filaments of the ventral pair are 1.8 times as long as the longest filament of the middle and dorsal triplets. Morphological comparisons are made to distinguish this new species from all 22 related species. The genetic distinctiveness of this new species in the S. duolongum subgroup is also presented based on the DNA barcoding COI gene.
A cryptic Bornean torrent frog of the genus Meristogenys, which is divergent genetically and morphologically from all known congeners, is described from mountain streams of western Sarawak, East Malaysia (Borneo). The species occurs sympatrically with the type species of the genus, M. jerboa, but apparently differs from it in adult coloration and larval morphology, such as keratodont formulae and glands in tail fins. Females of the new species possess much larger and fewer eggs than in sympatric M. jerboa, suggesting significantly different reproductive traits between these species. A key to larvae of known species of the genus is provided.
Simulium (Asiosimulium) saeungae sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described based on females, males, pupae, and mature larvae collected from Nan Province, Northern Thailand. It is characterized by the medium-long cerci in the female, enlarged hind basitarsus, and broad ventral plate with its posterior margin not deeply concave in the male, arborescent pupal gill with 42-56 filaments in the pupa and smaller number of primary rays of the labral fan (30-33) in the larva. This is the fifth species of the subgenus Asiosimulium, the second smallest among 10 subgenera in the Oriental Region. Taxonomic notes are given to distinguish this new species from the three known species from Thailand and one from Nepal.
Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
A new simuliid species, Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov., is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from East Kalimantan, Indonesia, and is assigned to the Simulium banauense species-group of Simulium (Gomphostilbia). This new species has close similarities to S alienigenum Takaoka from the Philippines, in many characters including the adult antennal color pattern and pupal gill with four long filaments arranged in two pairs each bearing a long stalk, but is distinguished from the latter in the female by the longer sensory vesicle and in the pupa by the gill with an elongate common basal stalk. Simulium kalimantanense sp. nov. is the first member of the S. banauense group in Borneo, and marks the most southerly distribution of the group. Keys to identify 19 Bornean species of the subgenus Gomphostilbia are provided.
Matched MeSH terms: Larva/anatomy & histology; Larva/classification; Larva/growth & development
A new black fly species, Simulium haiduanense Takaoka, Low & Huang (Diptera: Simuliidae), is described on the basis of females, males, pupae, and mature larvae from Taiwan. This new species is placed in the Simulium argentipes species-group of the subgenus Simulium (Diptera: Simuliidae) and is characterized by the yellowish female legs, ovipositor valves rounded apically and with its inner margin concave, claw with a small subbasal tooth, male style without a basal protuberance, pupal gill with eight filaments, corbicular cocoon, and larval abdomen lacking paired protuberances. It represents the first record of the S. argentipes species-group from Taiwan. Taxonomic notes are given to separate this new species from all eight species in the same species-group. The phylogenetic relationships of this new species with four related species are presented.
Simulium undecimum sp. nov. is described from Thailand. This new species is assigned to the Simulium multistriatum species-group, one of the 20 species-groups of the subgenus Simulium in the Oriental Region. It is characterized by the female cibarium with minute processes, male ventral plate with a narrow body having two vertical rows of distinct teeth on the posterior surface and without setae on the anterior and lateral surfaces, pupal gill with eight short filaments decreasing in length from dorsal to ventral, and divergent at an angle of around 90 degrees when viewed laterally, spine-combs only on abdominal segments 7 and 8, and cocoon wall-pocket shaped with anterolateral windows. Taxonomic notes to separate this new species from related species in Thailand and other countries are given. This new species is the 11th nominal member of this species-group recorded in Thailand. An analysis of the COI gene sequences shows that it is most closely related with S. malayense Takaoka & Davies (cytoform A) from Thailand but they are distantly separated by 3.01-8.87%.
Simulium (Simulium) phraense sp. nov. (Diptera: Simuliidae) is described from females, males, pupae, and larvae from Thailand. This new species is placed in the Simulium striatum species group and is most similar to Simulium (Simulium) nakhonense Takaoka & Suzuki (Diptera: Simuliidae) from Thailand among species of the same species group but is barely distinguished from the latter species by lacking annular ridges on the surface of the pupal gill filaments. The fast-evolving nuclear big zinc finger (BZF) gene has successfully differentiated this new species from its allies, S. (S.) nakhonense and Simulium (Simulium) chiangmaiense Takaoka & Suzuki (Diptera: Simuliidae) of the S. striatum species group. The BZF gene sequences show that this new species is more closely related to S. (S.) nakhonense than to S. (S.) chiangmaiense, further supporting its morphological classification.
Mass mortalities of the larval stage of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, have been occurring in Bangladesh since 2011. Mortalities can reach 100% and have resulted in an 80% decline in the number of hatcheries actively producing M. rosenbergii. To investigate a causative agent for the mortalities, a disease challenge was carried out using infected material from a hatchery experiencing mortalities. Moribund larvae from the challenge were prepared for metatranscriptomic sequencing. De novo virus assembly revealed a 29 kb single‑stranded positive-sense RNA virus with similarities in key protein motif sequences to yellow head virus (YHV), an RNA virus that causes mass mortalities in marine shrimp aquaculture, and other viruses in the Nidovirales order. Primers were designed against the novel virus and used to screen cDNA from larvae sampled from hatcheries in the South of Bangladesh from two consecutive years. Larvae from all hatcheries screened from both years were positive by PCR for the novel virus, including larvae from a hatchery that at the point of sampling appeared healthy, but later experienced mortalities. These screens suggest that the virus is widespread in M. rosenbergii hatchery culture in southern Bangladesh, and that early detection of the virus can be achieved by PCR. The hypothesised protein motifs of Macrobrachium rosenbergii golda virus (MrGV) suggest that it is likely to be a new species within the Nidovirales order. Biosecurity measures should be taken in order to mitigate global spread through the movement of post-larvae within and between countries, which has previously been linked to other virus outbreaks in crustacean aquaculture.
Despite being a common skin dermatosis in the tropics, physicians in the tropics may miss the diagnosis of cutaneous larva migrans for other pruritic skin manifestation. This is especially in those who live in urban housing with no history of travel. Cutaneous larva migrans, an intensely pruritic skin pathology is mainly contracted by people with history of beach holiday or contact with moist soft sand which had been contaminated with dog or cat faeces. This article reports a patient who presented with intensely itchy papular spots over the dorsum of his foot after walking barefooted in an urban toilet soiled with cat faeces. The patient had initially seen an urban general practitioner who diagnosed the papular skin lesion as an allergic reaction, and prescribed antihistamines. The patient subsequently developed creeping skin lesions and was seen by the author who prescribed albendazole 400 mg twice daily for three days. The patient reported reduction in itching after two days of albendazole treatment and a follow up at ten days revealed a healed infection.
A case of true enteric myiasis in a 7-year-old girl is reported. Two larvae were obtained from the vomitus of the patient. After processing and identification, the larvae were found to be those of Hermetia illucens (Soldier Fly). This is the first case of true enteric myiasis due to these larvae in Malaysia.
Introduction: Ascariasis is a parasitic infection, which commonly affects immunocompromised patients. Most pa-tients remained asymptomatic during the early larval migration stage and respond well with conventional anti-hel-minthic drugs. Previous literature had reported symptomatic Ascaris infection mimicking bacterial pneumonia and the typical eosinophilia found in Loeffler syndrome was absent in patients on corticosteroids. Thus, a high index of suspicion for ascariasis is needed for immunosuppressed patients presented with infection. We present here a case of severe ascariasis infection in a systemic lupus erythematosus patient. Case description: A 16-year-old boy presented with fever, generalized maculopapular rash associated with neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. He was treated initially as Dengue Fever initially. However his symptoms did not resolve at even day 14 of admission. On further assessment, we were convinced he has SLE based upon presence of malar rash, oral ulcers, urinary protein-uria, persistent leucopenia, thrombocytopenia with low complements and ANA positive. He was promptly started on IV hydrocortisone. He showed a good progress in the first few days. On day 5 of admission, he coughed out a round worm which later identified as Ascarisis lumbricoides. He was started on Albendazole. Unfortunately he developed hemoptysis and respiratory compromisation where he required intubation. Post intubation he went into cardiac arrest, which required CPR. Following that event, his condition further deteriorated with multi organ failure. He succumbed to his illness three days later. Conclusion: Immunocompromised patients are prone to opportunistic infections including parasitic infections. we present here a case of ascariasis in an SLE patient who unfortunately succumbed to the illness. Due to the variable clinical symptoms that mimic other infections, screening for parasitic infections needs to be considered especially if the patients do not respond to antibiotics and routine treatments.
Background: Dirofilaria ursi is a filarial nematode that parasitizes the subcutaneous tissues of the American black bear (Ursus americanus) and Japanese black bear (Ursus thiabetanus japonicus). D. ursi that has parasitized black bears has the potential to subsequently infect humans. In addition, extra-gastrointestinal anisakiasis is less common in Japan.
Case presentation: We report a case of ventral subcutaneous anisakiasis and dorsal subcutaneous dirofilariasis that was acquired in Fukushima, in the northern part of Japan. The patient was an 83-year-old Japanese female, and subcutaneous parasitic granulomas were present on her left abdomen (near the navel) and left scapula. A pathological examination of the surgically dissected tissue sections from each region demonstrated eosinophilic granulomas containing different species of parasites. To enable the morphological and molecular identification of these parasites, DNA was extracted from paraffin-embedded sections using DEXPAT reagent, and the cytochrome oxidase 2 (COX2), internal transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1), 5.8S and ITS2 regions of the Anisakis larvae, and the 5S rRNA region of the male Dirofilaria were sequenced. The PCR products were examined and compared with DNA databases. Molecular analysis of the COX2 and 5S rRNA sequences of each worm revealed that the nematode found in the ventral region belonged to Anisakis simplex sensu stricto (s.s.) and the male Dirofilaria found in the dorsal region was classified as D. ursi.
Conclusion: The present case showed a combined human case of D. ursi and A. simplex s.s. infections in subcutaneous tissues. The results of this study will contribute to the identification of unknown parasites in histological sections.
Human gnathostomiasis is an emerging food-borne parasitic disease caused by nematodes of the genus Gnathostoma. Currently, serological tests are commonly applied to support clinical diagnosis. In the present study, a simple and rapid filtration-based test, dot immune-gold filtration assay (DIGFA) was developed using a partially purified antigen of Gnathostoma third-stage larvae (L3). A total of 180 serum samples were tested to evaluate the diagnostic potential of DIGFA for gnathostomiasis. The diagnostic sensitivity and specificity were 96.7% (29/30) and 100% (25/25), respectively. The cross-reactivity with sera from other helminthiasis patients ranged from 0 to 4%, with an average of 1.6% (2/125). DIGFA using a partially purified L3 antigen was not only simple and rapid, but also more accurate than standard assays for the diagnosis of human gnathostomiasis. DIGFA may represent a promising tool for application in laboratories or in the field, without requiring any instrumentation.
A new genus of Winnertziini (Cecidomyiidae: Winnertziinae) named Bernadottea gen. nov. is introduced to absorb four new species from various different parts of the Old World: B. natalensis sp. nov. from South Africa, B. honshuensis sp. nov. from Japan, and B. pahangensis sp. nov. and B. selangorensis sp. nov. from Malaysia. Bernadottea are distinguished from previously known Winnertziini by the unusually complex genitalia of males, and from most members of this tribe by the absence of the fourth medial vein (M4). Another feature of Bernadottea is their rare occurrence in samples of Winnertziini taken by hand or by traps, a circumstance presumably expressing their scarcity in nature, at least at ground level. The new taxa are described based on the morphology of males, while females and larvae remain unknown.
Clostridial neurotoxins, including tetanus and botulinum neurotoxins, generally target vertebrates. We show here that this family of toxins has a much broader host spectrum, by identifying PMP1, a clostridial-like neurotoxin that selectively targets anopheline mosquitoes. Isolation of PMP1 from Paraclostridium bifermentans strains collected in anopheline endemic areas on two continents indicates it is widely distributed. The toxin likely evolved from an ancestral form that targets the nervous system of similar organisms, using a common mechanism that disrupts SNARE-mediated exocytosis. It cleaves the mosquito syntaxin and employs a unique receptor recognition strategy. Our research has an important impact on the study of the evolution of clostridial neurotoxins and provides the basis for the use of P. bifermentans strains and PMP1 as innovative, environmentally friendly approaches to reduce malaria through anopheline control.