Currently, the laboratory diagnosis of toxocariasis, caused by Toxocara canis or T. cati, mainly relies on serological tests. Unfortunately, however, the specificities of most of the commercial tests that are available for the serodiagnosis of this disease are not very high and this may cause problems, especially in tropical countries where co-infections with other helminths are common. In an effort to develop a serological assay with improved specificity for the detection of Toxocara infection, an IgG(4)-ELISA based on a recombinant version (rTES-30USM) of the 30-kDa Toxocara excretory-secretory antigen (TES-30) has recently been developed. To produce the antigen, the TES-30 gene was cloned via assembly PCR, subcloned into a His-tagged prokaryotic expression vector, and purified by affinity chromatography using Ni(2+)-nitrilotriacetic-acid (Ni-NTA) resin. The performance of the ELISA based on the recombinant antigen was then compared with that of commercial kit, based on an IgG-ELISA, for the serodiagnosis of toxocariasis (Toxocara IgG-ELISA; Cypress Diagnostics, Langdorp, Belgium). Both assays were used to test 338 serum samples, including 26 samples from probable cases of toxocariasis. Assuming that all the probable cases were true cases, the assay based on rTES-30USM demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.3% (24/26) and a specificity of 89.6% (103/115) whereas the commercial kit exhibited a sensitivity of 100% (26/26) but a specificity of only 55.7% (64/115). The high sensitivity and specificity exhibited by the new IgG(4)-ELISA should make the assay a good choice for use in tropical countries and any other area where potentially cross-reactive helminthic infections are common.
Leaf extracts of Melicope lunu-ankenda were chemically studied and found to contain mixtures of hydrocarbons and squalene, fatty acids and esters. A geranylated coumaric acid was isolated as the major compound. The crude dichloromethane and methanol extracts of the leaves were found to be strongly larvicidal with LC50 values below 20 microg mL(-1). This is a first isolation of p-O-geranylcoumaric acid from this plant.
A strain of Clostridium bifermentans individualized as serovar malaysia (C.b.m.) according to its specific H antigen is toxic to mosquito and blackfly larvae when given orally. The toxicity occurs in sporulated cells which contain, in addition to spores, proteinic parasporal inclusion bodies and feather-like appendages; the amino acid content of the inclusion bodies is similar to that of Bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (B.t.i.) and B. sphaericus crystals. The toxicity to Anopheles stephensi is as high as that of B.t.i. and the best strains of B. sphaericus. Culex pipiens is somewhat less susceptible, and Aedes aegypti much less. Pure parasporal inclusion bodies, isolated by ultracentrifugation on sucrose gradients, are highly toxic to mosquito larvae. The larvicidal power is destroyed by heating at 80 degrees C or by treatment with 50 mM NaOH. It is preserved by freeze-drying. The innocuity to mice of the sporulated cells is shown by different routes of administration: force-feeding, percutaneous, subcutaneous, intraperitoneal or intravenous injections. The potential for the biological control of mosquito and blackfly larvae is suggested.
Tarsubulura perarmata (Ratzel, 1868) is described from a primate Tarsius bancanus and from Tupaidae: Tupaia glis and T. minor in Malaysia (Kuala Lumpur). Its biological cycle is done by the experimental infestation of crickets belonging to the genera Valanga and Oxya. The infective larvae are obtained after three weeks of development of 28 degrees C in the intermediate host. They differ from third stage larvae obtained from Subulurinae by the development of cuticular pharyngeal lobes. The early apparition of this ontogenetic character confirms the isolation of the genus Tarsubulura as compared to the general evolution of the Subuluridae.
An outbreak of the sessile peritrich Zoothamnium duplicatum in a pilot, commercial-scale Limulus polyphemus hatchery resulted in the loss of ∼96% (40,000) second/third instar larvae over a 61day period. peritrich growth was heavy, leading to mechanical obstruction of the gills and physical damage. The peritrichs were controlled without resultant loss of juvenile crabs by administering 10ppm chlorine in freshwater for 1h and the addition of aquarium grade sand; a medium into which the crabs could burrow and facilitate cleaning of the carapace. Peritrich identity was confirmed from a partial SSU rDNA contiguous sequence of 1343bp (99.7% similarity to Z. duplicatum).
Five local Malaysian patients with clinical manifestations consistent with lymphatic filariasis were referred to our medical centre between 2003 and 2006. Although no microfilariae (mf) were detected in their nocturnal blood samples, all were diagnosed to have lymphatic filariasis on the basis of clinical findings and positive serology results. PCR on their blood samples revealed that two of the patients were infected with Brugia pahangi, an animal filarial worm hitherto not known to cause human disease in the natural environment. All the patients were successfully treated with anti-filarial drugs: four patients were treated with a combination of diethylcarbamazine (DEC) and albendazole, and one with doxycycline. Four of them were residents of Petaling Jaya, a residential suburbia located 10 km southwest of Kuala Lumpur city, Malaysia. The fifth patient was a frequent visitor of the suburbia. This suburbia has no history or record of B. malayi infection. The most likely vector of the worm was Armigeres subalbatus as extensive entomological surveys within the suburbia revealed only adult females of this mosquito species were infected with B. pahangi larvae. Wild monkeys caught in the suburbia were free from B. pahangi mf, but domestic cats were mf positive. This suggests that infected cats might be the source of the zoonotic infection in the suburbia.
Studies on the stem of Garcinia mangostana have led to the isolation of one new xanthone mangosharin (1) (2,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-5-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone) and six other prenylated xanthones, alpha-mangostin (2), beta-mangostin (3), garcinone D (4), 1,6-dihydroxy-3,7-dimethoxy-2-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-xanthone (5), mangostanol (6) and 5,9-dihydroxy-8- methoxy-2,2-dimethyl-7-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-2H,6H-pyrano-[3,2-b]-xanthene-6-one (7). The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods such as 1H NMR, 13C NMR, mass spectrometry (MS) and by comparison with previous studies. All the crude extracts when screened for their larvicidal activities indicated very good toxicity against the larvae of Aedes aegypti. This article reports the isolation and identification of the above compounds as well as bioassay data for the crude extracts. These bioassay data have not been reported before.
Several sites, Z-7L, Z-5 and Z-14, in Sibu district, Sarawak, Malaysia, experienced intense dengue transmission in 2014 that continued into 2015. A pilot study with Bacillus thuringiensis israelensis (Bti) to control Aedes aegypti (L.) and Ae. albopictus (Skuse) was evaluated in Z-7L, a densely populated site of 12 ha. Bti treatments were conducted weekly from epidemiology week (EW) 24/2015 for 4 weeks, followed by fortnight treatments for 2 months, in addition to the routine control activities. Bti was directly introduced into potable containers and the outdoor artificial and natural containers were treated via a wide area spray application method using a backpack mister. Aedes indices significantly reduced during the treatment and post treatment phases, compared to the control site, Z-5 (p<0.05). A 51 fold reduction in the incidence rate per 100,000 population (IR) was observed, with one case in 25 weeks (EW 29-52). In Z-5 and Z-14, control sites, a 6 fold reduction in the IR was observed from EW 29-52. However, almost every week there were dengue cases in Z-14 and until EW 44 in Z-5. In 2016, dengue cases resurfaced in Z-7L from EW 4. Intensive routine control activities were conducted, but the IR continued to escalate. The wide area Bti spray misting of the outdoor containers was then included from EW 27 on fortnight intervals. A 6 fold reduction in IR was observed in the Bti treatment phase (EW 32-52) with no successive weekly cases after EW 37. However, in the control sites, there were dengue cases throughout the year from EW 1-52, particularly in Z-14. We feel that the wide area Bti spray application method is an integral component in the control program, in conjunction with other control measures carried out, to suppress the vector population in outdoor cryptic containers and to interrupt the disease transmission.
For successful parasitism, parasitoid females must oviposit and the progeny must develop in individual hosts. Here, we investigated the determinants of host acceptance for oviposition and host suitability for larval development of Drosophila parasitoids from Bogor and Kota Kinabalu (≍1,800 km northeast of Bogor), Indonesia, in tropical Asia. Asobara pleuralis (Ashmead) from both localities oviposited frequently (>60%) in all of the drosophilid species tested, except the strain from Kota Kinabalu oviposited rarely (10%) in Drosophila eugracilis Bock & Wheeler. Leptopilina victoriae Nordlander from both localities only oviposited frequently (>77%) in species from the Drosophila melanogaster species group except D. eugracilis (<3.7%), whereas Leptopilina pacifica Novković & Kimura from Bogor oviposited frequently (>85%) only in species from the Drosophila immigrans species group. Thus, host acceptance appeared to be affected by host taxonomy, at least in Leptopilina species. Host suitability varied considerably, even among closely related drosophilid species, which suggests that the host suitability is at least in part independent of host taxonomy and that it has been determined via parasitoid-host coevolutionary interactions (i.e., arms race). Host acceptance did not always coincide with host suitability, i.e., parasitoids sometimes oviposited in unsuitable host species. Geographic origin strongly affected the host acceptance and suitability in the A. pleuralis-D. eugracilis parasitoid-host pair, whereas it only weakly affected the acceptability and suitability in other parasitoid-host combinations.
Larvae of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus obtained from 6 consecutive ovitrap surveillance (OS) in Taman Samudera and Kg. Banjar were evaluated for their susceptibility to temephos. Larval bioassays were carried out in accordance with WHO standard methods, with diagnostic dosage (0.012 mg/L) and operational dosage (1 mg/L) of temephos respectively. Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from six OS in Taman Samudera showed resistance to diagnostic dosage of temephos with percentage mortality between 5.3 to 72.0 and 9.3 to 56.0, respectively, while Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus obtained from Kg. Banjar showed resistance to temephos with percentage mortality between 16.0 to 72.0 and 0 to 50.6, respectively. Only two strains of Ae. aegypti from Kg. Banjar were susceptible to temephos with 93.3% (OS 2) and 100% (OS 3) mortality. The 50% mortality at lethal time (LT50) for all strains of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus tested against operational dosage of temephos showed range between 36.07 to 75.69 minutes and 58.65 to 112.50 minutes, respectively, and complete mortality was achieved after 24 hours. Our results indicated that there is weekly variations of the resistance status for Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus. Aedes susceptibility to temephos is changing from time to time in these two study sites. It is essential to continue monitoring the resistance of this vector to insecticides in order to ensure the efficiency of program aimed at vector control and protection of human health.
The increasing attention on Vietnam as a biodiversity hotspot prompted an investigation of the potential for cryptic diversity in black flies, a group well known elsewhere for its high frequency of isomorphic species. We analyzed the banding structure of the larval polytene chromosomes in the Simulium tuberosum species group to probe for diversity beyond the morphological level. Among 272 larvae, 88 different chromosomal rearrangements, primarily paracentric inversions, were discovered in addition to 25 already known in the basic sequences of the group in Asia. Chromosomal diversity in Vietnam far exceeds that known for the group in Thailand, with only about 5% of the rearrangements shared between the two countries. Fifteen cytoforms and nine morphoforms were revealed among six nominal species in Vietnam. Chromosomal evidence, combined with available molecular and morphological evidence, conservatively suggests that at least five of the cytoforms are valid species, two of which require formal names. The total chromosomal rearrangements and species (15) now known from the group in Vietnam far exceed those of any other area of comparable size in the world, supporting the country's status as a biodiversity hotspot. Phylogenetic inference based on uniquely shared, derived chromosomal rearrangements supports the clustering of cytoforms into two primary lineages, the Simulium tani complex and the Southeast Asian Simulium tuberosum subgroup. Some of these taxa could be threatened by habitat destruction, given their restricted geographical distributions and the expanding human population of Vietnam.
The conventional practice in enhancing the larvae growths is by co-digesting the low-cost organic wastes with palatable feeds for black soldier fly larvae (BSFL). In circumventing the co-digestion practice, this study focused the employment of exo-microbes in a form of bacterial consortium powder to modify coconut endosperm waste (CEW) via fermentation process in enhancing the palatability of BSFL to accumulate more larval lipid and protein. Accordingly, the optimum fermentation condition was attained by inoculating 0.5 wt% of bacterial consortium powder into CEW for 14-21 days. The peaks of BSFL biomass gained and growth rate were initially attained whilst feeding the BSFL with optimum fermented CEW. These were primarily attributed by the lowest energy loss via metabolic cost, i.e., as high as 22% of ingested optimum fermented CEW was effectively bioconverted into BSFL biomass. The harvested BSFL biomass was then found containing about 40 wt% of lipid, yielding 98% of fatty acid methyl esters of biodiesel upon transesterification. Subsequently, the protein content was also analyzed to be 0.32 mg, measured from 20 harvested BSFL with a corrected-chitin of approximately 8%. Moreover, the waste reduction index which represents the BSFL valorization potentiality was recorded at 0.31 g/day 20 BSFL. The benefit of fermenting CEW was lastly unveiled, accentuating the presence of surplus acid-producing bacteria. Thus, it was propounded the carbohydrates in CEW were rapidly hydrolysed during fermentation, releasing substantial organic acids and other nutrients to incite the BSFL assimilation into lipid for biodiesel and protein productions simultaneously.
Surface engineering of super paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) favor the tagging of any molecule or compound onto it, encapsulating them with a biopolymer make them biocompatible and favor slow release of loaded molecules. Recovery of SPIONs is easier as they obey to external magnetic field. In this study, SPIONS were used for mosquito larvicidal activity after surface engineered with oleic acid to favor the tagging of Cyfluthrin (mosquito larvicidal agent), it was then encapsulated with gum polysaccharide derived from Azadirachta indica and Araucaria heterophylla. Every stage of coreshell formation was microscopically and spectroscopically characterized. The coreshell SPIONs produced using Azadirachta indica and Araucaria heterophylla gum derived polysaccharide encapsulation were found to be the size around 80 nm. Thus, prepared coreshell SPIONs was subjected for mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex sp. The coreshell SPIONs was efficiently killing the mosquito larva and its impact was studied by percentage mortality studies.
A case of urogenital myiasis caused by Chrysomya bezziana (Diptera: Calliphoridae) was diagnosed in a 76-year old patient who had carcinoma of the rectum. A total of 35 larvae were obtained from ulcers near the external genitalia and urethra opening. Larvae pupated within 1 to 2 days and 6 days later emerged as adult males. These were identified as Chrysomya bezziana. Female flies possibly attracted by the fetid odour, laid eggs in the existing lesions in the urogenital area, the larvae invading and feeding on living tissue. Lack of personal hygiene was the contributing factor for the cause of urogenital myiasis in this patient.
The genus Mansonia is divided into two subgenera, Mansonia and Mansonioides. The subgenus Mansonioides includes the important vectors of lymphatic filariasis caused by Brugia malayi in South and Southeast Asia. Six species of this subgenus are vectors of two types of brugian filariasis, periodic and subperiodic. All six species, viz Mansonia bonneae, Ma. dives, Ma. uniformis, Ma. annulifera, Ma. annulata and Ma. indiana are present in this country. The ecological factors governing the larval and adult biology and their control measures are discussed.
It is important to obtain frequent measurements of the abundance, distribution, and seasonality of mosquito vectors to determine the risk of disease transmission. The number of cases of dengue infection has increased in recent years on Penang Island, Malaysia, with recurring epidemics. However, ongoing control attempts are being critically hampered by the lack of up-to-date information regarding the vectors. To overcome this problem, we examined the current situation and distribution of dengue vectors on the island. Residences throughout the urban, suburban, and rural areas were inspected through wet and dry seasons between February 2009 and February 2010. Two vectors were encountered in the survey, with Aedes aegypti present in especially high numbers mostly in urban areas. Similar observations were noted for Ae. albopictus in rural areas. The former species was more abundant in outdoor containers, while the latter showed almost equivalent abundance both outdoors and indoors. The dengue virus was active in both urban and rural areas, and the number of cases of infection was higher in areas where Ae. aegypti was predominant. The abundance of immature Ae. albopictus was positively correlated with rainfall (r2 = 0.461; P < 0.05), but this was not the case for Ae. aegypti. For both species, the size of immature populations tended to increase with increasing intensity of rain, but heavy rains resulted in population loss. In addition to updating data regarding the larval habitats and locations (outdoors and indoors), this study highlighted the importance of spatial vector control stratification, which has the potential to reduce costs in control programs.
Introduction: Strongyloidiasis is endemic in the tropical and subtropical regions. Clinical manifestations of the dis-ease can range from asymptomatic eosinophilia in an immunocompetent host to a wide range of presentations in immunocompromised patients. Failure to consider the diagnosis of strongyloides infection, especially Strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome, is a major contributor of high mortality rate in such cases. Case Description: We report a case of 60 years old gentleman who was admitted to Sarawak General Hospital for a left subtrochanteric femur pathological fracture and the diagnosis of multiple myeloma was made in the same setting. He was started on treat-ment for multiple myeloma which includes high dose steroids. During his course of admission, he was diagnosed with hospital-acquired pneumonia was subsequently initiated with broad-spectrum antibiotics. Despite being exten-sively treated with multiple courses of broad-spectrum antibiotics, he deteriorated clinically, with eventual respirato-ry failure requiring ventilator support and ICU admission. A diagnosis of strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome was made after an incidental discovery of larvae in his sputum, which was later confirmed with stool sample. He was given a one-week course of albendazole 400mg twice daily and clinical improvement was observed. A repeated stool sample also demonstrated clearance of the parasites. Conclusion: This case highlights the need for clinical sus-picion of strongyloides hyperinfection syndrome in cases of unresolved pneumonia, especially for patients with risk factors of underlying immune-deficiency state. Preventive steps such early detection and eradication of strongyloides infection should be undertaken prior to initiation of immuno-suppressive therapy.
A black fly species of the Simulium feuerborni species-group of Simulium (Nevermannia) from Cameron Highland, Peninsular Malaysia, previously regarded as S. feuerborni Edwards, originally described from East Java, is described as Simulium pairoti sp. nov. based on complete life stages. High intraspecific variations in the arrangement of the six pupal gill filaments, length of the stalk of the ventral paired filaments, and length of the anterodorsal projection of the cocoon, are noted in this species. This new species is readily distinguished from its congeners by having the characters of male genitalia with simple lamellate ventral plate, short inwardly-twisted styles, several parameral hooks, and a simple narrow median sclerite. Morphological data reported herein plus the chromosomal and molecular data presented elsewhere support S. pairoti as a novel pseudocryptic species.