Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 47 in total

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  1. Zulkefli, A., Ramanathan, R.
    Malays Orthop J, 2010;4(1):46-49.
    MyJurnal
    A 42 years old gentleman presented with predominant low back pain associated with bilateral lower limb neurological deficit leading to an initial diagnosis of lumbar stenosis. Further history taking and examination revealed upper limb neurological deficit, and the lower limbs actually presented with upper motor neuron instead of lower motor neuron signs. Imaging studies confirmed the clinical findings with presence of both cervical and lumbar spinal stenosis. Twostage decompression procedures were performed at 6 monthintervals starting with cervical decompression. Postoperative improvement was noted on follow-up. This case highlights the importance of accurate diagnosis of cervical pathology for patients presenting with or referred for predominantly lumbar symptomology
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  2. Zeng QY, Chen R, Xiao ZY, Huang SB, Liu Y, Xu JC, et al.
    J. Rheumatol., 2004 Dec;31(12):2439-43.
    PMID: 15570648
    To determine whether the previously noted low prevalence of knee pain (KP) and lumbar pain (LP) in rural southern China compared with the high prevalence observed in North China was also true in a southern urban population.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/diagnosis; Low Back Pain/epidemiology*
  3. Zamzuri, Z., Mohd Adham, S.Y., Saufi, M.A., Azian, A.A., Fadhli, M.
    MyJurnal
    Ewing's sarcoma is a rare tumor first discovered by James Ewing in 1921. It is more common in bone or skeletal component compared to soft tissue or extraosseous Ewing's sarcoma. Among soft tissue Ewing’s, spinal cord involvement is rarer with only nine cases reported. We report a case of nine-year-old Malay girl who presented with low back pain for two months following a fall with progressive neurological deficits of bilateral lower limb. Magnetic resonance imaging was suggestive of a well-defined margin of intradural extramedullary tumor. With nerve sheath tumor in mind, surgical excision with laminectomy L2-S1 was performed. Intraoperative finding was an extradural mass from L3-L5 with extension to bilateral neuroforamen. Histopathology report defined a round cell tumour of Ewing’s sarcoma from the mass.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  4. Zamri EN, Moy FM, Hoe VC
    PLoS ONE, 2017;12(2):e0172195.
    PMID: 28234933 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0172195
    BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal pain is common among teachers. Work-related psychosocial factors are found to be associated with the development of musculoskeletal pain, however psychological distress may also play an important role.

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the prevalence of self-reported low back pain (LBP), and neck and/or shoulder pain (NSP) among secondary school teachers; and to evaluate the association of LBP and NSP with psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors.

    METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study conducted among teachers in the state of Penang, Malaysia. The participants were recruited via a two stage sampling method. Information on demographic, psychological distress, work-related psychosocial factors, and musculoskeletal pain (LBP and NSP) in the past 12 months was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Poisson regression was used to estimate the prevalence ratio (PR) for the associations between psychological distress and work-related psychosocial factors with LBP and NSP.

    RESULTS: The prevalence of self-reported LBP and NSP among 1482 teachers in the past 12 months was 48.0% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 45.2%, 50.9%) and 60.1% (95% CI 57.4%, 62.9%) respectively. From the multivariate analysis, self-reported LBP was associated with teachers who reported severe to extremely severe depression (PR: 1.71, 95% CI 1.25, 2.32), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.46, 95% CI 1.22, 1.75), high psychological job demand (1.29, 95% CI 1.06, 1.57), low skill discretion (1.28, 95% CI 1.13, 1.47) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99). Self-reported NSP was associated with mild to moderate anxiety (1.18, 95% CI 1.06, 1.33), severe to extremely severe anxiety (1.25, 95% CI 1.09, 1.43), low supervisory support (1.13, 95% CI 1.03, 1.25) and poorer mental health (0.98, 95% CI 0.97, 0.99).

    CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported LBP and NSP were common among secondary school teachers. Interventions targeting psychological distress and work-related psychosocial characteristics may reduce musculoskeletal pain among school teachers.

    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  5. Wong, T.S., Teo, N., Kyaw, M.).
    Malays Orthop J, 2010;4(2):23-28.
    MyJurnal
    Study design: A cross-sectional study among health care providers working at one hospital. Objective: To investigate the prevalence, the consequences and the risk factors associated with low back pain (LBP) among hospital staff. Materials and Methods: The study sample consisted of 931 health care providers who answered a pre-established questionnaire including 30 items in two languages. Results: The cumulative life-prevalence of LBP was 72.5% and the yearly prevalence was 56.9%. Chronic LBP prevalence was noted 5.1% of the cases. Treatment was sought in 34.1% of LBP sufferers and 7.3% required sick leave or absence from work due to LBP. Risk factors associated with LBP were professional categories, bad body posture, lifting objects or patients and the increased levels of lifting, levels of job satisfaction and stressful job demands. Conclusion: There was a high prevalence of LBP among hospital staff, resulting in significant medical and socio-professional consequences. Many risk factors were identified that would necessitate multidisciplinary involvement to reduce the LBP incidence and related costs.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  6. Urquhart DM, Kelsall HL, Hoe VC, Cicuttini FM, Forbes AB, Sim MR
    Clin J Pain, 2013 Dec;29(12):1015-20.
    PMID: 23370089 DOI: 10.1097/AJP.0b013e31827ff0c0
    OBJECTIVES: To examine the relationship between individual and work-related psychosocial factors and low back pain (LBP) and associated time off work in an occupational cohort.
    METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was completed by nurses working across 3 major public hospitals. Participants provided sociodemographic data and information on the occurrence of LBP, time off work, and psychosocial factors.
    RESULTS: One thousand one hundred eleven participants (response rate 38.6%) were included in the study. Fifty-six percent of participants reported LBP in the previous year. When individual psychosocial factors were examined in the same model, the relationship between somatization and LBP persisted (OR 1.64; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.35, 2.01). Low job security was also significantly associated with LBP independent of the other work-related factors (OR 0.82; 95% CI, 0.69, 0.98). Of those participants with LBP, 30% reported absence from work due to LBP. When absence from work was examined, negative beliefs (OR 0.97; 95% CI, 0.94, 1.00) and pain catastrophizing (OR 1.33; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.71) were independently associated with time off work, along with low job satisfaction (OR 0.71; 95% CI, 0.51, 0.97) and high job support (OR 1.35; 95% CI, 1.04, 1.75).
    CONCLUSIONS: Somatization and low job security were found to be independently associated with occupational LBP, whereas negative beliefs, pain catastrophizing, reduced job satisfaction, and high job support were independently related to time off work. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these individual and work-related psychosocial factors predict, or alternatively, are outcomes of pain and time off work associated with LBP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/psychology*
  7. Tamrin SB, Yokoyama K, Jalaludin J, Aziz NA, Jemoin N, Nordin R, et al.
    Ind Health, 2007 Apr;45(2):268-78.
    PMID: 17485871
    To determine the risk factors associated with complain of low back pain. A cross sectional study was done from June 2004 until August 2005. Seven hundred and sixty commercial vehicle drivers from 11 bus companies in central, northern and eastern regions in Malaysia participated in this study. Modified Nordic questionnaire was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain; Maestro human vibration meter was used to measure the personal R.M.S values of lateral, anterior-posterior and vertical axes. Modified Owas was used to assess the awkward posture of the driver torso namely, bending forward movement, leaning, sitting straight and twisting. Profile of Mood States (POMS) was used to evaluate the mood states of bus drivers with complain of low back pain. A high prevalence of low back pain (60.4%) among Malaysian commercial vehicle drivers was found. Logistic regression analysis controlling for age, income, education level and non occupational activities revealed that the following factors were related to low back pain: Tension-anxiety [1.080, 95% CI 1.041-1.121], depression dejection [1.047, 95% CI 1.023-1.072], anger-hostility [1.053, 95% CI 1.027-1.081], fatigue [1.132, 95% CI 1.089-1.177] and confusion [1.114, 95% CI 1.061-1.169] of POMS, length of employment [1.001, 95% CI 1.0-1.003], steering wheel adjustment [1.521, 95% CI 1.101-2.101], perception of exposing to vibration [1.943, 95% CI 1.389-2.719]. In conclusion, combinations of risks lead to high increase of low back pain complain among Malaysian bus drivers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/etiology; Low Back Pain/epidemiology*; Low Back Pain/psychology
  8. Tam, Jenn Zhueng, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Noor Hassim Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Chronic low back pain is a common preventable occupational health illness affecting most workers. Large amount of financial and benefit cost had been spent by the developed countries to prevent, treat and rehabilitate a large number of workers who are exposed to hazards that are attributed to low back pain. Efforts on primary prevention of low back pain had been challenging due to difficulties in affirming work- relatedness of chronic back pain among workers. As such, efforts have to be focused on existing literatures to propose acceptable variables to develop the definition of workrelatedness specific to chronic low back pain. Such identified variables or factors could be used to develop a set of criteria in defining work- related chronic back pain. Literature search using specific work- related and chronic low back pain key words were used. Comparable articles were judged and a summarized result was obtained. These variables could be grouped into individual characteristics, health behaviours, physical conditions at work, work organizations and ergonomic factors. With proper methodology and statistical analysis, tools could be developed to aid physicians in determining work- related chronic low back pain among employees.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  9. Syed Alwi SA, Lee PY, Awi I, Mallik PS, Md Haizal MN
    Climacteric, 2009 Dec;12(6):548-56.
    PMID: 19905907 DOI: 10.3109/13697130902919519
    To document the common menopausal symptoms and quality of life in indigenous women of Sarawak in Malaysia.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/epidemiology
  10. Shariat A, Cleland JA, Danaee M, Kargarfard M, Sangelaji B, Tamrin SBM
    Braz J Phys Ther, 2017 09 06;22(2):144-153.
    PMID: 28939263 DOI: 10.1016/j.bjpt.2017.09.003
    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of exercise, ergonomic modification, and a combination of training exercise and ergonomic modification on the scores of pain in office workers with neck, shoulders, and lower back pain.

    METHODS: Participants (N=142) in this randomized controlled trial were office workers aged 20-50 years old with neck, shoulders, and lower back pain. They were randomly assigned to either the ergonomic modification group, the exercise group, the combined exercise and ergonomic modification group, or the control group (no-treatment). The exercise training group performed a series of stretching exercises, while the ergonomic group received some modification in the working place. Outcome measures were assessed by the Cornell Musculoskeletal Disorders Questionnaire at baseline, after 2, 4, and 6 months of intervention.

    RESULTS: There was significant differences in pain scores for neck (MD -10.55; 95%CI -14.36 to -6.74), right shoulder (MD -12.17; 95%CI -16.87 to -7.47), left shoulder (MD -11.1; 95%CI -15.1 to -7.09) and lower back (MD -7.8; 95%CI -11.08 to -4.53) between the exercise and control groups. Also, significant differences were seen in pain scores for neck (MD -9.99; 95%CI -13.63 to -6.36), right shoulder (MD -11.12; 95%CI -15.59 to -6.65), left shoulder (MD -10.67; 95%CI -14.49 to -6.85) and lower back (MD -6.87; 95%CI -10 to -3.74) between the combined exercise and ergonomic modification and control groups. The significant improvement from month 4 to 6, was only seen in exercise group (p<0.05).

    CONCLUSION: To have a long term effective on MSDs, physical therapists and occupational therapists should use stretching exercises in their treatment programs rather than solely rely on ergonomic modification.

    CLINICAL TRIAL ID: NCT02874950 - https://www.clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02874950.

    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/rehabilitation*
  11. Shahruz Idzwan Azmi, Sharifa Ezat Wan Puteh, Noor Hassim Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Occupational Related Chronic Low Back Pain (OCLBP) is a globally recognized illness that causes reduction in productivity and substantial economic burden to the countries. It requires a multidisclipinary approach involving employer, healthcare provider, compensatory and enforcement agencies. However there is no specific guideline or pathway that has integrated the roles of each responsible agency. The objective of this article is to highlight the need and to propose a coordinated approach through the concept of Integrated Care Pathway (ICP). Therefore, we reviewed international and local guidelines as well as published articles on chronic low back pain and care pathway. We believed that development of a pathway will be able to organize the role of management at every level, reducing the variations in the management, addressing issues of communicating the findings between the responsible stakeholders, fulfilling the requirements as the laws, allows effective and feasible approaches to take place in terms of cost and practicality, and increase the awareness on occupational diseases. Expected challenges such as limitation of resources, unawareness and lack of understanding on OCLBP from every level are issue that we agreed can be bridged through ICP.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  12. Sejari N, Kamaruddin K, Ramasamy K, Lim SM, Neoh CF, Ming LC
    BMC Complement Altern Med, 2016 Jan 15;16:16.
    PMID: 26767971 DOI: 10.1186/s12906-016-0988-1
    BACKGROUND: The treatment of low back pain is very challenging due to the recurrent nature of the problem. It is believed that traditional Malay massage helps to relieve such back pain but there is a lack of scientific evidence to support both the practice of traditional Malay massage and the mechanism by which it exerts its effect. The aim of this study is to investigate the immediate effect of traditional Malay massage on the pain scale, substance P, inflammatory mediators, and functional outcomes among low back pain patients.

    METHODS: A non-blinded, randomised controlled trial will be conducted. A total of sixty-six patients who fulfil the inclusion criteria will be recruited. The participants will be randomly allocated into intervention (traditional Malay massage) and control (relaxation position) groups. Blood and saliva samples will be collected before and immediately after intervention. All collected samples will be analysed. The primary outcomes are the changes in the level of substance P in both saliva and blood samples between both groups. The secondary outcomes include the levels of inflammatory mediators [i.e. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, IL-6 and IL-10, and the soluble form of the intercellular adhesion molecule], the pain intensity as measured by a visual analogous scale and functional outcomes using the Roland-Morris Disability Questionnaire.

    DISCUSSION: Massage is a type of physical therapy that has been proven to be potentially capable of reducing unpleasant pain sensations by a complex sensory response and chemical mediators such as substance P and various inflammatory mediators. Previous studies conducted using Thai, Swedish, or other forms of massage therapies, have showed inconsistent findings on substance P levels pre and post the interventions. Each massage genre varies in terms of massage and joint mobilization points, as well as the lumbar spinous process. Traditional Malay massage, known locally as "Urut Melayu", involves soft-tissue manipulation of the whole body applied using the hands and fingers. This massage technique combines both deep muscular tissue massage and spiritual rituals. This trial is expected to give rise to new knowledge underlying the mechanisms for pain and inflammation relief that are activated by traditional Malay massage.

    TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials ACTRN12615000537550 .

    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/therapy*
  13. Sanjeevan R, Prabu S, Azizul A, Abdul-Halim Y
    Malays Orthop J, 2018 Jul;12(2):56-58.
    PMID: 30112131 MyJurnal DOI: 10.5704/MOJ.1807.011
    Being a rare clinical entity, discal cyst presents indistinguishably from other causes of lower back pain and radiculopathy. It is an extremely rare pathology with unclear pathogenesis, indeterminate natural history with no consensus on the ideal management of the condition. We report a rare case of discal cyst in a patient who presented to our centre with localised low back pain and subsequently left sided radicular pain. With the aid of MRI and with clear surgical indication we proceeded with endoscopic removal of the cyst and intraoperatively confirmed its origin from the adjacent disc. The patient had immediate relief of his symptoms and no postoperative complications. We recommend that endoscopic surgery can be an effective alternative to conventional open surgery for discal cyst of the lumbar spine.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  14. Rozali A, Rampal KG, Shamsul Bahri MT, Mohd Sidik S, Shamsul Azhar S, Khairuddin H, et al.
    Med. J. Malaysia, 2009 Sep;64(3):197-204.
    PMID: 20527267 MyJurnal
    A cross sectional study was conducted among military armoured vehicle drivers in the two largest mechanized battalions with the objective to determine the prevalence of low back pain (LBP), and its association with whole body vibration (WBV) and other associated factors. A self-administered questionnaire and Human Vibration Meter were used in this study. A total of 159 respondents participated in this study and 102 (64.2%) of them were subjected to WBV measurement. One-hundred-and-seventeen respondents complained of LBP for the past 12 months giving a prevalence of 73.6%. The prevalence of LBP among tracked armoured vehicle drivers was higher (81.7%) as compared to wheeled armoured vehicle drivers (67.0%). The mean acceleration at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles (1.09 +/- 0.26 ms(-2)) and wheeled armoured vehicles (0.33 +/- 0.07 ms) were the dominant vibration directions. The mean estimated vibration dose value (eVDV) for eight-hour daily exposure at Z-axis (19.86 +/- 4.72 ms(-1.75)) in tracked armoured vehicles showed the highest estimation. Based on the European Vibration Directive (2002), the mean eVDV at Z-axis in tracked armoured vehicles exceeded exposure action value (EAV) (> 9.1 ms(-1.75), but did not exceed exposure limit value (ELV) (<21.0 ms(-1.75)). Logistic regression analysis revealed that only driving in forward bending sitting posture (OR = 3.63, 95% CI 1.06-12.42) and WBV exposure at X-axis (OR = 1.94, 95% CI 1.02-3.69) were significant risk factors to LBP. Preventive measures should be implemented to minimize risk of WBV and to improve ergonomic postures among drivers.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/etiology*; Low Back Pain/epidemiology
  15. Razak MA, Ong KP, Hyzan Y
    Med. J. Malaysia, 1998 Sep;53 Suppl A:12-21.
    PMID: 10968178
    A retrospective study was conducted to assess the surgical outcomes of degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis. Twenty-five patients treated with decompressive surgery in Hospital Kuala Lumpur between January 1992 and August 1996 were reviewed. There were seven males and eighteen females. The average age was 51 years old (range 33 to 64 years old). The diagnosis of degenerative spinal stenosis was made based on the clinical features and was confirmed by radiographic findings. Ninety two percent of the patients had moderate to severe symptoms preoperatively. The types of surgery consisted of laminectomy (n = 15), laminotomy (n = 10), and laminoplasty (n = 1). The surgical outcomes were assessed based on patients' own assessment of symptoms relieved and functional returned to daily activities at least six months after the surgery. The average follow-up period was fifteen months (range 6 months to 42 months). Of these twenty-five patients, 4 (16%) claimed to have excellent results, 11 (44%) had good results, 8 (32%) reported fair, and 2 (8%) judged their surgical treatment as poor with little or no use. There was no anaesthetic, cardiovascular, or thromboembolic complications seen in this study. Four patients had recurrent claudication, one demonstrated localised arachnoiditis, and two had lumbar instability which were not documented preoperatively. One patient had L4 nerve root avulsion with dura torn and another patient had superficial wound infection. We concluded in this study that decompressive surgery offers satisfactory results in patients with moderate to severe degenerative spinal stenosis in short term follow-up.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/etiology
  16. Rahman MN, Rani MR, Rohani JM
    Work, 2012;43(4):507-14.
    PMID: 22927603 DOI: 10.3233/WOR-2012-1404
    The aim of this study was to investigate the work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) among workers in wall plastering jobs within the construction industry.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/complications
  17. Paungmali A, Joseph LH, Sitilertpisan P, Pirunsan U, Uthaikhup S
    Pain Pract, 2017 11;17(8):1008-1014.
    PMID: 28042685 DOI: 10.1111/papr.12552
    BACKGROUND: Lumbopelvic stabilization training (LPST) may provide therapeutic benefits on pain modulation in chronic nonspecific low back pain conditions. This study aimed to examine the effects of LPST on pain threshold and pain intensity in comparison with the passive automated cycling intervention and control intervention among patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain.

    METHODS: A within-subject, repeated-measures, crossover randomized controlled design was conducted among 25 participants (7 males and 18 females) with chronic nonspecific low back pain. All the participants received 3 different types of experimental interventions, which included LPST, the passive automated cycling intervention, and the control intervention randomly, with 48 hours between the sessions. The pressure pain threshold (PPT), hot-cold pain threshold, and pain intensity were estimated before and after the interventions.

    RESULTS: Repeated-measures analysis of variance showed that LPST provided therapeutic effects as it improved the PPT beyond the placebo and control interventions (P < 0.01). The pain intensity under the LPST condition was significantly better than that under the passive automated cycling intervention and controlled intervention (P < 0.001). Heat pain threshold under the LPST condition also showed a significant trend of improvement beyond the control (P < 0.05), but no significant effects on cold pain threshold were evident.

    CONCLUSIONS: Lumbopelvic stabilization training may provide therapeutic effects by inducing pain modulation through an improvement in the pain threshold and reduction in pain intensity. LPST may be considered as part of the management programs for treatment of chronic low back pain.

    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain/rehabilitation*
  18. Nur Hidayah Rani, Emilia Zainal Abidin, Noor Afifah Ya'acob, Karmegam Karuppiah, Irniza Rasdi
    MyJurnal
    Pineapple plantation workers are exposed to strenuous physical activities. This study aims to determine the prevalence
    of musculoskeletal symptoms (MSS), analyse the body postural risks related to work tasks and identify relevant MSS risk factors
    among pineapple plantation workers. This was a cross-sectional study performed at a pineapple plantation in Johor in 2016. MSS,
    information on socio-demographic background and occupational history were collected via structured questionnaires. Identification
    and risk assessment of ergonomic hazard and postural risk analysis were performed for a subset of workers. Data were entered into
    statistical software and analyse according to relevant objectives. A total of 108 workers participated in this study. The prevalence
    of MSS was 87.0% and was highest for the lower back (64.8%). In terms of ergonomic hazards, Harvesting were categorised as a
    task with the highest risk. Harvesting was also the task with the highest postural risk. From the multivariate analysis, lower back
    pain is mainly contributed by a working tenure of 10 to 25 years (Odds Ratio, OR: 3.90; 95% Confidence Interval, CI 1.05-14.4) and
    more than 25 years (OR: 7.45 (95% CI 1.26 to 44.0). Workers who worked more than 7-hour daily have a higher risk for reporting
    lower back pain. Pineapple plantation workers are exposed to excessive bending, twisting and carrying of heavy loads that may be
    linked to MSS. Effective preventive strategies are required to address MSS in this population in order to minimize risk for subsequent
    musculoskeletal disorders.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  19. Nor Dalila Marican, Rozita Hod, Nadiah Wan-Arfah, Azmi Hassan
    Int J Public Health Res, 2018;8(1):933-938.
    MyJurnal
    Introduction Non-specific low back pain is one of the most common physical ailments
    affecting millions of people worldwide. This condition constitutes a
    significant public health problem and was listed as a prevalent health
    complaint in most societies. Even though there are many anecdotal claims
    for reflexology in the treatment of various conditions such as a migraine,
    arthritis and multiple sclerosis, but very little clinical evidence exists for
    reflexology on the management of low back pain per se. This study aims to
    evaluate the effects of foot reflexology therapy as an adjunctive treatment to
    the Malaysian low back pain standard care in relieving pain and promoting
    health-related quality of life among people with non-specific low back pain.
    Methods This is a parallel randomized controlled trial with pre and post-treatment
    study design. The study setting for the intervention located at Penawar
    Reflexology Center, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia. A total of 100
    participants with non-specific low back pain will be allocated to one of two
    groups, using a randomization computer program of Research Randomizer.
    The control group will receive low back pain standard care, while the
    intervention group will receive standard care plus eight sessions of foot
    reflexology therapy. The pain intensity and health-related quality of life
    scores will be measured using Visual Analogue Scale and Euro-quality of
    life scale respectively in both groups. The study was approved by the
    Human Research Ethics Committee of University Sultan Zainal Abidin
    (UHREC/2016/2/011). The study protocol was registered at
    ClinicalTrials.gov, with the ID number of NCT02887430.
    Measurements Outcome measures will be undertaken at pre-intervention (week 1), postintervention
    (week 6) and follow-up (week 10).
    Conclusions This will be the first trial to compare the foot reflexology therapy with
    control group among people who medically diagnosed with non-specific low
    back pain in Malaysia. The result of this study will contribute to better
    management of this population, especially for Malaysia healthcare setting.
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
  20. Noor Sazarina Mad Isa @ Yahya, Baba Md Deros, Mazrura Sahani, Ahmad Rasdan Ismail
    MyJurnal
    Substantial studies reported musculoskeletal disorders among the working population in the developed country, however, a limited number of studies were conducted in Malaysia. The objective of this cross sectional study was to determine the physical activity risk factors for low back pain among automotive workers in Selangor. Modified Risk Factors Questionnaire (RFQ) was used to assess physical activity with the occurrence of low back pain. The significant physical activities associated with the 12 months point prevalence are lifting weight (
    Matched MeSH terms: Low Back Pain
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