OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the relationship between the chemical composition of C. nutans and its anti-inflammatory properties using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach.
METHODOLOGY: The anti-inflammatory effect of C. nutans air-dried leaves extracted using five different binary extraction solvent ratio and two extraction methods was determined based on their nitric oxide (NO) inhibition effect in lipopolysaccharide-interferon-gamma (LPS-IFN-γ) activated RAW 264.7 macrophages. The relationship between extract bioactivity and metabolite profiles and quantifications were established using 1 H-NMR metabolomics and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The possible metabolite biosynthesis pathway was constructed to further strengthen the findings.
RESULTS: Water and sonication prepared air-dried leaves possessed the highest NO inhibition activity (IC50 = 190.43 ± 12.26 μg/mL, P
RESULTS: A total of 31 constituents comprising primary and secondary metabolites belonging to the chemical classes of fatty acids, amino acids, sugars, terpenoids and phenolic compounds were identified. Shade-dried leaves were identified to possess the highest concentrations of bioactive secondary metabolites such as chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, luteolin, orthosiphol and apigenin, followed by microwave-dried samples. Freeze-dried leaves had higher concentrations of choline, amino acids leucine, alanine and glutamine and sugars such as fructose and α-glucose, but contained the lowest levels of secondary metabolites.
CONCLUSION: Metabolite profiling coupled with multivariate analysis identified shade drying as the best method to prepare OS leaves as Java tea or to include in traditional medicine preparation. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.
METHODS: A cross sectional study was conducted on three groups: individuals with alcohol use disorders (n=30), social drinkers (n=54) and alcohol-naive controls (n=60). 1H NMR-based metabolomics was used to obtain the metabolic profiles of plasma samples. Data were processed by multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) followed by univariate and multivariate logistic regressions to produce the best fit-model for discrimination between groups.
RESULTS: The OPLS-DA model was able to distinguish between the AUD group and the other groups with high sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 64.29%, 98.17% and 91.24% respectively. The logistic regression model identified two biomarkers in plasma (propionic acid and acetic acid) as being significantly associated with alcohol use disorders. The reproducibility of all biomarkers was excellent (0.81-1.0).
CONCLUSIONS: The applied plasma metabolomics technique was able to differentiate the metabolites between AUD and the other groups. These metabolites are potential novel biomarkers for diagnosis of alcohol use disorders.