Displaying publications 1 - 20 of 23360 in total

  1. KS Dhillon
    Malays Orthop J, 2014;8(3):42-47.
    We are all aware that there has been a dramatic increase in the number of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstructions that are carried out here in Malaysia as well as around the world. The numbers of ACL injuries have undoubtedly increased over the years with greater participation of young adults in sporting activities. However it is not certain whether the increase in the numbers of reconstructions can be accounted for by the increasing numbers of ACL injuries. Without doubt commercial interests as well the influence of the biomedical companies have a role to play. In the past the rationale for surgical treatment of an ACL tear was that the ACL is vital for knee function and that in the long term ACL deficiency will lead to more injuries of the meniscus and more degeneration of the joint. This belief was prevalent because the natural history of an ACL deficient knee and the ultimate outcome of reconstruction of the ACL were both not known. However in recent years a substantial amount of research has been published, which has elucidated the natural history of ACL deficient knees as well as the long term outcome of reconstruction of the ACL.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  2. Noor Akmal Shareela, I.
    Medicine & Health, 2020;15(2):327-332.
    Sesi praktikal konvensional sebelum ini telah dilaporkan kurang berkesan dalam mencapai objektif pembelajaran. Oleh itu “Speedy Biochemistry” diperkenalkan untuk membantu pelajar mengaplikasikan pengetahuan yang telah mereka pelajari di dalam kelas. Teknik ini memupuk semangat kerja berpasukan dan penerapan pengetahuan dalam penyelesaian masalah yang dapat dicapai melalui pembelajaran aktif. Pendekatan pembelajaran aktif telah kian diminati oleh para akademik kerana memberikan lebih banyak faedah kepada pelajar. Sesi “Speedy Biochemistry” telah dijalankan di kalangan pelajar perubatan Tahun 1 di Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia dan maklum balas mereka telah direkodkan. “Speedy Biochemistry” boleh menjadi contoh sesi pembelajaran aktif yang baik dalam meningkatkan minat pelajar perubatan di dalam mata pelajaran Biokimia.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  3. Ng CG, Kanagasundram S
    A 61 year old Indian man presented with clinical depression after a longstanding of “head heaviness”. Looking through the literatures, there is scant information on the subjective complaint of “a heavy head” despite it being a very common encounter at many primary care clinics. We feel that this is an unusual presentation of the symptom as it was very dramatic, to the extent that the patient was overly preoccupied with his head heaviness and subsequently became depressed. Here we undertake to present the case of a man who became clinically depressed due to his “heavy head”.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  4. Rozmi I
    This paper reported a preliminary study on Mat Rempit's activities and illegal motorcycle racing. Mat Rempit activities are becoming very popular among teenagers especially in major cities and towns in Malaysia. This phenomenon has created a new sub-culture amongst Malaysian teenagers. This study focused on psycho-social factors that encourage teenagers to involve in illegal motorcycle racing and to survey racing backgrounds (eg. racing types, time, places, prizes, etc.). Data was obtained through interview and live observations at the racing scene. One hundred racers and ex-racers had cooperated as respondents to feed this research with information. Results showed that Malay teenagers between 17-22 years old are the most involved in this activities. Also, moderating factors have been identified which are psychological factors where neurotic and extrovert personality traits and high level of self-esteem are found to correlate with racing involvement. Meanwhile, sociological factors such as peers, greatness flaunting culture and prizes are encouraging teenagers' involvement in illegal racing activities. Family and community roles to curb these unhealthy activities are suggested.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  5. Tan, T.L., Dazlin Masdiana, S., Robertson, C.
    Medicine & Health, 2015;10(1):80-85.
    Cardiac concussion is a sudden, direct blunt trauma cause to the chest which led to death. However, there are patients who did not completely fulfil this definition. We report two cases which did not fit into the definition domain. Two male patients presented to Emergency Department with moderate anterior chest pain after motor vehicle crash showed transient anterior ST segment elevation at chest lead V2 and V3 with raised creatine kinase and normal troponin T. The electrocardiogram changes fully resolved after 24 hours. Both patients were discharged uneventfully after 24 hours monitoring in Emergency Department short-stay ward. Conventional definition of cardiac concussion (commotion cordis) and cardiac contusion may be unsuitable to describe these cases. Therefore, we propose the diagnosis of focal
    cardiac concussion. We also highlighted the ability of Emergency Department to manage these patients in short-stay ward.
    Keywords: commotio cordis, chest pain, nonpenetrating, electrocardiography
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  6. Mohd Nazry Salleh, Farizul Hafiz Kasim, Khairul Nizar Ismail, Che Mohd Ruzaidi Ghazali, Kamarudin Hussin, Saiful Azhar Saad, et al.
    Batu Reput’ is primary sediment mineral and abundantly found in Perlis. Perlis is one of the major producers of ‘Batu Reput’ in Malaysia that content large deposit of high-purity dolomite [CaMg (CO3)2]. Pure samples of ‘Batu Reput’ recently explored in the Koperasi Rimba Mas Padang Besar Quarry were investigated for their physical, chemical and mineralogical composition. SEM and XRD analysis methods were applied. The potential of ‘Batu Reput’ as a raw material in fertilizer production was investigated in this paper.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  7. Mulimani PS, Azmi MIB, Jamali NR, Basir NNBM, Soe HHK
    Singapore Dent J, 2017 12;38:71-77.
    PMID: 29229077 DOI: 10.1016/j.sdj.2017.09.002
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  8. Mohd Bukhari DA, Siddiqui MJ, Shamsudin SH, Rahman MM, So'ad SZM
    J Pharm Bioallied Sci, 2017 Jul-Sep;9(3):164-170.
    PMID: 28979070 DOI: 10.4103/jpbs.JPBS_35_17
    Diabetes is a common metabolic disease indicated by unusually high plasma glucose level that can lead to major complications such as diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and cardiovascular diseases. One of the effective therapeutic managements of the disease is to reduce postprandial hyperglycemia through inhibition of α-glucosidase, a carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme to retard overall glucose absorption. In recent years, a plenty of research works have been conducted looking for novel and effective α-glucosidase inhibitors (AGIs) from natural sources as alternatives for the synthetic AGI due to their unpleasant side effects. Plants and herbs are rich with secondary metabolites that have massive pharmaceutical potential. Besides, studies showed that phytochemicals such as flavonoids, alkaloids, terpenoids, anthocyanins, glycosides, and phenolic compounds possess significant inhibitory activity against α-glucosidase enzyme. Malaysia is a tropical country that is rich with medicinal herbs. In this review, we focus on eight Malaysian plants with the potential as AGI to develop a potential functional food or lead compounds against diabetes.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  9. Teh BT, Wan Azman WA, Thuraisingham S, Choy AM, Tan KH, Jesudason P, et al.
    JUMMEC, 1999;4:26-33.
    Activation of the synlpathetic nervous system (SNS) and renin-angiotensin system (RAS) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology and progression of the disease in chronic heart failure (CHF). Blocking the activation of the RAS with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors not only improves sylnptonls but also prolongs life in symptomatic CHF. Does a similar analogy hold true for the use of ß-blockers in CHF? Evidence from a number of small trials and several recent large prospective trials show that b-blockers may improve ventricular function and symptoms in CHF. In a combination of trials investigating the use of carvedilol (an α, and ß-blocker) in congestive heart failure a mortality benefit appears to be evident. There are still a number of key questions that relnaill unanswered regarding the tolerability, patient type and stage of CHF in which ß-blockers should be advocated. Several large scale trials are in progress to answer some of these questions and also to add further information regarding its efficacy and impact on survival. KEYWORDS: Beta-adrenoreceptor antagonist, congestive heart failure.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  10. Jones SU, Chua KH, Chew CH, Yeo CC, Abdullah FH, Othman N, et al.
    PeerJ, 2021;9:e11195.
    PMID: 33889447 DOI: 10.7717/peerj.11195
    Background: Staphylococcus aureus is one of the important pathogens causing nosocomial infection. spa typing allows identification of S. aureus clones in hospital isolates and is useful for epidemiological studies and nosocomial infection control. This study aims to investigate the spa types in Malaysian S. aureus isolates obtained from various clinical specimens.

    Method: A total of 89 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) [pus (n = 55), blood (n = 27), respiratory (n = 5), eye (n = 2)] isolates and 109 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) [pus (n = 79), blood (n = 24), respiratory (n = 3), eye (n = 2) and urine (n = 1)] isolates were subjected to spa typing with sequences analysed using BioNumerics version 7.

    Results: The spa sequence was successfully amplified from 77.8% of the strains (154/198) and 47 known spa types were detected. The distribution of known spa types in MRSA (36.2%, 17/47) was less diverse than in MSSA (70.2%, 33/47). The most predominant spa types were t032 (50%) in MRSA, and t127 (19%) and t091 (16.7%) in MSSA, respectively. spa type t091 in MSSA was significantly associated with skin and soft tissue infections (p = 0.0199).

    Conclusion: The previously uncommon spa type t032 was detected in the Malaysian MRSA strains, which also corresponded to the most common spa type in Europe and Australia, and has replaced the dominant spa type t037 which was reported in Malaysia in 2010.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  11. Chin IY, Koh CL, Bosco JJ
    Acta Haematol., 1992;87(1-2):107-8.
    PMID: 1585764
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  12. Teoh SH, Khoo JJ, Abdul Salam DSD, Peh SC, Cheah SC
    Malays J Pathol, 2019 Dec;41(3):273-281.
    PMID: 31901912
    INTRODUCTION: Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) is associated with several B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), but the role of EBV in diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is poorly defined. Several studies indicated the expression of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3) is predominant in EBV(+)- DLBCL, of which its activated form can promote the downstream oncogenes expression such as c-MYC. c-MYC gene rearrangements are frequently found in aggressive lymphoma with inferior prognosis. Furthermore, EBV is a co-factor of MYC dysregulation. JAK1/STAT3 could be the downstream pathway of EBV and deregulates MYC. To confirm the involvement of EBV in JAK1/ STAT3 activation and MYC deregulation, association of EBV, pSTAT3 and MYC in EBV(+)- DLBCL cases were studied. The presence of pSTAT3 and its upstream proteins: pJAK1 is identify to delineate the role of EBV in JAK1/STAT3 pathway.

    MATERIALS AND METHODS: 51 cases of DLBCL paraffin-embedded tissue samples were retrieved from a single private hospital in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. EBER-ISH was performed to identify the EBV expression; ten EBV(+)-DLBCL cases subjected to immunohistochemistry for LMP1, pJAK1, pSTAT3 and MYC; FISH assay for c-MYC gene rearrangement.

    RESULTS: Among 10 cases of EBV(+)-DLBCL, 90% were non-GCB subtype (p=0.011), 88.9% expressed LMP1. 40% EBV(+)-DLBCL had pJAK1 expression.

    CONCLUSION: 66.7% EBV(+)-DLBCL showed the positivity of pSTAT3, which implies the involvement of EBV in constitutive JAK/STAT pathway. 44.5% EBV(+)-DLBCL have co-expression of pSTAT3 and MYC, but all EBV(+)-DLBCL was absence with c-MYC gene rearrangement. The finding of clinical samples might shed lights to the lymphomagenesis of EBV associated with non-GCB subtypes, and the potential therapy for pSTAT3-mediated pathway.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  13. Tripathi BM, Kim M, Lai-Hoe A, Shukor NA, Rahim RA, Go R, et al.
    FEMS Microbiol Ecol, 2013 Nov;86(2):303-11.
    PMID: 23773164 DOI: 10.1111/1574-6941.12163
    Little is known of the factors influencing soil archaeal community diversity and composition in the tropics. We sampled soils across a range of forest and nonforest environments in the equatorial tropics of Malaysia, covering a wide range of pH values. DNA was PCR-amplified for the V1-V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene, and 454-pyrosequenced. Soil pH was the best predictor of diversity and community composition of Archaea, being a stronger predictor than land use. Archaeal OTU richness was highest in the most acidic soils. Overall archaeal abundance in tropical soils (determined by qPCR) also decreased at higher pH. This contrasts with the opposite trend previously found in temperate soils. Thaumarcheota group 1.1b was more abundant in alkaline soils, whereas group 1.1c was only detected in acidic soils. These results parallel those found in previous studies in cooler climates, emphasizing niche conservatism among broad archaeal groups. Among the most abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs), there was clear evidence of niche partitioning by pH. No individual OTU occurred across the entire range of pH values. Overall, the results of this study show that pH plays a major role in structuring tropical soil archaeal communities.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  14. Shiran MS, Tan GC, Sabariah AR, Rampal L, Phang KS
    Med J Malaysia, 2007 Mar;62(1):36-9.
    PMID: 17682568 MyJurnal
    The diagnosis of prostatic carcinoma (Pca) on routine biopsies may be challenging, and to date the commonly used marker to distinguish prostate carcinoma from benign prostatic lesions has been High Molecular Weight-Cytokeratin (HMW-CK). However, the antigen of HMW-CK is susceptible to the effect of formalin fixation and causes frequent loss or patchy staining in the obviously benign glands. More recently, antibodies to p63 have been reported to be more sensitive than HMW-CK for the detection of prostatic basal cells. p63, a homologue of tumour suppressor gene p53, is essential for prostate development and is selectively expressed in the nuclei of basal cells of normal prostate glands. The objective of this study is to compare the sensitivity and specificity of HMW-CK and p63 in distinguishing prostatic carcinomas from benign prostatic lesions, as well as determining their positive predictive values. Seventy-two cases from HUKM (comprising 29 prostatic carcinomas and 43 benign prostatic hyperplasias) were stained for both HMW-CK and p63. The sensitivity of p63 and HMW-CK in identifying basal cells in benign glands was 88.37% and 90.70% respectively. The specificity of both reagents was 100%, and the positive predictive value for both reagents was also 100%. Thus, p63 is a useful complementary basal cell specific stain to HMW-CK, and would be very helpful to practicing pathologists in dealing with difficult cases.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  15. Yoke-Kqueen C, Ab Mutalib NS, Sidik SM, Learn-Han L, Geok-Chin T
    Oncol Rep, 2012 Mar;27(3):753-63.
    PMID: 22159872 DOI: 10.3892/or.2011.1581
    Non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) is classified among the ten most frequent cancers in Malaysia. A common polymorphism at codon 72 of the p53 tumor suppressor gene and its influence on cancer risk has been studied for different types of cancer with mixed and inconsistent results with limited published data on the Malaysian population so far. In the present study, the frequency of p53 codon 72 polymorphism in 60 patients with NMSC was investigated from archival formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue obtained from Hospital Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (HUKM). Additionally, random amplified polymorhic DNA -polymorphic chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was employed for preliminary biomarker development. NMSC FFPE samples (70%) possess Arg/Arg, 20% with Pro/Pro and 10% with Arg/Pro. In total, there was no significant difference in the p53 codon 72 genotypes between histological types of NMSC, gender, race, tumor location and age group. However, there was an apparent age-associated increase in the Arg/Arg genotype but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.235). NMSC types and demographic characteristics did not influence genotype distribution. On the other hand, BCC and SCC distributions are influenced by age group, race and tumor location.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  16. Wan Muhaizan WM, Ahmad PK, Phang KS, Arni T
    Malays J Pathol, 2006 Dec;28(2):93-9.
    PMID: 18376798 MyJurnal
    This study was carried out to determine the role of p53 and p21 in the pathogenesis of prostatic adenocarcinoma and their association with tumour grade.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/ethnology
  17. Heah KG, Hassan MI, Huat SC
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2011;12(4):1017-22.
    PMID: 21790244
    INTRODUCTION: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has high local recurrence, partly caused by the lack of clear margin identification on surgical removal of cancerous tissues. Direct visualization by immunostaining and fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH) in tissue sections gives more definite information about genetic damage at margins with appropriately selected biomarkers.

    AIMS: To determine the usefulness of immunohistochemical techniques and FISH of the tumour suppressor TP 53 gene to identify microinvasion in marginal tissue sections and to relate the possible correlation between protein expression and genetic aberrations in OSCC cases in Malaysia.

    METHODS: Immunohistochemistry and FISH of TP 53 genes were applied on 26 OSCC formalin fixed paraffin embed (FFEP) blocks selected from two oral cancer referral centers in Malaysia.

    RESULTS: For p53 protein immunohistochemistry, 96% of the 26 OSCC studied showed positive immunostaining at the excision margins. In FISH assay, 48.9±9.7% of the cancerous cells were monoploid for p53 probe signals, 41.0±9.5 % were diploid, and 10.2±7.8 % were polyploid. A correlation between p53 immunostaining and TP53 gene aberrations was noted (p< 0.05).

    CONCLUSIONS: Immunohistochemical analysis of p53 protein expression and FISH of TP53 gene could be applied as screening tool for microinvasion of OSCC.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  18. Mohd Ridah LJ, A Talib N, Muhammad N, Hussain FA, Zainuddin N
    Asian Pac J Cancer Prev, 2017 10 26;18(10):2781-2785.
    PMID: 29072413
    Introduction: p16 gene plays an important role in the normal cell cycle regulation. Methylation of p16 has been reported to be one of the epigenetic events contributing to the pathogenesis of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) which occurring at varying frequency. DLBCL is an aggressive and high-grade malignancy which accounts for approximately 30% of all non-Hodgkin lymphoma cases. However, little is known regarding the epigenetic alterations of p16 gene in DLBCL cases in Malaysia. Therefore, the objective of this study was to examine the status of p16 methylation in DLBCL. Methods: A total of 88 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded DLBCL tissues retrieved from two hospitals located in the east coast of Malaysia, namely Hospital Tengku Ampuan Afzan (HTAA) Pahang and Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) Kelantan, were chosen for this study. DNA specimens were isolated and subsequently subjected to bisulfite treatment prior to methylation specific-PCR. Two pairs of primers were used to amplify methylated and unmethylated regions of p16 gene. The PCR products were then separated using agarose gel electrophoresis and visualised under UV illumination. SPSS version 12.0 was utilised to perform all statistical analysis. Result: p16 methylation was detected in 65 of 88 (74%) samples. There was a significant association between p16 methylation status and patients aged >50 years old (p=0.04). Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that methylation of p16 tumor suppressor gene in our DLBCL cases is common and significantly increased among patients aged 50 years and above. Aging is known to be an important risk factor in the development of cancers and we speculate that this might be due to the increased transformation of malignant cells in aging cell population. However, this has yet to be confirmed with further research and correlate the findings with clinicopathological parameters.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
  19. Ghaznavi-Rad E, Goering RV, Nor Shamsudin M, Weng PL, Sekawi Z, Tavakol M, et al.
    Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 2011 Nov;30(11):1365-9.
    PMID: 21479532 DOI: 10.1007/s10096-011-1230-1
    The usefulness of mec-associated dru typing in the epidemiological analysis of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolated in Malaysia was investigated and compared with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and spa and SCCmec typing. The isolates studied included all MRSA types in Malaysia. Multilocus sequence type ST188 and ST1 isolates were highly clonal by all typing methods. However, the dru typing of ST239 isolates produced the clearest discrimination between SCCmec IIIa and III isolates, yielding more subtypes than any other method. Evaluation of the discriminatory power for each method identified dru typing and PFGE as the most discriminatory, with Simpson's index of diversity (SID) values over 89%, including an isolate which was non-typeable by spa, but dru-typed as dt13j. The discriminatory ability of dru typing, especially with closely related MRSA ST239 strains (e.g., Brazilian and Hungarian), underscores its utility as a tool for the epidemiological investigation of MRSA.
    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia/epidemiology
  20. Godinho MA, Jonnagaddala J, Gudi N, Islam R, Narasimhan P, Liaw ST
    Int J Med Inform, 2020 10;142:104259.
    PMID: 32858339 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijmedinf.2020.104259
    OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to examine how mobile health (mHealth) to support integrated people-centred health services has been implemented and evaluated in the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR).

    METHODS: Eight scientific databases were searched. Two independent reviewers screened the literature in title and abstract stages, followed by full-text appraisal, data extraction, and synthesis of eligible studies. Studies were extracted to capture details of the mhealth tools used, the service issues addressed, the study design, and the outcomes evaluated. We then mapped the included studies using the 20 sub-strategies of the WHO Framework on Integrated People-Centred Health Services (IPCHS); as well as with the RE-AIM (Reach, effectiveness, adoption, implementation and maintenance) framework, to understand how studies implemented and evaluated interventions.

    RESULTS: We identified 39 studies, predominantly from Australia (n = 16), China (n = 7), Malaysia (n = 4) and New Zealand (n = 4), and little from low income countries. The mHealth modalities included text messaging, voice and video communication, mobile applications and devices (point-of-care, GPS, and Bluetooth). Health issues addressed included: medication adherence, smoking cessation, cardiovascular disease, heart failure, asthma, diabetes, and lifestyle activities respectively. Almost all were community-based and focused on service issues; only half were disease-specific. mHealth facilitated integrated IPCHS by: enabling citizens and communities to bypass gatekeepers and directly access services; increasing affordability and accessibility of services; strengthening governance over the access, use, safety and quality of clinical care; enabling scheduling and navigation of services; transitioning patients and caregivers between care sectors; and enabling the evaluation of safety and quality outcomes for systemic improvement. Evaluations of mHealth interventions did not always report the underlying theories. They predominantly reported cognitive/behavioural changes rather than patient outcomes. The utility of mHealth to support and improve IPCHS was evident. However, IPCHS strategy 2 (participatory governance and accountability) was addressed least frequently. Implementation was evaluated in regard to reach (n = 30), effectiveness (n = 24); adoption (n = 5), implementation (n = 9), and maintenance (n = 1).

    CONCLUSIONS: mHealth can transition disease-centred services towards people-centred services. Critical appraisal of studies highlighted methodological issues, raising doubts about validity. The limited evidence for large-scale implementation and international variation in reporting of mHealth practice, modalities used, and health domains addressed requires capacity building. Information-enhanced implementation and evaluation of IPCHS, particularly for participatory governance and accountability, is also important.

    Matched MeSH terms: Malaysia
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